Morgan Iron Works

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Morgan Iron Works
Former type Private
Industry Manufacturing
Fate Sold
Predecessor(s) T. F. Secor & Co.
Founded 1838
Founder(s) T. F. Secor, William K. Caulkin, Charles Morgan
Defunct 1907
Headquarters New York, United States
Area served United States
Key people Charles Morgan, George W. Quintard, later John Roach and his sons John Baker and Stephen Roach
Products Marine steam engines
Services Ship repair
Total assets $450,000 (1867)
Owner(s) T. F. Secor, W. K. Caulkin and Charles Morgan (1838-1850)
Charles Morgan (1850-1867)
John Roach & Sons (1867-1907)
Employees 1,000 (1865)

The Morgan Iron Works was a 19th-century manufacturing plant for marine steam engines located in New York City, United States. Originally founded as T. F. Secor & Co. in 1838, the plant was later taken over and renamed by one of its original investors, Charles Morgan.

The Morgan Iron Works remained a leading manufacturer of marine engines throughout the 19th century, producing at least 144 in the period between 1838 and 1867, including 23 for U.S. Navy vessels during the American Civil War.

The Morgan Iron Works was sold to shipbuilder John Roach in 1867, who integrated its operations with his shipyard in Chester, Pennsylvania. The Works continued to operate as both an engine plant and a ship repair facility in the hands of Roach and his son John Baker Roach until 1907, when the Roach family finally retired from the shipbuilding business.

Secor & Co., 1838–1850[edit]

The marine engine works of T. F. Secor and Co. was originally established in New York City, at Ninth Street, East River, in 1838. The works was at this time owned by three partners, including T. F. Secor, William K. Caulkin[1] and budding transport entrepreneur Charles Morgan, each of whom had one-third ownership of the new firm.[2]

In 1845, the U.S. Congress made a number of legislative changes, including the establishment of subsidies, which were aimed at allowing American shipping lines to compete more effectively with their British counterparts. The new legislation contributed to a growing demand in the United States for steamships, encouraging Morgan to divest himself of the last of his shares in sailing vessels and plough the money instead into the Secor plant,[3] which was expanded to include one and a half blocks between Eight and Tenth Streets. By this time, the plant employed up to 700 men, and was building engines for both coastal and oceangoing steamships.[4]

Morgan takeover, 1850[edit]

In 1847, Morgan appointed his son-in-law, George W. Quintard, to the financial department of Secor & Co. Quintard proved a capable manager and rose quickly in the firm. Morgan bought out the other partners in February 1850 and renamed the firm the Morgan Iron Works. Quintard became the plant's new manager, a position he was to retain until the sale of the firm to John Roach in 1867. Morgan, now the plant's sole owner, was the firm's financier, supplying its capital and credit.[5]

The only variation to this arrangement occurred between May 1, 1857 to May 1, 1861, when Morgan's other son-in-law, Charles A. Whitney, joined the firm as co-manager. During this period, Morgan conveyed the Works to the ownership of Quintard and Whitney for the sum of $250,000, giving Whitney a one-third stake in the company and Quintard the remainder. The two manager-owners took out a $67,000 mortgage on the property to raise operating capital. After Whitney left the firm to pursue other business interests, Morgan returned as sole owner, purchasing the business for its sale price of $250,000 as of a few years prior, and settling the mortgage himself.[5]

1850s[edit]

Following the Morgan takeover in 1850, Quintard embarked on an extensive improvement program for the Works, installing steam hammers, a floating steam derrick and other heavy equipment, as well as building a new dockyard on the East River. Quintard also began diversifying the firm's products, manufacturing machinery for Cuban sugar mills and large pumps for a Chicago water company.[6]

By this time however, Morgan himself, whose transportation business was steadily expanding, had become the plant's main customer.[7] In 1850, Morgan ordered the 1,875 ton steamer San Francisco and the 1,359 ton Brother Jonathan, both built for operation with Morgan's Empire City Line.[8] In 1852, he decided to replace some of his older ships, and ordered Texas (1,151 tons), Louisiana (1,056 t), Mexico (1,043 t), Perseverance (827 t) and Meteor (542 t) all of which had engines built by the Morgan Iron Works.[9]

In the same period, Morgan was unfortunate enough to lose to accidents four of his existing ships, including Palmetto, Globe, Galveston and the newly built Meteor, with a total value of $250,000. As all four ships had been self-insured in line with Morgan's usual practice, none of the losses were recoverable. Morgan was by this time wealthy enough to be able to absorb the losses however, and in the following two years he had another four vessels built, including Charles Morgan (1,215 tons), Nautilus (898 t), Orizaba (734 t) and Tennessee (1,149 t), all but the last of which also had their engines supplied by the Morgan Works.[9]

