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Moriscos (Spanish: [moˈɾiskos], Catalan: [muˈɾiskus], [moˈɾiskos]; Portuguese: mouriscos [mo(w)ˈɾiʃkuʃ], [mo(w)ˈɾiskus]; meaning "Moorish") were Muslims who were forced to convert to Christianity rather than be killed or expelled from Spain and Portugal in the early 1500s. Over time, the term was used in a pejorative sense, applied to those nominal Catholics who were suspected of secretly practicing Islam. The Moriscos were eventually expelled from Spain between 1609 (Valencia) and 1614 (Castile).
- 1 Demographics
- 2 History
- 3 Expulsion
- 4 Moriscos in Spain after the expulsion
- 5 Genetic legacy of Moors in Spain
- 6 Literature
- 7 Extended meaning
- 8 Descendants and Spanish citizenship
- 9 See also
- 10 Sources
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2012)|
Estimates of Morisco populations at the time of expulsion vary, many estimates being based on the number of recorded expulsion edicts (around 275,000). However, modern studies estimate around one million moriscos present in Spain at the beginning of the 16th century.
Moriscos were far from being a homogenous population and were largely subdivided in four distinct groups or ethnicities:
Granada was the last Islamic Kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula, and, by the late 15th century, this region had the largest Morisco population, and it formed the majority of the region's population. The least hispanized of all the groups, this community spoke fluent Arabic, was well versed in Islamic doctrine and - until Moorish customs were prohibited by the Catholic rulers following their conquest of Granada in 1492 - it conserved the majority of cultural traits pertaining to Islamic Al Andalus: dress, music, gastronomy, festivities etc.
After their second revolt against Catholic oppression, in 1568-71, the Moriscos of Granada were deported to the various regions of the Kingdom of Castile, Extremadura and Andalusia.
The second largest Morisco population was to be found on the Eastern Kingdom of Valencia, where Moriscos accounted for about a third of the population. Vassals of estate-owners who protected them due to the high tax revenue they provided, Valencian Moriscos were also a relatively distinct population. Arabic was used commonly among them, although they were also fluent in the Castilian and Valencian languages. They were known for their practice of the Islamic faith despite their nominal adherence to the Catholic Church. Among other Morisco communities, they were known for their knowledge of the Qur'an and the Sunna, and Valencia "Alfaquíes" were known to travel throughout Spain as teachers for other Morisco communities. It was the Valencian Moriscos who, due to their coastal location, established relationships with the Ottoman and Barbary ships. Valencia had been the centre of production of Hispano-Moresque ware in the late Middle Ages and pottery continued to be a significant industry.
Moriscos accounted for 20% of the population of Aragon, residing principally on the shores of the Ebro river and its tributaries. Unlike Granada and Valencia Moriscos, they did not speak Arabic but, as vassals of the nobility, were granted the privilege to practice their faith relatively openly.
Places like Muel, Zaragoza, were inhabited fully by Moriscos, the only Old Christians were the priest, the notary and the owner of the tavern-inn. "The rest would rather go on a pilgrimage to Mecca than Santiago de Compostela."
In the Aragonese City of Monzón (Huesca), a peculiar tradition is still celebrated related to the Moriscos known as "El Bautizo del Alcalde" (The baptism of the mayor). It is celebrated on the 4th of December, festivity of Saint Barbara, patron of the City, and involves local politicians throwing chestnuts and sweets from the terraces of the Town Hall to the crowds below gathered in the main square. On the 4 of December 1643 (a few decades after the expulsion), Castilian troops reconquered the castle from the French during the Catalan Revolt. According to local sources, following the capture of the town, its inhabitants chose a Morisco as a mayor and since his Christian faith was doubted, he accepted to be baptized in public after which the town erupted in festivities.
The Kingdom of Castile included also Extremadura and much of modern day Andalusia (particularly the Guadalquivir Valley). Morisco presence in most of its territory was scarce except in specific locations such as Hornachos, Arévalo or Cinco Villas[disambiguation needed] where they were the majority or even the totality of the population. Castille's Moriscos were practically indistinguishable from the Catholic population: They did not speak Arabic and a large number of them were genuine Christians. The mass arrival of the much more visible Morisco population deported from Granada to the lands under the Kingdom of Castile led to a radical change in the situation of Castilian Moriscos, despite their efforts to distinguish themselves from the Granadans. For example, marriages between Castile Moriscos and "old" Christians were much more common than between the former and Granada moriscos. The town of Hornachos was an exception, not only because practically all of its inhabitants were Moriscos but because of their open practice of the Islamic faith and of their famed independent and indomitable nature. For this reason, the order of expulsion in Castile targeted specifically the "Hornacheros", the first Castilian Moriscos to be expelled and who maintained their combative nature overseas, founding the Corsary Republic of Rabat and Salé in modern day Morocco.
