Moravians (ethnic group)
|above 500,000 (2011)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Czech Republic||521,801 (2011)|
|Roman Catholicism, Atheism|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Czechs, Silesians, Slovaks and other Slavic peoples|
Moravians (Czech: Moravané or colloquially Moraváci) are the modern West Slavic inhabitants of the historical land of Moravia, the easternmost part of the Czech Republic, which includes Moravian Slovakia. They speak the two main groups of Moravian dialects (the Central and the Eastern), the transitional Bohemian-Moravian dialect subgroup and standard Czech. There are attempts by few Moravian individuals and organizations to create a distinct "Moravian language".
A certain ambiguity in the Czech language derives from the fact that it only distinguishes between Čechy (Bohemia) and Česká republika (Czech republic), but the corresponding adjective český and noun designating an inhabitant and/or a member of a nation Čech can be related to either of the two (the adjective bohémský and the noun bohém have only the "socially unconventional person" meaning).
Moravian ethnicity was declared for the first time in the population census of 1991. After the Velvet Revolution a strong political movement to reinstate the Moravian-Silesian land (země Moravskoslezská in Czech, having been one of the four lands of Czechoslovakia between 1928 and 1949) was active in Moravia. Accordingly, the so far officially united Czech ethnicity was split in line with the historical division of the Czech Republic into Bohemia, Moravia and Czech Silesia (the Czech lands). Part of the Czech speaking inhabitants of Moravia declared Moravian ethnicity and part of the Czech speaking inhabitants of Czech Silesia declared Silesian ethnicity.
1,363,000 citizens of the Czech Republic declared Moravian ethnicity in 1991. However, the number dropped to 380,474 in the 2001 census – many persons previously declaring themselves as Moravians declared themselves again as Czechs in this census. In 2011, the number increased again to 522,474. The strongest sense of patriotism towards Moravia is forming around Brno, the former capital of Moravia.
Only in the first years after the Velvet Revolution in 1989 did a few Moravian political parties seem to be able to gain some success in elections. However they lost much of their strength around the time of the Dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1993 when Czechoslovakia peacefully split into the Czech Republic and Slovak Republic.
According to the 2011 Census, the percentage of people without religion was lowest in the Moravian Zlín Region, followed by the partly Bohemian, partly Moravian Vysočina Region, the South Moravian Region, the Moravian-Silesian Region, and the predominantly Moravian Olomouc Region.
- Census 2011 - final results
- Šrámek, R.: Zur heutigen Situation des Tschechischen. In: Ohnheiser, I. / Kienpointner, M. / Kalb, H.: Sprachen in Europa. Sprachsituation und Sprachpolitik in europäischen Ländern. Innsbruck 1999.
- Rudolf Chmel–Iván Bába: A szlovákkérdés a XX. században (kalligram.eu)
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- BLÁHA, Ondřej. Moravský jazykový separatismus: zdroje, cíle, slovanský kontext. In Studia Moravica. Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis Facultas Philosophica - Moravica. Olomouc : UP v Olomouci, 2005. ISSN 1801-7061. Svazek III.
- Kolínková, Eliška (30 December 2008). "Amatérský jazykovědec prosazuje moravštinu jako nový jazyk". Mladá fronta DNES. iDnes. Retrieved 7 December 2011. (Czech)
- Dictionary of the Standard Czech Language (Czech)
- Czech Statistical Office: Percentage of population without religious faith as of 26/3/2011, results by permanent residence (Czech)