The Morgan Iron Works secured its first naval contract on October 28, 1858, for a steam sloop-of-war, the USS Seminole. The contract was met with charges of favoritism from Republicans, and in a subsequent Congressional enquiry, Quintard pointed out that the Works had bid for a number of navy contracts previously but never been successful. The inquiry ultimately rejected the charges.[10]

By the end of the decade, the Morgan Works was one of America's leading manufacturers of marine steam engines, specializing in medium-sized machinery for coastal and river service. From 1850 through 1860, the Works built engines for a total of 49 vessels, and its engines were in use with American steamship companies from the United States to as far afield as China.[11]

Civil War, 1861–65[edit]

Steam sloop-of-war USS Wachusett

The American Civil War began disastrously for Charles Morgan when the Confederacy seized his entire Gulf of Mexico fleet. In spite of this blow however, Morgan was to recover and profit handsomely from the war, mainly through the agency of the Morgan Iron Works.[11]

The war created great demand for new shipping, and shipyards and engine manufacturers alike experienced an unprecedented boom. Like many other builders of marine engines, the Morgan Iron Works was to take full advantage of this demand, building engines for 38 vessels during the war, including 23 merchantmen and 13 warships for the U.S. Navy. The plant even found time to turn out an engine for an Italian Navy warship in this period,[11] the Re Don Luige de Portogallo.[12] U.S. Navy warships fitted with Morgan Iron Works engines included USS Ticonderoga, USS Ascutney, USS Wachusett and the experimental high-speed warship USS Ammonoosuc. The Works also contracted for the complete construction of the monitor USS Onondaga, although the hull was subcontracted out to another firm.[12]

By the end of the war, the Morgan Works had grossed $2,275,991.10 from its naval contracts alone.[12] Morgan himself made further profits during the war by ordering ships from Harlan & Hollingsworth, which he then sold or chartered to the U.S. Navy.[11]

Sale to John Roach, 1867[edit]

After the war, the U.S. government auctioned off at firesale prices the hundreds of ships it had requisitioned during the conflict, depressing the market and leaving U.S. shipyards and marine engine builders with little or no work. As a consequence, almost all the marine engine manufacturing companies of New York went out of business in the years immediately following the war.[13] The exceptions were the Morgan Iron Works, and the Etna Iron Works of John Roach.

Unlike his competitors, John Roach had been able to maintain his profits in the postwar period by diversifying his plant into the manufacture of machine tools and selling them to the U.S. Navy, which was in the process of upgrading its shipyards. By contrast, the Morgan Iron Works, like most other New York engine builders, had struggled in the postwar period, building only two engines in the two years following the war.[6] It remained in business only because Morgan could afford to weather the losses, but in 1866 he suffered an additional financial setback when his newly established shipping lines to Mexico were aborted due to the overthrow of Maximilian I of Mexico.[13]

John Roach meanwhile was planning to add shipbuilding to his engine building business, and he saw the Morgan Iron Works with its dockyard on the East River as a stepping stone toward this goal.[14] When in 1867 he offered to purchase the Morgan Works, Morgan was ready to sell, and the two agreed upon a price of $450,000, divided into a cash payment of $100,000 and two mortgages of $100,000 and $250,000.[13][15] Roach would soon run into cash flow problems of his own and consequently defaulted on both mortgages; Morgan however chose not to foreclose and Roach settled the debts shortly before Morgan's death in 1878.[13]

Roach management, 1867–1907[edit]

USS Dolphin, focus of a bitter political battle between John Roach and the U.S. Navy

By securing the premises of the Morgan Iron Works and buying out his remaining competitors, Roach had established a virtual ship and engine building monopoly in New York.[13] He subsequently closed his Etna Iron Works, transferring the best personnel and equipment from Etna and his former competitors' premises to his newly acquired East River property, and thus turned the Morgan Works into America's premier manufacturer of marine steam engines.[16]

In 1871, Roach bought the failed shipyard of Reaney, Son & Archbold in Chester, Pennsylvania,[17] thoroughly modernized it, renamed it the Delaware River Iron Ship Building and Engine Works,[18] and turned it into America's largest and most prolific shipyard, a position it maintained until the mid-1880s.[19] In spite of the fact that the Chester shipyard had its own engine building plant, Roach retained ownership of the Morgan Iron Works, using it to build engines both for his own ships and for third party contracts, and also for ship repairs and outfitting of new vessels. Roach in fact expanded the Works for its new role, adding upholsterers for the production of ship's furniture and expanding the plumbing department.[20] Additionally, he was able to use the Morgan Works to keep his business running during industrial action, when he would simply transfer his operations from one yard to the other. He retained the name of the Morgan Iron Works, but made it a subsidiary of a new management company, John Roach & Son (later John Roach & Sons).[21]