In the medieval period al-Andalus Muslims who had come under Iberian Christian rule, as a result of the incremental Reconquista, were known as Mudéjars. The religious minorities were tolerated as inferiors. The victory of the Catholic Monarchs in the Battle of Granada in 1492 ended the last Islamic rule and al-Andalus territory on the Iberian peninsula. The pre-established Treaty of Granada (1491) guaranteed religious and cultural freedoms for Muslims and Jews in the imminent transition from Emirate of Granada to Province of Castile. The Alhambra Decree (1492) promptly rescinded the Jews' rights, expelling the observant Jews and leaving a population of conversos suspected of secretly practicing Judaism (crypto-Judaism) called Marranos. The Decree set a precedent for upcoming persecution and later expulsion of Muslims and Moriscos.
When Christian conversion efforts on the part of Granada's first archbishop, Hernando de Talavera, brought Muslim opposition, Cardinal Jimenez de Cisneros took stronger measures: with forced conversions, burning Islamic texts, and prosecuting many of Granada's Muslims. In response to these and other violations of the Treaty, Granada's Muslim population rebelled in 1499. The revolt lasted until early 1501, giving the Castilian authorities an excuse to void the terms of the Treaty for Muslims. In 1501 the terms of the Treaty of Granada protections were abandoned.
In 1501 Castilian authorities delivered an ultimatum to Granada's Muslims: they could either convert to Christianity or be expelled. Most did convert, in order not to have their property and small children taken away from them. Many continued to dress in their traditional fashion, speak Arabic, and secretly practiced Islam (crypto-Muslims). With the decline of Arabic culture, many used the aljamiado writing system, i.e., Castilian or Aragonese texts in Arabic writing with scattered Arabic expressions. In 1502, Queen Isabella I of Castile formally rescinded toleration of Islam for the entire Kingdom of Castile. In 1508, Castilian authorities banned traditional Granadan clothing. With the 1512 Spanish invasion of Navarre, the Muslims of Navarre were ordered to convert or leave by 1515.
However, King Ferdinand, as ruler of the Kingdom of Aragon, continued to tolerate the large Muslim population living in his territory. Since the crown of Aragon was juridically independent of Castile, their policies towards Muslims could and did differ during this period. Historians have suggested that the Crown of Aragon was inclined to tolerate Islam in its realm because the landed nobility there depended on the cheap, plentiful labor of Muslim vassals. However, the landed elite's exploitation of Aragon's Muslims also exacerbated class resentments. In the 1520s, when Valencian guilds rebelled against the local nobility in the Revolt of the Brotherhoods, the rebels "saw that the simplest way to destroy the power of the nobles in the countryside would be to free their vassals, and this they did by baptizing them."  The Inquisition and monarchy decided to prohibit the forcibly baptized Muslims of Valencia from returning to Islam. Finally, in 1526, King Charles V issued a decree compelling all Muslims in the crown of Aragon to convert to Catholicism or leave the Iberian Peninsula (Portugal had already expelled or forcibly converted its Muslims in 1497 and would establish its own Inquisition in 1536).
Faced with the threat of death or expulsion, thousands of Iberian Muslims converted to Christianity and became known as Moriscos.
Before the reign of King Philip II, some Moriscos rose to positions of wealth and prominence and wielded influence in society. Moreover, Aragonese and Valencian nobles in particular were interested in keeping their Morisco vassals under personal control; they tried to protect them from Inquisitorial prosecution by advocating patience and religious instruction. However, in 1567 Philip II changed tack. He directed Moriscos to give up their Arabic names and traditional dress, and prohibited the use of the Arabic language. In addition, the children of Moriscos were to be educated by Catholic priests. In reaction, there was a Morisco uprising in the Alpujarras from 1568 to 1571.
Spanish spies reported that the Ottoman Emperor Selim II was planning to attack Malta in the Mediterranean below Sicily, and from there advance to Spain. It was reported Selim wanted to incite an uprising among Spanish Moriscos. In addition, "some four thousand Turks and Berbers had come into Spain to fight alongside the insurgents in the Alpujarras", a region near Granada and an obvious military threat. "The excesses committed on both sides were without equal in the experience of contemporaries; it was the most savage war to be fought in Europe that century." After the Castilian forces defeated the Islamic insurgents, they expelled some eighty thousand Moriscos from the Granada Province. Most settled elsewhere in Castile. The 'Alpujarras Uprising' hardened the attitude of the monarchy. As a consequence, the Spanish Inquisition increased prosecution and persecution of Moriscos after the uprising.
