Mooney M20

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M20 family
Mooney.m20j.g-muni.arp.jpg
Mooney M20J
Role Personal use civil aircraft
Manufacturer Mooney Airplane Company
Designer Al Mooney
Introduction 1955
Status Production halted in 2008 and resumed in 2014
Produced 1955–2008, 2014-present[1]
Unit cost
USD$579,000 (2008 model Mooney Acclaim)[2]
Mooney M20s gathered at the 2002 Mooney Caravan to AirVenture, Oshkosh, Wisconsin.

The Mooney M20 is a family of piston-powered, propeller-driven general aviation aircraft, all featuring a low-wing and tricycle gear, manufactured by the Mooney Airplane Company.[3][4][5]

The "M20" was the twentieth design from Al Mooney, and his most successful. The M20 series was produced in many variations over the last 50 years, from the wooden wing M20 and M20A models of the 1950s,[5] to the M20TN Acclaim that debuted in 2007.

On 5 November 2008 the company announced that it was halting all production as a result of the late-2000s recession, but would still provide parts and support for the existing fleet.[1][6][7][8]

With the injection of Chinese capital after the company's purchase, production of the M20 resumed in February 2014.[9]

Development[edit]

The Mooney M20 series has been produced in three fuselage lengths: the "short body" through M20E, "medium body" (M20F through M20K), and "long body" types. Although all M20s have four seats, the fuselage length increase provided more rear passenger legroom, but with a slight performance decrease. Other airplane improvements over the years in most cases more than compensated for the effects of a longer fuselage; for a similar engine and vintage, for instance, the shorter fuselage model is faster, e.g., M20E vs M20F.[citation needed]

In July 2008 Mooney signed a memorandum of understanding with Rolls-Royce to develop a version of the M20 that was to have been powered by the Rolls-Royce RR500 TP turboprop powerplant. The project was announced as being a joint "marketing investigation" and "exploration project", but does not appear to have come to fruition.[10]

Design[edit]

With the exception of the wooden wings and tails of the original M20 and M20A, M20s are all-metal, low-wing aircraft. The wings are of cantilever construction, consisting of a main spar and an auxiliary spar that extends from the fuselage to the mid position of the flaps. The wing skin is aluminum which is flush-riveted in many areas to reduce parasitic drag. Slotted flaps cover 70% of the trailing edge. The earliest models (prior to 1963) have manual flaps. Later models use a hydraulic hand pump to control the flaps while even-later models have electrically operated flaps. The forward fuselage has a steel tube cabin structure covered in aluminum skin, while the aft fuselage is of semi-monocoque design.[citation needed]

The tricycle landing gear legs of the Mooney M20 models are made of heat-treated chrome-molybdenum steel. The main gear legs are attached to the main wing spar, while the nose gear is mounted onto the steel cabin frame. Rubber discs, as well as spring steel, around the legs allow for compression and shock absorption on landing. Except for the fixed-gear M20D, the nosewheel retracts rearwards and the main wheels retract towards the fuselage. Early models use a hand-operated lever system to raise and lower the gear. Later models use an electrically-operated landing gear retraction system with a backup crank-operated or wire-pull gear extender.[citation needed]

The Mooney M20 has medium aspect ratio tapered wings, incorporating 1.5° of washout and 5.5° of dihedral. On the M20J, navigation and anti-collision lights are located inside an aerodynamically designed cover at the wingtips to further eliminate drag. Later M20s are equipped with stall strips to improve the stall characteristics.[citation needed]

The empennage of the Mooney M20 is easily recognizable by its unique tail fin with a vertical leading edge. (The tail fin looks as though it is "leaning forward", but it is approximately vertical in level flight, depending on trim setting.) The horizontal tailplane, which consists of fixed stabilizers and trailing elevators, has no trim tabs. The entire tail assembly pivots at the rear of the fuselage to provide pitch trim.[11]

All M20s store fuel in two separate "wet wing" tanks, which are located in the inboard sections of each wing. Fuel is driven from the tank to the injectors or carburetor by an engine-driven pump, backed up with an electric boost pump.[11] Deterioration of the wing tank sealant can be a problem, leading to expensive rework of the tanks. A modification is available to install rubber bladders inside the existing tanks.[citation needed]

For increased power many M20s also have a ram-air induction system, called the Mooney "Power Boost". For normal operations the intake air is filtered before it enters the induction system. When ram air is selected, partially unfiltered air will enter the induction system with a higher pressure and consequently the manifold pressure will increase about a full inch[vague] when flying at 7500 feet above mean sea level, giving a greater power output.[11] The turbocharged variants omit this feature, as the turbocharger provides a far greater increase in manifold pressure.