After a costly political battle over a naval contract for the USS Dolphin in 1885, Roach, by now a terminally ill old man, retired and placed his business empire into receivership.[22] Following the settlement of all his debts however, his family found themselves still in possession of both the Chester shipyard and the Morgan Iron Works. Roach's oldest surviving son, John Baker Roach, took over running of the business as a whole, while his younger son Stephen became treasurer of the Morgan Works.[23]

The brothers continued to run the business much as their father had done, although it lost the pre-eminent position it had previously enjoyed. With the death of John Baker Roach in 1908, the Roach family decided to end its association with shipbuilding, and both the Morgan Iron Works and the Chester shipyard were closed.[24] The Morgan Works was converted into tenements, and in 1949, the locality where the Works had once stood was redeveloped into a low-rental housing project, the Jacob Riis Houses, which still exists today.[25]

Production summary[edit]

The following tables list marine engines known to have been built by T. F. Secor & Co. and the Morgan Iron Works to 1867. The lists, with the exception of the warship list, are probably incomplete. Marine engines built under Roach management are not listed as Roach had a second marine engine facility at Chester, Pennsylvania and records generally do not distinguish between the output of the two plants.

Where a ship had more than one name, the names are listed in chronological sequence, with two digits representing the last two digits of the year the rename took place where known. Ship names in small type preceded or followed by an arrow (← →) indicate that the engine for this vessel was used in another ship. The abbreviation "n/a" in the following tables means "not available" (i.e. not known).

Merchant steamship and steamboat engines[edit]