French Huguenots were in contact with the Moriscos in plans against the House of Austria (Habsburgs), which ruled Spain in the 1570s. Around 1575, plans were made for a combined attack of Aragonese Moriscos and Huguenots from Béarn under Henri de Navarre against Spanish Aragon, in agreement with the king of Algiers and the Ottoman Empire, but these projects floundered with the arrival of John of Austria in Aragon and the disarmament of the Moriscos. In 1576, the Ottomans planned to send a three-pronged fleet from Istanbul, to disembark between Murcia and Valencia; the French Huguenots would invade from the north and the Moriscos accomplish their uprising, but the Ottoman fleet failed to arrive.
Toward the end of the 16th century, Morisco writers challenged the perception that their culture was alien to Spain. Their literary works expressed early Spanish history in which Arabic-speaking Spaniards played a positive role. Chief among such works is Verdadera historia del rey don Rodrigo by Miguel de Luna (c. 1545–1615).
At the instigation of the Duke of Lerma and the Viceroy of Valencia, Archbishop Juan de Ribera, Philip III expelled the moriscos from Spain between 1609 (Valencia) and 1614 (Castile). They were ordered to depart "under the pain of death and confiscation, without trial or sentence... to take with them no money, bullion, jewels or bills of exchange... just what they could carry." Estimates for the number expelled have varied, although contemporary accounts set the number at around 300,000 (about 4% of the Spanish population). The majority were expelled from the Crown of Aragon (modern day Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia), particularly from Valencia, where Morisco communities remained large, visible and cohesive; and Christian animosity was acute, particularly for economic reasons. Some historians have blamed the subsequent economic collapse of the Spanish Eastern Mediterranean coast on the region's inability to replace Morisco workers successfully with Christian newcomers. Many villages were totally abandoned as a result. New laborers were fewer in number and were not as familiar with local agricultural techniques. In the Kingdom of Castille (including Andalusia, Murcia and the former kingdom of Granada), by contrast, the scale of Morisco expulsion was much less severe. This was due to the fact that their presence was less felt as they made up a considerably smaller percentage of the total population, as well as the government ordered internal dispersion of Morisco communities after the War of the Alpujarras, making them a less distinct group that soon began to merge with and disappear into the wider society.
Adult Moriscos were often assumed to be covert Muslims (i.e. crypto-Muslims), but expelling their children presented Catholic Spain with a dilemma. As the children had all been baptized, the government could not legally or morally transport them to Muslim lands. Some authorities proposed that children should be forcibly separated from their parents, but sheer numbers showed this to be impractical. Consequently, the official destination of the expellees was generally stated to be France (more specifically Marseille). After the assassination of Henry IV in 1610, about 150,000 Moriscos were sent there. Most of the Moriscos migrated from Marseille to North Africa, with only about 40,000 settling permanently in France.
The overwhelming majority of the refugees settled in Muslim-held lands, mostly in the Ottoman Empire (Algeria, Tunisia) or Morocco. However they were ill-fitted with their Spanish language and European customs.
During the reign of Sultan Mohammed ash-Sheikh (1554–1557), the Turkish danger was felt on the eastern borders of Morocco and the sovereign, even though a hero of the holy war against Christians, showed a great political realism by becoming an ally of the King of Spain, still the champion of Christianity. Everything changed from 1609, when King Philip III of Spain decided to expel the Moriscos which, numbering about three hundred thousand, were converted Muslims who had remained Christian. Rebels, always ready to rise, they vigorously refused to convert and formed a state within a state. The danger was that with the Turkish pressing from the east, the Spanish authorities, who saw in them [the Moriscos] a "potential danger", decided to expel them, mainly to Morocco….
Scholars have noted that many Moriscos joined the Barbary Corsairs, who had a network of bases from Morocco to Libya. In the Corsair Republic of Sale, they became independent of Moroccan authorities and profited off of trade and piracy. Also, Morisco mercenaries in the service of the Moroccan sultan, using arquebuses, crossed the Sahara and conquered Timbuktu and the Niger Curve in 1591. Their descendants formed the ethnic group of the Arma. A Morisco worked as a military advisor for Sultan Al-Ashraf Tumanbay II of Egypt (the last Egyptian Mamluk Sultan) during his struggle against the Ottoman invasion in 1517 led by Sultan Selim I. The Morisco military advisor advised Sultan Tumanbay to use infantry armed with guns instead of depending on cavalry. Arabic sources recorded that Moriscos of Tunisia, Libya and Egypt joined Ottoman armies. Many Moriscos of Egypt joined the army in the time of Muhammad Ali of Egypt.
