Morelia amethistina is a non-venomous species of snake, known as the amethystine, scrub python or Sanca permata locally, found in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Australia. Popular among reptile enthusiasts, and noted for its coloration and size, it is the largest native snake in Australia, Papua New Guinea & West Papua, Indonesia. There are currently 4 subspecies of the nominate race, Morelia amethystina amethystina, which are generally recognized. The Mollucan islands, including Halmahera, Ternate and Tidore are home to Morelia a. tracyei. The Tanimbar Islands are home to a smaller race, Morelia a. nauta. On the island of Seram, Morelia a. clastolepis can be found, and mainland PNG (including the Indonesian western half, once called Irian Jaya—now West Papua)and many of its near offshore islands Morelia a. amethystina is quite common. In Australia, Morelia a. kinghorni is represented.
Specimens have reportedly been measured at more than 8.5 m (28 ft) in total length, but this is exceptional, as 5 m (16 ft) specimens are already considered large. As is typical for very large constricting snakes, almost no verified specimens of this species have exceeded 6 m (20 ft). However, in 1990, while conducting a herpetological survey, Tom Mendelson collected a wild female specimen on Biak Island, far Eastern Indonesia, which measured 22 feet 7 inches. Another huge female, in a report considered reliable, was measured by S. Dean in 1954 as 7.2 m (24 ft). A typical adult specimen will measure around 2 to 4 m (6.6 to 13.1 ft). Females typically weigh around 15 kg (33 lb). Some exceptional specimens have been confirmed to weigh over 30 kg (66 lb) and unconfirmed outsized specimens have been reported to scale 90 kg (200 lb), although no specimen of this enormous size has been authenticated. Males are much smaller and slimmer, averaging at 5.1 kg (11 lb) in mass at maturity, and occasionally weighing upwards of 11 kg (24 lb). The body is relatively slim, unlike those of many other large members of this family.
The smooth dorsal scales are arranged in 39-53 rows at midbody. There are deep pits on 6 or 7 of the posterior lower labials.
Found in Indonesia (Maluku Islands, Timur Laut Islands, Banda, Kai Islands, Aru Islands, Misool, Salawati, most of Western New Guinea, many islands in Geelvink Bay), such as Biak, Numfor, Yapen and Supiori Papua New Guinea (including Umboi Island, Bismarck Archipelago, Trobriand Islands, the d'Entrecasteaux Islands to Rossel Island, Louisiade Archipelago), and Australia (on some islands in the Torres Strait, the northern Cape York Peninsula south including the Atherton Tableland and the eastern foothills of the Great Dividing Range). The type locality is unknown.
In northern Australia and New Guinea, it mostly lives in scrublands.
The diet generally consists of birds, fruit bats, rats, possums, and other small mammals. Larger Australian and Papuan specimens will catch and eat wallabies, and Cuscus, waiting by creek and river banks for prey seeking drinking water.
According to McDiarmid et al. (1999), all cases in which the specific name was spelled with a y follow Daudin's (1803) Python amethystinus and are therefore unjustified emendations.
Interaction with humans
An amethystine python crawled onto a Bombardier Q400 passenger plane belonging to Qantas in Cairns, Australia. The flight took off without anyone noticing the snake; it was only seen thrashing around by passengers when the plane was already in the air. By the time the flight reached Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, the snake was dead.
Morelia amethistina from the Bronx Zoo in New York City.
- McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
- "Morelia amethistina". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 18 September 2007.
- Wood, Gerald (1983). The Guinness Book of Animal Facts and Feats. ISBN 978-0-85112-235-9.
- Rainforest Reptiles – Skyrail Nature Diary. Skyrail. Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
- Morelia spilota (Morelia spilota). JungleDragon. Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
- "Snakes- Wet Tropics Management Authority". Wet Tropics Management Authority. Retrieved 2013-01-10.
- "The world's largest snakes". Socialphy. Retrieved 2013-01-10.
- Fearn, S., Schwarzkopf, L. & Shine, R. "Giant snakes in tropical forests: a field study of Australian scrub pythons". CSIRO Publishing- Wildlife Research. Retrieved 2013-01-10.
- Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume I., Containing the Families...Boidæ... Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History). (Taylor and Francis, Printers.) London. xiii + 448 pp. + Plates I.- XXVIII. ("Python amethystinus", pp. 83-84.)
- <http://www.thestar.com/news/world/article/1313329--snake-on-a-plane-python-trapped-under-wing-of-qantas-jet-as-video-captures-life-and-death-struggle Snake on a plane: Python trapped under wing of Qantas plane as video captures life-and-death struggle> The Star (Australia), 11 January 2013
- Python on a plane! Slithery stowaway shocks passengers Reuters, 11 January 2013[dead link]
- Schneider, J.G. 1801. Historiae Amphibiorum naturalis et literariae Fasciculus Secundus continens Crocodilos, Scincos, Chamaesauras, Boas, Pseudoboas, Elapes, Angues, Amphisbaenas et Caecilias. Frommann. Jena. vi + 364 pp. + 2 plates. ("[Boa] Amethistina", p. 254.)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Morelia amethistina.|