Merchant steamship engines built by T. F. Secor & Co., 1838—1850
Ship Engine(s) Notes
Name Built Builder Ton. Owner Type[26] No. Cyl. (ins) Str. (ft)
Savannah [27][28] 1838 n/a 305 Troy Line VB n/a n/a n/a
Troy [27][29] 1840 William Capes 724 Troy Line HB 2 44 10
Empire [27][29] 1843 William H. Brown 936 Troy Line HB 2 48 12
Atlantic [27][30] 1846 Bishop & Simonson 1,112 Norwich & New London SBC VB 1 72 11
John Stevens [27][31][32] 1846 Robert L. Stevens 686 Camden & Amboy RRC ST 1 75 8 Early iron-hulled steamboat
Perry [27] 1846 Devine Burtis 255 VB 1 36 9
Thomas Powell [27][33] 1846 Lawrence & Sneden 585 Thomas Powell et al VB 1 48 11
T. F. Secor [27][34] 1846 Menemon Sanford 210 Menemon Sanford VB n/a n/a n/a
Antelope [27] 1847 Bishop & Simonson 425 "New York owners"[35] VB n/a n/a n/a
New Orleans [36] 1847 William H. Brown 869 Charles Morgan VB 1 55 11
Crescent City [37] 1848 William H. Brown 1,289 Charles Morgan SL 1 80 9
New World [27][38] 1848 William H. Brown 1,312 Isaac Newton VB 1 76 15
Ontario [27][39] 1848 Merrick 832 American Steamboat Co. VB 1 50 11
Queen City [27][40] 1848 Bidwell & Banta 906 Charles M. Reed CH n/a n/a n/a Possibly an engine reconditioning
United States [27][41] 1848 William H. Webb 1,875 Charles H. Marshall et al SL 2 80 9 Early American transatlantic steamship
Connecticut [27][42] 1848 Lawrence & Sneden 1,129 Curtis Peck VB 1 72 12
Empire City [27][43] 1849 William H. Brown 1,751 Charles Morgan SL 1 75 9
Georgia [27][44] 1849 Smith & Dimon 2,727 U.S. Mail SSC SL 2 90 8
Goliah [27][45] 1849 William H. Webb 333 Cornelius Vanderbilt VB 1 50 8 NY tug; later a passenger steamer on the Pacific Coast
Ocean [27][46] 1849 M. Sanford 658 Menemon Sanford et al VB 1 48 11
Ohio [27][47] 1849 Bishop & Simonson 2,432 U.S. Mail SSC SL 2 90 8
Gold Hunter [27][48]
USCS Active
1849 J. A. Westervelt 436 William Skiddy SL 2 n/a n/a Sent to California, later the U.S. Coast Survey ship Active
Boston [27][49] 1850 William H. Brown 630 Menemon Sanford VB 1 44 11 New England passenger steamer, later USN Civil War transport; sunk by enemy fire, 1864
Merchant steamship engines built by the Morgan Iron Works (Morgan/Quintard management, 1850–1867)
Ship Engine(s) Notes
Name Built Builder Ton. Owner Type No. Cyl. (ins) Str. (ft)
Louisiana [27][50] 1850 Westervelt & Mackay 1,056 Charles Morgan VB 1 56 10 Burned and sank Galveston Bay 1857, 30-60 killed
Prometheus [27][51] 1850 J. Simonson 1,207 Cornelius Vanderbilt VB 2 42 10 First oceangoing steamship fitted with walking beam engine
Reindeer [27][52]
Perseverance
1850 Thomas Collyer 790 New Brunswick SBC VB 1 56 12 Sunk by boiler explosion and fire, Hudson R., 1852; 36 killed
St. Lawrence [27] 1850 William Collyer[53] 588 VB 1 44 11
Brother Jonathan [54][55] 1851 Perine, Patterson & Stack 1,359 Edward Mills VB 1 72 11 Struck and sank off Crescent City, CA, 1865; 221 killed
Mexico [56][57]
CSS General Bragg 62
USS General Bragg 62
Mexico 65
1851 William Collyer 1,043 Charles Morgan VB 1 56 10 Sold foreign, 1870
North American [58] 1851 Lawrence & Sneden 1,440 Cornelius Vanderbilt VB 1 60 12 Sunk, 1852
Roanoke [54][59] 1851 Westervelt & Mackay 1,071 New York & Virginia SSC VB 2 42 10 Seized by Confederacy and burned, 1864
Winfield Scott [54][60] 1851 Westervelt & Mackay 1,291 Davis, Brooks & Co SL 2 66 8 Struck and sank off Anacapa Island, CA, 1853
City of Hartford [54][61]
Capitol City 82
1852 Samuel Sneden 814 Hartford & New York SBC VB 1 60 12 Run aground and wrecked in Long Island Sound, 1888
Saratoga [54][62]
Cortes 52
1852 Westervelt & Mackay 1,117 Davis, Brooks & Co VB 2 42 10 Destroyed by fire, Shanghai, China, 1865
Northern Indiana [54][63] 1852 Bidwell & Banta 1,475 Michigan Southern RRC VB 1 72 12 Destroyed by fire 1856; 56 killed