Numerous Moriscos remained in Spain, living among the Christian population. Some stayed on for genuine religious reasons, some for merely economic reasons. It is estimated that in the kingdom of Granada alone, between 10,000 and 15,000 Moriscos remained after the general expulsion of 1609.
The number of Moriscos which remained following the edict is subject to historical debate, although recent historians agree both that the original Morisco population and the number of them who avoided expulsion is higher than was previously thought.
According to Professor Dwight Reynolds "perhaps the most shocking thing in the expulsion is they were not actually expelling Arabs nor were they expelling Berbers. The huge majority of the people that were being expelled, by blood, by DNA if you will, were as Iberian as their Christian cousins in the North who were kicking them out of Peninsula".
Moriscos in Spain after the expulsion
It is impossible to know how many Moriscos remained after the expulsion, with traditional Spanish historiography considering that none remained and initial academic estimates such as those of Lapeyre offering figures as low as ten or fifteen thousand remaining. However, recent studies have been challenging the traditional discourse on the supposed success of the expulsion in purging Spain of its Morisco population. Indeed, it seems that expulsion met widely differing levels of success, particularly between the two major Spanish crowns of Castille and Aragón.
One of the earliest re-examinations of Morisco expulsion was carried out by Trevor J. Dadson in 2007, devoting a significant section to the expulsion in Villarrubia de los Ojos in southern Castille. Villarubia's entire morisco population were the target of three expulsions which they managed to avoid or from which they succeeded in returning from to their town of origin, being protected and hidden by their non-morisco neighbours. Dadson provides numerous examples, of similar incidents throughout Spain whereby Moriscos were protected and supported by non-moriscos and returned en masse from North Africa, Portugal or France to their towns of origin.
A similar study on the expulsion in Andalusia concluded it was an inefficient operation which was significantly reduced in its severity by resistance to the measure among local authorities and populations. It further highlights the constant flow of returnees from North Africa, creating a dilemma for the local inquisition who did not know how to deal with those who had been given no choice but to convert to Islam during their stay in Muslim lands as a result of the Royal Decree. Upon the coronation of Felipe IV, the new king gave the order to desist from attempting to impose measures on returnees and in September 1628 the Council of the Supreme Inquisition ordered inquisitors in Seville not to prosecute expelled moriscos "unless they cause significant commotion." 
An investigation published in 2012 sheds light on the thousands of moriscos who remained in the province of Granada alone, surviving both the initial expulsion to other parts of Spain in 1571 and the final expulsion of 1604. These moriscos managed to evade in various ways the royal decrees, hiding their true origin thereafter. More surprisingly, by the 17th and 18th centuries much of this group accumulated great wealth by controlling the silk trade and also holding about a hundred public offices. Most of these lineages were nevertheless completely assimilated over generations despite their endogamic practices. A compact core of active crypto-Muslims was prosecuted by the Inquisition in 1727, receiving comparatively light sentences. These convicts kept alive their identity until the late 18th century.
The attempted expulsion of Moriscos from Extremadura was deemed a failure, with the exception of the speedy expulsion of the Moriscos of the town of Hornachos who would become the founders of the Republic of Salé in modern day Morocco. Extremaduran Moriscos benefited from systematic support from authorities and society throughout the region and numerous moriscos avoiding deportation while whole communities such as those of Alcántara temporaliry shifted across the border to Portugal only to return later. The expulsion between 1609-1614 therefore did not come close to its objective of eliminating Morisco presence from the region.
Similar patterns are observed in a detailed examination of the Expulsion in the south eastern Region of Murcia, large swathes of which were of Morisco majority. Morisco integration had reached high levels at the time of expulsion, they formed a strong socio-economic block with complex family ties and good neighbourly relations. This resulted in the possibility of return, with few exceptions, to be offered and taken by a majority of Moriscos expelled. Although some were initially persecuted upon return, by 1622 they were no longer given any trouble from authorities.
Recent genetic studies of North African admixture among modern-day Spaniards have found high level of North African (Berber) and Sub-Saharan African admixture among Spanish and Portuguese populations as compared to the rest of southern and western Europe, and such admixture does not follow a North-South gradient as one would initially expect, but more of an East-West one. 