Variants[edit]

M20 and M20A
The original M20 (1955–1958) and the M20A (1958–1960) have wings made of wood covered with cloth, but are otherwise similar to later all-metal models. With the M20A, the power was increased from the M20's 150 hp (110 kW) Lycoming O-320 to the 180 hp (130 kW) Lycoming O-360-A1A or A1D.[5][12][13]
Early in the model's history there were several incidents of wooden tails breaking up in flight due to water damage and the resulting rot. Consequently, most tails have now been replaced with all-metal copies, as required by Mooney Service Bulletin M20-170A and the FAA Airworthiness Directive 86-19-10. Without the possibility of metal fatigue, the wooden wing has an indefinite life expectancy and is considered by some pilots to provide a smoother ride in turbulence.[14][15]
The M20 received its type certificate on 24 August 1955 with the M20A following on 13 February 1958.[13]
M20B
The M20B was type-certified on 14 December 1960 with the 180 hp (130 kW) Lycoming O-360-A1A or A1D engine.[13]
M20C
An M20C Mark 21
In 1962 Mooney made further incremental improvements in the M20C Ranger, produced between 1962 and 1978.[3][12]
The M20C was type-certified on 20 October 1961 with the 180 hp (130 kW) Lycoming O-360-A1A or A1D engine.[13]
M20D
In 1963 Mooney introduced the M20D Master,[12] essentially an M20C with fixed gear and a fixed-pitch propeller.[3][5]
The M20D was type-certified on 15 October 1962 with the 180 hp (130 kW) Lycoming O-360-A1D or A2D engine.[13] Many M20Ds have been converted to the M20C model and may appear in registration records as M20D/C.[citation needed]
M20E
A very early production 1964 model Mooney M20E Super 21
A 1965 Mooney M20E Super 21 with 201 style modifications
The first truly high performance Mooney, the M20E, was produced from 1964 to 1975 and marketed as the Chaparral and Super 21.[3][12]
The M20E was essentially an M20C with a more powerful 200 hp (150 kW) fuel-injected engine.[5] It was type-certified on 4 September 1963 with the 200 hp (150 kW) Lycoming O-360-A1A engine.[13]
Turbonormalizing, which maintains engine performance at higher altitudes, is available as an aftermarket option for the M20E, F and J.[16]
M20F & M20G
Mooney M20F Executive
M20F Executive
Mooney stretched the fuselage and initially added a third fuselage side window with the M20F Executive 21, which was produced between 1966 and 1977.[3][12] The M20F is otherwise similar to the M20E.[5]
The M20F was type-certified on 25 July 1965 with the 200 hp (150 kW) Lycoming IO-360-A1A engine, with the M20G following on 13 November 1967, equipped with the 180 hp (130 kW) Lycoming O-360-A1D engine.[13]
M20J
Mooney M20J
Mooney M20J
Mooney hired Roy LoPresti to undertake an aerodynamic cleanup of the M20F, resulting in the 1977 model year debut of the M20J. The M20J was marketed under the name Mooney 201 because of its 201 mph (323 km/h) top speed in level flight. The M20J first flew in September, 1976 and was type-certified on 27 September 1976. It is equipped with the 200 hp (150 kW) IO-360-A1B6D, -A3B6D or -A3B6 engine.[3][5][12][13] Besides the more sloped windshield, the M20J and K can be differentiated from the earlier models by their longer rear windows in place of the rear two windows of the M20F.[citation needed]
M20K
Up through the M20J all Mooney M20s had four-cylinder Lycoming engines. After designing the M20J, Mooney modified the basic design to include a variety of more powerful six-cylinder engines, including some models with turbocharged engines. The first such design was the turbocharged M20K, which was produced between 1979 and 1998.[5][12]
The M20K was marketed as the Mooney 231. This model's Continental TSI0-360-GB engine required specific pilot training and modified takeoff and climb procedures to operate at acceptable engine temperatures in hot weather, so by 1986 it was replaced with an intercooled TSIO-360-MB engine, reducing the temperature problems and achieving a top speed of 252 mph (406 km/h) in level flight (at FL 280). This sub-variant of the M20K was marketed as the Mooney 252.[3][12]
The M20K was type-certified on 16 November 1978. It is equipped with the Continental TSIO-360-GB1 -GB3, -GB4, -LB1, -MB1, -MB2 or -SB2 engines. All produce 210 hp (160 kW), except the -MB1 and 2 and the SB1 which produce 220 hp (160 kW).[13]
M20L
In 1988 Mooney went to even greater lengths, partnering with Porsche to include their geared single-lever Porsche PFM 3200 N03 engine, derived from the 911 Carerra engine of 217 hp (162 kW) and stretching the fuselage for the last time to produce the first long body M20. Most M20Ls no longer use this unique engine, as factory support ceased in 2005[17] M20L production ended in 1990. This model was marketed as the Mooney PFM.[12]
The M20L achieved type certification on 25 February 1988.[13]
M20M
The M20M (1989–2006) boosted output initially to 270 hp (200 kW) and was also turbocharged. The M20R (1994–) started at 280 hp (210 kW) and was normally aspirated. With minor changes in engine output (e.g. the M20S "Eagle") and various performance tweaks, these two basic models (both high power, both with long bodies, one with turbocharging) are known as the "Bravo" and "Ovation".[12]
The M20M was type-certified on 28 June 1989 and is equipped with the 270 hp (200 kW) Lycoming TIO-540-AF1A or -AF1B.[13]
M20R
1996 model M20R Ovation
Introduced in 1994, the M20R Ovation mated a long body fuselage to a Continental IO-550-G normally aspirated powerplant of 280 hp (210 kW). This model was named Flying Magazine's single-engine plane of the year in 1994.[12]
The M20R was type certified on 30 June 1994 and is equipped with the 280 hp (210 kW) Continental IO-550-G(5), -G(6) or -G(7) engine.[13]
M20S
The M20S Eagle was introduced in 1999 and was powered by a Continental IO-550-G engine of 244 hp (182 kW). In 2001 the Eagle 2 was introduced. This model included such refinements as a three-bladed propeller, a 100 lb (45 kg) gross weight increase and a standard leather interior.[12]
The M20S was type-certified on 7 February 1999 and is equipped with the 244 hp (182 kW) Continental IO-550-G(6) engine.[13]
M20T
Mooney M20T Predator prototype, N20XT, on display at Sun 'n Fun 2006
The M20T Predator, a canopy-equipped version of the basic M20 design powered by a Lycoming AEIO-540 engine, was Mooney's entrant in the USAF Enhanced Flight Screener competition. The prototype was built in 1991 and displayed in a tiger-stripe paint scheme. The contract was won by the ill-fated Slingsby T-67 Firefly and the M20T was not developed or certified. The sole prototype, registered N20XT, was flown in the Experimental - Market Survey category and was still owned by Mooney Aircraft in 2013, although its registration had expired 30 November 2013.[13][18][19]
Mooney M20TN Acclaim
M20TN
The M20TN Acclaim is the latest version of the M20 design produced and is powered by a turbo-normalized Continental TSI0-550-G powerplant with twin turbochargers and dual intercoolers. The Acclaim replaced the Mooney M20M Bravo in the company product line.[13][20]
The M20TN was type-certified on 15 October 2006 and is equipped with the 280 hp (210 kW) TSIO-550-G(1), -G(2), -G(3) or -G(4) engine.[13]