Reindeer
Perseverance [64][65]
1852 J. A. Westervelt 827 Charles Morgan VB 1 56 12 Destroyed by fire at Indianola, Texas, 1856
Texas
Quartz Rock 52
Sierra Nevada 52 [54][66]
1852 William Collyer 1,246 Empire City Line n/a n/a n/a n/a Grounded and wrecked off San Simeon, CA, 1869
Southern Michigan [54][67]
Thomas Cornell
1852 Bidwell & Banta 1,470 Michigan Southern RRC VB 1 72 12 Laid up, 1857; scrapped 1863
Crescent City [54][68]
Morning Star
1853 Vincent Bidwell 1,746 Dean Richmond et al VB 1 80 12 Laid up, 1857; scrapped 1863
George Law
Central America 57 [54][69]
1853 William H. Webb 2,141 U.S. Mail SSC O 2 65 10 Foundered and sank in hurricane; 420 killed
Golden Age [54][70]
Hiroshima Maru 75
1853 William H. Brown 2,281 New York & Australia SNC VB 1 83 12 In service until about 1890
Granite State [54][71] 1853 Samuel Sneden 887 C. W. Chapin VB 1 52 12 Destroyed by fire, 1883
Jamestown
CSS Thomas Jefferson 61
[54][72]
1853 J. A. Westervelt 1,300 NY & Virginia SSC VB 2 40 10 Sunk by the Confederacy to make an obstruction in the James River, 1862
Josephine [54] 1853 n/a 552 VB 2 40 14
San Francisco [54][73] 1853 William H. Webb 2,272 Pacific Mail SSC O 2 65 8 Scuttled after engine failure during storm on maiden voyage, 1854; 195 killed
Charles Morgan
CSS Governor Moore 62 [54][74]
1854 Westervelt & Son 1,215 Charles Morgan VB 1 60 11 Exploded during Battle of Forts Jackson and St. Philip, 1862
Nautilus [75] 1854 898 Charles Morgan VB 1 44 11 Wrecked on Last Island, LA in hurricane, 1856; 20 killed
Orizaba [54][76] 1854 J. A. Westervelt 1,335 Charles Morgan VB 1 65 11 Scrapped, 1887
Sonora [54][77] 1854 J. A. Westervelt 1,616 Pacific Mail SSC VB 2 50 10 Scrapped, 1868
St. Louis [54][78] 1854 J. A. Westervelt 1,621 Pacific Mail SSC VB 2 50 10 Dismantled at Panama, 1878
Commonwealth [54][79] 1855 Lawrence & Foulks 1,732 Norwich & New London SBC VB 1 76 12 "the great boat of Long Island Sound in the '50's."[79] Destroyed by fire at Groton, CT, 1865
Island Home [54][80][81] 1855 E. J. Whitlock 481 Nantucket & Cape Cod SBC VB 2 40 11 Converted to barge, 1896–97; sunk in NY Harbor, 1902
Christoval Colon [54][82] 1856 Sneden & Whitlock 450 VB 1 48 10 Built for Cuban service
Everglade [54][83]
CSS Savannah 61
Oconee 63
1856 Sneden & Whitlock 406 "Capt. Coxatter"[84] O 1 32 8 Built for Florida service before conversion to gunboat. Foundered in bad weather, 1863
Fulton [54][85] 1856 Smith & Dimon 2,307 Havre Line O 2 65 10 Scrapped, 1870
Eastern Queen [54] 1857 John Englis 695 VB 1 48 11
Independence [54] 1857 Samuel Sneden 354 Capt. Ezra Nye VB 2 32 8 "for towing in the harbor of Valparaiso, S. A."
Yangtsze [54][86] 1857 Thomas Collyer 1,003 Russell & Co O 2 38 8 Built for Chinese service; employed in the opium trade
City of Buffalo [54][87]
Morro Castle (1863)
1857 Bidwell & Banta 2,026 Michigan Southern RRC VB 1 76 12 Laid up, 1857–63; bulk freight carrier, 1864; tow barge, 1866; abandoned 1875
Huntsville [54][88][89] USS Huntsville 61
Huntsville 65
1858 J. A. Westervelt 817 H. B. Cromwell & Co V 1 56 4 Destroyed by fire, 1877
Montgomery [54][90]
USS Montgomery
Montgomery 65
1858 J. A. Westervelt 787 H. B. Cromwell & Co V 1 56 4 Sunk in collision, 1877; 13 killed
Ocean Queen [54][91] 1858 J. A. Westervelt 2,801 Morgan & Garrison VB 1 90 12 Scrapped, 1875
Alabama [54][92] 1859 Samuel Sneden 510 VB 1 50 10
De Soto [93] 1859 Lawrence & Foulks 1,600 Livingston, Crocheron & Co VB 1 65 11 USN gunboat, 1861-68. Destroyed by fire S. of New Orleans, 1870
John Brooks [93][94] 1859 Samuel Sneden 780 Naugatuck TC VB 1 56 12 Broken up about 1897
Peiho [93][95] 1859 Thomas Collyer 1,113 Russell & Co O 1 52 8 Built for China service
White Cloud [93][95] 1859 Thomas Collyer 520 n/a VB 1 44 10 Built for China service