Unlike the Morisco diaspora in North Africa who have remained strongly aware and proud of their andalusi roots, Moriscos identity as a community was wiped out in Spain, be it via either expulsion or absorption by the dominant culture. Nevertheless, a journalistic investigation over the past years has uncovered existing communities in rural Spain (more specifically in the provinces of Murcia and Albacete) which seem to have maintained traces of their Islamic or Morisco identity, secretly practicing a debased form of Islam as late as the 20th century, as well as conserving Morisco customs and unusual Arabic vocabulary in their speech. 
The inneffectivness of the expulsion in the lands of Castille nevertheless contrasts with that of the Crown of Aragón (modern day Catalonia, Aragón and Valencian Community in Eastern Spain. Here the expulsion was accepted much more wholeheartedly and instances of evasion and/or return have so far not been considered demographically important. This explains why Spain was not affected on the whole by the expulsion whereas the Valencian Community was devastated and never truly recovered as an economic or political powerhouse of the kingdom, ceding its position, within the Crown of Aragón, to the Catalan counties to the north, which never had a sizeable Morisco population to begin with.
Genetic legacy of Moors in Spain
Spain's Morisco population was the last population who self-identified and traced its roots to the various waves of Muslim conquerors from North Africa, despite the fact that after eight centuries of Muslim rule in Spain, they did not differ significantly in ethnic terms from the wider Spanish population and in many cases -as in North African claims of family ancestry from Islamic Arabs- many of them were of Iberian stock converted to Islam, as some even from the elite Goths have done themselves. A number of studies have tried to find out the genetic impact of North African and Middle Eastern population movements on the modern Spanish and Portuguese ancestry, through comparison of genetic markers in Spain and Portugal with North Africa and the Near East. The most recent and thorough study about Moorish influence in the Iberian Peninsula was conducted April 2013 by Pompeu Fabra University using genome-wide SNP data for over 2000 individuals. This study concluded that parts of the Iberian Peninsula may hold small percentage of both North African and Sub-Saharan ancestry however these are at higher level than the rest of the European continent with a sharp difference between Iberia and Gaul. Estimates of shared ancestry with North African populations were found to be much higher than previously reported, accounting for up to 20% of those individuals tested, whereas these do not exceed 2% in Southern European populations outside Spain and Portugal and Italy existing in smaller percentages north of the Pyrenees.
Priorly, Capelli et al. 2009 reported that North African male haplogroups, especially E1b1b1b (E-M81), E1b1b1a-b (M78 derived chromosomes showing the rare DYS439 allele 10, or E-V65) and a subset of J1 (M267 derived), represented, on average, 7-8% of the current Iberian male lineages.
|Sample||N||E1b1b1b (M81)||E1b1b1a-b (V65)||J1 (subset)||Total %|
A number of studies focus on the genetic impact of the Morisco community on the modern Spanish population. Iberia has a significant presence of the typically North African Y-chromosome haplotype marker E-M81, less present in the rest of Europe. and Haplotype Va. A thorough Y-chromosome analysis of the Iberian peninsula reveals that haplotype E-M81 is present at frequencies of around 10% in Southern Iberia and much higher in the North of the peninsula. As for Mtdna analysis (Mitochondrial DNA), although present at only low levels, Iberia has much higher frequencies of typically North African Haplogroup U6 than those generally observed in Europe. It is difficult to ascertain whether U6's presence is the consequence of Islam's expansion into Europe during the Middle Ages, or it is rather the result of ancient demic processes that predate the Islamic presence, however the presence of it is confirmed through the testing of archaeological sites (from centuries prior to the birth of Islam) where human remains and animal ons have been tested positively "north-African".
According to a widely publicized recent study (December 2008) published in the American Journal of Human Genetics, 19.8 percent of modern Iberians (Spain + Portugal) have DNA reflecting Near Eastern and 10.6 percent having DNA reflecting North African ancestors. The study's speculation on Sephardic origin of the Levantine markers has been widely contested since it is likely that such markers also reflect other migrations, including Levantine Arabs, earlier Phoenician colonization or even population movements during the Neolithic. Chris Tyler-Smith, a collaborator with the team that carried the study, argues that the individual differences in Y-chromosome markers suggests a common ancestry more recent than several millennia.
According to another DNA study by the University of Leeds (2008) of the Y chromosome amongst the current population of Iberia suggests that 11% of Iberian males have traces of Moorish ancestry. Results regarding the "Jewish" genetic markers have come under similar criticism as the 2009 study mentioned above. Earlier genetic studies done in Spain estimated the Moorish contribution from a range of 2.5/3.4% to 7.7%.