Modifications[edit]

Mooneys derive their performance from a clean airframe with drag reduced by refinements over the years. Many of these refinements are supplemental type certificate (STC) modifications to the airframe developed by aftermarket businesses. Some of these modifications have been incorporated into the factory production models.

Rocket 305[edit]

In 1990, Rocket Engineering Corp. of Spokane, Washington, modified an M20K 231 model by replacing the standard turbocharged 210 hp (160 kW) Continental TSIO-360 engine and two-blade propeller with a turbocharged 305 hp (227 kW) Continental TSIO-520-NB and a McCauley three-blade propeller. This engine and propeller combination had previously been proven on the twin-engine Cessna 340 and Cessna 414. Marketed as the Rocket 305, this variant delivered a 228 knots speed and 1,600 feet/minute rate of climb.[21] This significantly increased performance, but at the expense of higher fuel consumption.

The 305 Rocket STC represented a 2 12 year certification effort, including 1,000 flight test hours. The 305 Rocket passed all FAA flight test requirements, including spin, flutter, load, cooling and noise tests. The STC covered both the 231 and 252 M20K variants. While the 231 and 252 had a maximum certificated altitude of 24,000 ft (7,300 m) and 28,000 ft (8,500 m) respectively, the engineering goal of the Rocket 305 was certification for a maximum altitude of 31,000 ft (9,500 m). Extending the altitude in the STC was abandoned due to cost/benefit considerations versus the difficulty of demonstrating compliance with the FAA requirements, plus required changes to the supplemental oxygen systems in this non-pressurized aircraft. The aircraft will, however, climb at nearly 1,000 feet/minute above 24,000 ft (7,300 m). The Rocket conversion was discontinued by Rocket Engineering.[22] The production version Mooney Acclaim now delivers faster speeds. As Rockets are available in the used market for about one-third the cost of a new Acclaim, it maintains its popularity among a small market niche.

Aircraft on display[edit]

Mooney M20 preserved near Jandakot Airport as part of a memorial to Robin Miller

The Mooney Super M20E is the aircraft most closely associated with Robin Miller, an Australian female pilot known as the "Sugar Bird Lady" for her work in distributing the polio vaccine across Australia.

Operators[edit]

The aircraft is popular with private individuals and companies.