Yorktown [93][96]
CSS Patrick Henry 61
1859 William H. Webb 1,403 NY & Virginia SSC VB 1 50 10 Burned and scuttled by Confederacy to prevent capture, James River, 1865
Bienville [93] 1860 Lawrence & Foulks 1,558 Livingston, Crocheron & Co VB 1 68 11 USN gunboat, 1861-65. Destroyed by fire at sea off Bahamas, 1872; 41 killed
Flushing [92][93] 1860 Samuel Sneden 333 VB 1 36 10
John P. King [93][97]
Eagle 61
USS Rhode Island 61
Charleston 67
1860 J. A. Westervelt 1,517 Spofford, Tileston & Co VB 1 71 12 Laid up, 1885; disappears from registers 1891
Peruano [93] 1860 J. A. Westervelt 570 VB 1 44 11
William G. Hewes
Ella and Annie 62
USS Malvern 63
William G. Hewes 65 [93][98]
1860 Harlan & Hollingsworth 747 Charles Morgan VB 1 50 11 Wrecked on Colorado Reef off coast of Cuba, 1895
Zouave [93] 1860 John Englis 750 VB 1 50 11
Continental [93][99] 1861 Samuel Sneden 686 New Haven SBC VB 1 70 11 Barge, 1902; later broken up
Cosmopolitan [93][100] 1861 John Englis 774 Sanford's Independent Line VB 1 50 11 Still in service 1903
Hankow [93][95] 1861 Thomas Collyer 725 n/a VB 1 48 12 Chinese service
Mary Benton [93][101]
Walter Brett 66
1861 G.E. & W.H. Goodspeed 365 Hartford & Long Island SBC VB 1 44 10 Scrapped, 1897
New Brunswick [93][102] 1861 John Englis 804 Portland SPC VB 1 48 11
Mississippi
South America 61
USS Connecticut 61
South America 65 [93][103]
1861 William H. Webb 2,150 NY & Savannah SNC VB 1 80 11 Laid up, 1875; presumed scrapped
Chekiang [93][104] 1862 Henry Steers 1,264 VB 1 70 11 China service. Destroyed by fire at Hankow, 1865
Fohkien [93][105][106] 1862 Henry Steers 1,947 J. M. Forbes VB 1 81 12 Reconditioned engine originally from St. Lawrence. Fast passage to China, 1863. Struck and sank off Chinese coast, 1865
New England [93][107]
City of Portland 72
1862 John Englis 852 International SSC VB 1 52 11 Ran aground and wrecked, 1884
Crescent City 53
Morning Star [93][108]
1863 Roosevelt & Joyce 2,022 New York Mail SSC VB 1 80 12 Laid up 1867; broken up 1872
Western Metropolis [93][109] 1863 F. D. Tucker 2,269 L. Brown VB 1 74 12 Built for transatlantic service. Converted to sail, 1878
Gen. J. K. Barnes [93][110] 1864 Lawrence & Foulks 1,365 Atlantic Coast Mail SSC VB 1 60 10 Sank in hurricane, 1878
Retribution
Golden Rule 63 [93][111]
1863 Henry Steers 2,767 Marshall O. Roberts VB 1 81 12 Wrecked on Roncador Reef, Gulf of Mexico, 1865
Herman Livingston [93][112] 1864 Lawrence & Foulks 1,314 Atlantic Coast Mail SSC VB 1 60 10 Scrapped after 1878
Oriflamme [93][113] 1864 Lawrence & Foulks 1,204 U.S. Navy VB 1 60 10 Built for Civil War service but sold on completion. Scrapped, 1890
Albermarle [93][114] 1865 Lawrence & Foulks 871 Atlantic Coast Mail SSC VB 1 44 11 Barge 82; schooner 83; sunk in squall 85
Hatteras [93][115] 1865 Lawrence & Foulks 868 Atlantic Coast Mail SSC VB 1 44 11 Schooner barge 1882
Manhattan [93][116] 1865 Lawrence & Foulks 1,337 American & Mexican SSC VB 1 66 11 Sunk, 1882
Paon Shun
Nevada 66
Saikio Maru[?] 75 [93][117]
1865 J. Simonson 1,691 T. W. Dearborn VB 1 85 12 Scrapped on or after 1885
New York
Tokio Maru 75 [93][118]
1865 J. Simonson 2,217 Cornelius Vanderbilt VB 1 78 12 Scrapped, 1880s
Raleigh [93][119] 1865 Lawrence & Foulks 868 Atlantic Coast Mail SSC VB 1 44 11 Destroyed by fire off Charleston, SC, 1867; 24 killed
Rapidan [93][120] 1865 Lawrence & Foulks 868 Atlantic Coast Mail SSC VB 1 44 11 Disappeared en route to West Indies, 1886
Vera Cruz [93][121] 1865 Lawrence & Foulks 1,340 American & Mexican SSC VB 1 66 11 Struck and sank near Oregon Inlet, 1866
Villa Clara [93] 1866 n/a 1,095 VB 1 52 4
Cambridge [93][122] 1867 John Englis & Son 1,337 Sanford Line VB 1 60 11 Wrecked off Georges Island, MA, 1886