Miguel de Cervantes' writings, such as Don Quixote and Conversation of the Two Dogs, offer ambivalent views of Moriscos. In the first part of Don Quixote (before the expulsion), a Morisco translates a found document containing the Arabic "history" that Cervantes is merely "publishing". In the second part, after the expulsion, Ricote is a Morisco and a former neighbor of Sancho Panza. He cares more about money than religion, and left for Germany, from where he returned as a false pilgrim to unbury his treasure. He admits, however, the righteousness of their expulsion. His daughter Ana Félix is brought to Berbery but suffers since she is a sincere Christian.
In historical studies of minoritisation, morisco is sometimes applied to other historical crypto-Muslims, in places such as Norman Sicily, 9th-century Crete, and other areas along the medieval Christian-Muslim frontier.
In the racial classification of colonial Spanish America, morisco was used as a term for the child of a mulatto and Spaniard.
Descendants and Spanish citizenship
In October 2006, the Andalusian Parliament asked the three parliamentary groups that form the majority to support an amendment that would ease the way for morisco descendants to gain Spanish citizenship. The proposal was originally made by IULV-CA, the Andalusian branch of the United Left. Spanish Civil Code Art. 22.1, in its current form, provides concessions to nationals of the Ibero-American countries, Andorra, the Philippines, Equatorial Guinea, and Portugal as well as to the descendants of Sephardic Jews expelled by Spain. It allows them to seek citizenship after two years rather than the customary ten years required for residence in Spain.
This measure could benefit about five million Moroccan citizens, who are considered to be descendants of moriscos. It could also benefit an indeterminate number of people in Algeria, Tunisia, Israel, Syria, Lebanon and Turkey. However, finding proof of Morisco ancestry is not easy, unlike what happens with Sephardic Jews, who still speak a language closely related to Spanish.
Since 1992 some Spanish and Moroccan historians and academics have been demanding equitable treatment for Moriscos similar to that offered to Sephardic Jews. The bid was welcomed by Mansur Escudero, the chairman of Islamic Council of Spain.
- Aben Humeya, leader of the Morisco revolt
- Al-Andalus, the part of the Iberian Peninsula under Islamic rule.
- Alhambra Decree
- Aljamiado, a Romance language written in Arabic characters.
- Almogavars, rough Christian soldiers
- Andalusian Arabic, the former language of Moriscoes.
- Conversos, the baptized Jews and Muslims of the Iberian Peninsula and their descendents.
- Forced conversion
- Hispano-Moresque ware
- Hornachos, a village inhabited by Moriscos.
- Limpieza de sangre, the rules of ethnic discrimination against Conversos.
- Marranos, baptized Jews
- Monfi, the Moriscos who lived from banditry
- Moorish Science Temple of America
- Moors, the Muslim inhabitants of the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa.
- Morisco Revolt
- Mozarabs, Christians under Islamic rule.
- Mozarabic language, the Romance language spoken in Al-Andalus.
- Mudéjar, Muslims under Christian rule
- Muladi, a Christian converted to Islam after the Islamic conquest
- Persecution of Muslims
- Philip III of Spain
- Reconquista, the conquest of Al-Andalus by the Christians of the North.
- Treaty of Granada (1491)
- Moriscos of Spain: Their Conversion and Expulsion, by H. C. Lea, (London 1901)
- Lynch, John (1969). Spain under the Habsburgs. (vol. 2). Oxford, England: Alden Mowbray Ltd. pp. 42–51.
- Stallaert, C. 1998
- Cultura Árabe, Moriscos y Cante Flamenco (in Spanish)
- Geografía de la España morisca, page 106, Biblioteca de Estudios Moriscos, Henry Lapeyre, Universitat de València, 2011, ISBN 843708413X, 9788437084138. It quotes Enrique Cock, Relación del viaje hecho por Felipe III en 1585 a Zaragoza, Barcelona y Valencia, Madrid, 1876, page 314
- The passage invites Spanish Moriscos or crypto-Muslims to continue fulfilling Islamic prescriptions and disguise (taqiyya), so they would be protected while showing public adherence to the Christian faith.
- Henry Kamen, Spanish Inquisition (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997, p. 216)
- Kamen, Spanish Inquisition, p. 224.
- Benjamin J. Kaplan, Divided by Faith, p.311
- Henry Charles Lea, The Moriscos of Spain: Their Conversion and Expulsion, p. 281
- L. P. Harvey, Muslims in Spain, 1500 to 1614, p. 343
- "Miguel de Luna", CervantesVirtual
- L. P. Harvey. Muslims in Spain, 1500 to 1614. University Of Chicago Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0-226-31963-6.