Specifications (2007 Mooney M20TN Acclaim)[edit]

The prototype Mooney M20TN Acclaim N312TN on display at the Mooney Aircraft booth at Sun 'n Fun 2006

Data from Mooney Website[23]

General characteristics

  • Crew: one pilot
  • Capacity: three passengers
  • Length: 26 ft 9 in (8.15 m)
  • Wingspan: 36 ft 5 in (11.1 m)
  • Height: 8 ft 4 in (2.5 m)
  • Wing area: 175.7 sq ft (16.3 m²)
  • Airfoil: NACA 63-215
  • Empty weight: 2370 lb (1074 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 3374 lb (1528 kg)
  • Useful load: 1004 lb (454 kg)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 3374 lb (1528 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Continental TSIO-550-G Turbo-normalized with twin turbo and dual intercoolers air-cooled, 6-cylinder, horizontally opposed piston engine, 280 hp (209 kW)

Performance

See also[edit]

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Niles, Russ (November 2008). "Mooney Temporarily Halts Production". Retrieved 2008-11-06. 
  2. ^ Mooney Aircraft Company (February 2007). "Monthly Payment Estimator". Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Munson, Kenneth & Michael Taylor: Jane's Pocket Book of light Aircraft, page 143. Janes Publishing, 1982. ISBN 0710601956
  4. ^ Montgomery, M.R & Gerald Foster: A Field Guide to Airplanes, Second Edition, page 38-39. Houghton Mifflin Company, 1992. ISBN 0-395-62888-1
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Plane and Pilot: 1978 Aircraft Directory, pages 54-55. Werner & Werner Corp, Santa Monica CA, 1977. ISBN 0-918312-00-0
  6. ^ Pew, Glenn (November 2010). "Mooney Shrinks To Skeleton Crew, Seeks Investor Support". AvWeb. Retrieved 22 November 2010. 
  7. ^ Mooney Aviation Company (November 2010). "Mooney Aviation Company Announcement". Retrieved 22 November 2010. 
  8. ^ Mooney Airplane Company (April 2011). "Sun 'n Fun 2011". Retrieved 12 April 2011. 
  9. ^ Niles, Russ (8 February 2014). "Mooney Resumes Production Feb. 26". AVweb. Retrieved 10 February 2014. 
  10. ^ Burnside, Jeb (August 2008). "Mooney, Rolls Royce Look At Turbine Single". AVweb. Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  11. ^ a b c Mooney Aircraft, Inc. (March 1967). Executive 21 Owners Manual. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Czernek, A. (September 2006). "Mooney Model Chronology (1948-2006)". Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Federal Aviation Administration (December 2010). "Aircraft Specification No. 2A3 Revision 52". Retrieved 19 October 2011. 
  14. ^ Kromer, Bob (n.d.). "Wood Wing Mooneys - Are They Safe?". Retrieved 2008-08-06. 
  15. ^ Federal Aviation Administration (October 1986). "Airworthiness Directive 86-19-10". Retrieved 2008-08-06. 
  16. ^ M-20 Turbos (2012), Turbo-Normalizing Kits for Mooneys & Home Builts, retrieved 11 February 2014
  17. ^ "Porsche Flug Motor". Mooney PFM. Retrieved 2013-10-03. 
  18. ^ Belvoir Media Group (February 1998). "Mooney Predator". Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  19. ^ Federal Aviation Administration (26 December 2013). "FAA Registry N-Number Inquiry Results". Retrieved 26 December 2013. 
  20. ^ Mooney Aircraft (October 4, 2007). "Mooney Website". Retrieved 2007-10-06. 
  21. ^ "Rocket Engineering Performance". 
  22. ^ "Rocket Engineering Performance". 
  23. ^ Specifications log-in required as of April 2008

Bibliography[edit]

  • Baxter, G, The Al Mooney Story - They All Fly Through The Same Air, Shearer Publishing, Fredericksburg, TX, 1985
  • Robson D, Aircraft General Knowledge and Aerodynamics, Aviation Theory Centre, Victoria, 2001
  • Eric Broumand Nesbit Evans, Dynamics of flight, stability and control McGraw (Chi Migi) 2005
  • Mooney 201 Handbook, Mooney Aircraft Company, Texas, 1981
  • Mooney M20J Pilots Operating Handbook, Mooney Aircraft Company, Texas, 1983
  • Frawley, G, International directory of Civil Aircraft, Aerospace Publications, ACT, 1999
  • Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1981-1982, Jane's Information Group, U.S.A., 1981
  • AOPA Air Safety Foundation, Mooney Aircraft Safety Review, AOPA, U.S.A., 1991
  • Bonds, R, A Century of Flight, Salamander Books Ltd, London, 2003
  • Professor Munib Kirdoggy Sagpur, Flight Dynamics, East Fremantle AOPA Publishing, 1995

External links[edit]