Warship engines[edit]

U.S. Navy warship engines built by the Morgan Iron Works (Morgan management)
Ship Engine
Name Type Class Built Builder Disp. Type[123] No. Cyl. (ins) Str. (ft) IHP
USS Seminole Screw sloop Narragansett 1859 Pensacola Navy Yard 1,235 HBA 2 50 2.6 250
USS Chippewa Screw gunboat Unadilla 1861 William H. Webb 691 HBA 2 30 1.6 n/a
USS Katahdin Screw gunboat Unadilla 1861 Larrabee & Allen 691 HBA 2 30 1.6 n/a
USS Kineo Screw gunboat Unadilla 1861 J. W. Dyer 691 HBA 2 30 1.6 n/a
USS Mahaska Double-end gunboat Sebago 1861 Portsmouth Navy Yard 1,070 IDA 1 44 7 n/a
USS Wachusett Screw sloop Iroquois 1861 Boston Navy Yard 1,488 HBA 2 50 2.6 1202
USS Ticonderoga Screw sloop Lackawanna 1862 Brooklyn Navy Yard 2,526 HBA 2 42 2.6 1,300
USS Tioga Double-end gunboat Genesee 1862 Boston Navy Yard 1,120 IDA 1 48 7 n/a
USS Ascutney Double-end gunboat Sassacus 1863 George W. Jackman 1,173 IDA 1 58 8.9 n/a
USS Chenango Double-end gunboat Sassacus 1863 J. Simonson 1,173 IDA 1 58 8.9 n/a
USS Onondaga Monitor Unique 1863 Continental Iron Works 2,592 HBA 4 n/a n/a 642
USS Ammonoosuc Cruiser Ammonoosuc 1864 Boston Navy Yard 3,850 HGDA 2 100 4 4,480
USS Muscoota Double-end gunboat Mohongo 1864 Continental Iron Works 1,370 IDA 1 58 8.9 n/a
USS Idaho Cruiser Unique 1864 Henry Steers 3,241 GS 2 n/a n/a n/a