- H.C Lea, The Moriscos of Spain; op cit; p.345
- Bruno Etienne, "Nos ancêtres les Sarrasins", in « Les nouveaux penseurs de l’islam », Nouvel Observateur, hors série n° 54 du april/may 2004, pp. 22–23
- Francisque Michel, Histoire des races maudites de la France et de l'Espagne, Hachette, 1847, p.71
- René Martial, La race française, 1934, p.163
- Anwar G. Chejne, Islam and the West: The Moriscos, a Cultural and Social History, SUNY Press, 1983, p.13. Quote: "...it may be assumed that some 35,000 managed to remain."
- "La guerra de los moriscos en las Alpujarras". Retrieved 2006-11-26.
- Dwight F. Reynolds, When the Moors Ruled in Europe, Documentary, 2005
- Michel Boeglin: La expulsión de los moriscos de Andalucía y sus límites. El caso de Sevilla (1610-1613) (In Spanish)
- Europa Press News Agency: Experto descubre "linajes ocultos" de moriscos que se quedaron en Andalucía, a pesar de la orden de expulsión (In Spanish)
- Sánchez Rubio, Rocio; Testón Núñez, Isabel; Hernández Bermejo, Mª Ángeles: The expulsion of the Moriscos from Extremadura (1609-1614)
- Lisón Hernández, Luis: Mito y realidad en la expulsión de los mudéjares murcianos del Valle de Ricote
- Adams et alk.: The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula
- La Vanguardia, 12-Nov-2006. Los últimos de Al Andalus. En la sierra del Segura se mantiene el recuerdo de descendientes de moriscos que practicaban costumbres musulmanas. (Page 1) - (Page 2) (In Spanish)
- Gregorio Colás Latorre: Nueva mirada sobre la expulsión de los moriscos aragoneses y sus consecuencias
- Capelli, Cristian; Onofri, Valerio; Brisighelli, Francesca; Boschi, Ilaria; Scarnicci, Francesca; Masullo, Mara; Ferri, Gianmarco; Tofanelli, Sergio et al. (2009). "Moors and Saracens in Europe: Estimating the medieval North African male legacy in southern Europe". European Journal of Human Genetics 17 (6): 848–52. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.258. PMC 2947089. PMID 19156170. See table
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- "Reduced genetic structure of the Iberian peninsula revealed by Y-chromosome analysis: implications for population demography". European Journal of Human Genetics 12 (10): 855–63. 2004. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201225. PMID 15280900.
- Plaza, S.; Calafell, F.; Helal, A.; Bouzerna, N.; Lefranc, G.; Bertranpetit, J.; Comas, D. (2003). "Joining the Pillars of Hercules: mtDNA Sequences Show Multidirectional Gene Flow in the Western Mediterranean". Annals of Human Genetics 67 (Pt 4): 312–28. doi:10.1046/j.1469-1809.2003.00039.x. PMID 12914566.
- Pereira, Luisa; Cunha, Carla; Alves, Cintia; Amorim, Antonio (2005). "African Female Heritage in Iberia: A Reassessment of mtDNA Lineage Distribution in Present Times". Human Biology 77 (2): 213–29. doi:10.1353/hub.2005.0041. PMID 16201138.
- González, Ana M.; Brehm, Antonio; Pérez, José A.; Maca-Meyer, Nicole; Flores, Carlos; Cabrera, Vicente M. (2003). "Mitochondrial DNA affinities at the Atlantic fringe of Europe". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 120 (4): 391–404. doi:10.1002/ajpa.10168. PMID 12627534.
- Adams, Susan M.; Bosch, Elena; Balaresque, Patricia L.; Ballereau, Stéphane J.; Lee, Andrew C.; Arroyo, Eduardo; López-Parra, Ana M.; Aler, Mercedes et al. (2008). "The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula". The American Journal of Human Genetics 83 (6): 725–36. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.11.007. PMC 2668061. PMID 19061982. Lay summary – Science News (3 January 2009).