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Swann, p .24.
  2. ^ Baughman, p. 30.
  3. ^ Baughman, p. 39.
  4. ^ Baughman, p. 55.
  5. ^ a b Baughman, pp. 55–56.
  6. ^ a b Swann, pp. 24–25.
  7. ^ Swann, p. 24.
  8. ^ Baughman, p. 63.
  9. ^ a b Baughman, p. 88.
  10. ^ Baughman, pp. 114–116.
  11. ^ a b c d Baughman, pp. 121–122.
  12. ^ a b c Baughman, p. 255.
  13. ^ a b c d e Baughman, pp. 123–125.
  14. ^ Swann, pp. 25–26
  15. ^ Swann, p. 25.
  16. ^ Swann, p. 26.
  17. ^ Swann, p. 51.
  18. ^ Swann, p. 56.
  19. ^ Swann, p. 242.
  20. ^ Swann, pp. 54–55.
  21. ^ Swann, p. 23.
  22. ^ Swann, Chapter IX, also p. 227.
  23. ^ Swann, pp. 235–236.
  24. ^ Swann, p. 236.
  25. ^ Jacob Riis Houses, New York City Housing Authority.
  26. ^ Type=type of engine. Engine types include: VB = vertical beam (ie walking beam); HB = horizontal beam (Lighthall patent); ST = steeple (probably of the American crosshead type); CH = crosshead; SL = side-lever; O = oscillating; V = vertical (ie vertical inverted direct-acting).
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Baughman, p. 242.
  28. ^ Dayton, p. 385.
  29. ^ a b Dayton, p. 54.
  30. ^ Morrison, p. 328.
  31. ^ Morrison, p. 186.
  32. ^ Dayton, p. 294.
  33. ^ Dayton, p. 57.
  34. ^ Bradlee, p. 94.
  35. ^ Heyl, Vol. 1, p. 27.
  36. ^ Baughman, pp. 46, 242.
  37. ^ Baughman, pp. 57,242.
  38. ^ Heyl 1865, p. 217.
  39. ^ Morrison, pp. 382-383.
  40. ^ Heyl, Vol. 5, p. 233.
  41. ^ Ridgely-Nevitt, pp. 140-141.
  42. ^ Heyl, Vol. 4, p. 65.
  43. ^ Heyl, Vol. 4, p. 141.
  44. ^ Heyl, Vol. 1, p. 177.
  45. ^ Edwin and Gibbs, pp. 107-108.
  46. ^ Heyl, Vol. 1, p. 309.
  47. ^ Heyl, Vol. 1, p. 315.
  48. ^ Heyl, Vol. 4, pp. 121-124.
  49. ^ Heyl, Vol. 1, p. 61.
  50. ^ Baughman, pp. 88, 105.
  51. ^ Stiles, pp. 189, 199-200.
  52. ^ Heyl, Vol. 4, pp. 269-271.
  53. ^ "Steamer St. Lawrence (painting)", Smithsonian Institution Research Information System.
  54. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Baughman, p. 243.
  55. ^ Heyl, Vol. 1, pp. 63-64.
  56. ^ Baughman, pp. 119-120, 243.
  57. ^ "General Bragg", DANFS online, Naval History and Heritage Command website.
  58. ^ Baughman, pp. 70-71, 243.
  59. ^ Heyl, Vol. 1, p. 367.
  60. ^ Heyl, Vol. 1, p. 457.
  61. ^ Heyl, Vol. 5, pp. 55-57.
  62. ^ Heyl, Vol. 1, pp. 111-112.
  63. ^ Heyl, Vol. 2, p. 173.
  64. ^ Baughman, pp. 88, 105, 243.
  65. ^ Morrison, pp. 110-111.
  66. ^ Heyl, Vol. 1, pp. 391-392.
  67. ^ Heyl, Vol. 2, p. 241.
  68. ^ Heyl, Vol. 2, p. 63.
  69. ^ Heyl, Vol. 1, pp. 171-172.
  70. ^ Heyl, Vol. 1, pp. 183-184.
  71. ^ Heyl, Vol. 3, pp. 167-168.
  72. ^ Heyl, Vol. 3, pp. 195-196.
  73. ^ Heyl, Vol. 1, pp. 379-380.
  74. ^ "Governor Moore", DANFS online, Naval History and Heritage Command website.
  75. ^ Baughman, pp. 105, 243.
  76. ^ Heyl, Vol. 1, pp. 327-328.
  77. ^ Heyl, Vol. 1, p. 395.
  78. ^ Heyl, Vol. 1, pp. 375-376.
  79. ^ a b Dayton, p. 163.
  80. ^ Silka, p. 43.
  81. ^ Heyl, Vol. 4, pp. 137-139.
  82. ^ Frazer 1857, p. 57.
  83. ^ Frazer 1857, p. 55.
  84. ^ Griffiths, Vol. 5, p. 384.
  85. ^ Ridgely-Nevitt, pp. 182-85, 299.
  86. ^ Morrison, p. 509.
  87. ^ Heyl, Vol. 4, pp. 37-40.
  88. ^ Heyl, Vol. 1, pp. 215-216.
  89. ^ "Launched during the year 1857", The New York Times, 1858-01-15.
  90. ^ Heyl, Vol. 1, p. 265.
  91. ^ Heyl, Vol. 1, pp. 311-312.
  92. ^ a b Silka, p. 46.
  93. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj Baughman, p. 244.
  94. ^ Heyl, Vol. 3, pp. 197-199.
  95. ^ a b c Morrison, p. 510.
  96. ^ Heyl, Vol. 1, pp. 465-466. Heyl incorrectly lists the launch date of this vessel as 1853; in fact it was 1859.
  97. ^ Heyl, Vol. 1, pp. 75-76.
  98. ^ Heyl, V1, pp. 237-238.
  99. ^ Heyl V3, pp. 101-102.
  100. ^ Morrison, p. 507.
  101. ^ Heyl V3, pp. 219-220.
  102. ^ Morrison, p. 398.
  103. ^ Heyl, V1, p. 397.
  104. ^ Morrison, p. 511.
  105. ^ Heyl V5, p. 87.
  106. ^ Morrison, pp. 510-511.
  107. ^ Dayton, pp. 283-284.
  108. ^ Ridgely-Nevitt, pp. 301-306.
  109. ^ Heyl V1, p. 443.
  110. ^ Heyl V1, p. 161.
  111. ^ Heyl V1, pp. 189-190.
  112. ^ Heyl V1, p. 207.
  113. ^ Heyl V1, p. 325.
  114. ^ Heyl V1, p. 13.
  115. ^ Heyl V1, p. 199.
  116. ^ Heyl V1, p. 239.
  117. ^ Heyl V1, pp. 287-288.
  118. ^ Heyl V1, pp. 295-296.
  119. ^ Heyl V1, p. 357.
  120. ^ Heyl V1, p. 359.
  121. ^ Heyl V1, p. 437.
  122. ^ Dayton, p. 268.
  123. ^ Type = engine type. Types include: HBA = horizontal back-acting; IDA = inclined direct-acting; HGDA = horizontal geared direct-acting; GS = geared screw.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Baughman, James P. (1968): Charles Morgan and the Development of Southern Transportation, Vanderbilt University Press.
  • Dayton, Fred Erving (1925). Steamboat Days. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company. 
  • Frazer, John F., ed. (1857). Journal of the Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania. 3. XXXIII, Whole No. LXIII. Philadelphia, PA: Franklin Institute. pp. 55, 57. 
  • Griffiths, Oliver W., ed. (Oct 1856–Mar 1857). The U.S. Nautical Magazine and Naval Journal. New York: Oliver W. Griffiths. p. 384. 
  • Heyl, Erik (1953–1967). Early American Steamers. 1–5. Buffalo, New York: Erik Heyl. 
  • Swann, Leonard Alexander Jr. (1965): John Roach, Maritime Entrepreneur: the Years as Naval Contractor 1862–1886 — United States Naval Institute (reprinted 1980 by Ayer Publishing, ISBN 978-0-405-13078-6).