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- "La cifra de los sefardíes puede estar sobreestimada, ya que en estos genes hay mucha diversidad y quizá absorbieron otros genes de Oriente Medio" ("The Sephardic result may be overestimated, since there is much diversity in those genes and maybe absorbed other genes from the Middle East"). ¿Pone en duda Calafell la validez de los tests de ancestros? "Están bien para los americanos, nosotros ya sabemos de dónde venimos" (Puts Calafell in doubt the validity of ancestry tests? "They can be good for the Americans, we already know from where we come from). " 
- "El doctor Calafell matiza que (...) los marcadores genéticos usados para distinguir a la población con ancestros sefardíes pueden producir distorsiones". "ese 20% de españoles que el estudio señala como descendientes de sefardíes podrían haber heredado ese rasgo de movimiento más antiguos, como el de los fenicios o, incluso, primeros pobladores neolíticos hace miles de años." "Dr. Calafell clarifies that (...) the genetic markers used to distinguish the population with Sephardim ancestry may produce distortions. The 20% of Spaniards that are identified as having Sephardim ancestry in the study could have inherited that same marker from other population movements such as Arabs, Phoenicians, or even the first Neolithic settlers thousands of years ago" http://www.elmundo.es/elmundo/2008/12/04/ciencia/1228409780.html
- [dead link]
- Spanish Inquisition left genetic legacy in Iberia, New Scientist, December 4, 2008
- The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula, Adams et al. 2008
- Reduced genetic structure of the Iberian peninsula revealed by Y-chromosome analysis: implications for population demography, Flores et al. 2004
- Mitochondrial DNA affinities at the Atlantic fringe of Europe, Gonzalez et al. 2003
- Toward resolution of the debate regarding purported crypto-Jews in a Spanish-American population: evidence from the Y chromosome, Sutton et al. 2006
- "Despite alternative possible sources for lineages ascribed a Sephardic Jewish origin", 
- "We think it might be an over estimate" "The genetic makeup of Sephardic Jews is probably common to other Middle Eastern populations, such as the Phoenicians, that also settled the Iberian Peninsula, Calafell says. "In our study, that would have all fallen under the Jewish label."" http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/39056/title/Spanish_Inquisition_couldn%E2%80%99t_quash_Moorish,_Jewish_genes
- "El doctor Calafell matiza que (...) los marcadores genéticos usados para distinguir a la población con ancestros sefardíes pueden producir distorsiones". "ese 20% de españoles que el estudio señala como descendientes de sefardíes podrían haber heredado ese rasgo de movimiento más antiguos, como el de los fenicios o, incluso, primeros pobladores neolíticos hace miles de años." "Dr. Calafell clarifies that (...) the genetic markers used to distinguish the population with Sephardim ancestry may produce distortions" "that 20% of Spaniards that are accounted as having Sephardim ancestry in the study could have inherited that same marker from older movements like the Phoenicians, or even the first Neolithic settlers thousand of years ago" http://www.elmundo.es/elmundo/2008/12/04/ciencia/1228409780.html
- Propuesta de IU sobre derecho preferente de moriscos a la nacionalidad (Spanish)
- Código Civil (Spanish)
- Piden la nacionalidad española para los descendientes de moriscos (Spanish)
- La Junta Islámica pide para descendientes de moriscos la nacionalidad española (Spanish)
- Barletta, Vincent. Covert Gestures: Crypto-Islamic Literature as Cultural Practice in Early Modern Spain. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2005.
- Domínguez Ortiz, Antonio and Bernard Vincent. Historia de los moriscos: Vida y tragedia de una minoría. Madrid: Alianza, 1978.
- Drummond Braga, Isabel M. R. Mendes. Mouriscos e cristãos no Portugal quinhentista: Duas culturas e duas concepções religiosas em choque. Lisbon: Hugin, 1999.
- García-Arenal, Mercedes. Los moriscos. Madrid: Editora Nacional, 1975.
- Harvey, L. P. Muslims in Spain, 1500 to 1614. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.
- Mary Elizabeth Perry, The Handless Maiden: Moriscos and the Politics of Religion in Early Modern Spain, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 2005.
- Gerard A. Wiegers. Islamic Literature in Spanish and Aljamiado: Iça of Segovia (fl. 1450), His antecedents and Successors. Leiden: Brill, 1994.
- Bernabé Pons, Luis F., Los moriscos. Conflicto, expulsión y diáspora, Madrid: Catarata, 2009.
|Wikisource has the text of a 1905 New International Encyclopedia article about Morisco.|
- A web site is dedicated to the research and study of the Moriscos – Moriscos.org
- Alhadith, a web resource at Stanford University for students and scholars of Morisco language and culture
- 1911 Encyclopedia
- The expulsion of Muslims from Spain by Professor Roger Boase
- Columbia Encyclopedia
- Aljamiado-morisco manuscripts
- Treaty of Granada
- Moriscos culture influence in Morocco. Study in Spanish with Arabic translation
- ´The Moriscos of Spain, their conversion and expulsion´ by Lea, Henry Charles