Moroccan Quarter

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
The Moroccan Quarter between 1898 and 1946.

The Moroccan Quarter[1] or Mughrabi Quarter[2] (Arabic حارَة المَغارِبة Hārat al-Maghāriba, Hebrew: שכונת המוגרבים, Sh'khunat HaMughrabim) was an 770-year old neighborhood in the southeast corner of the Old City of Jerusalem, bordering on the western wall of the Temple Mount on the east, the Old City walls on the south (including the Dung Gate) and the Jewish Quarter to the west. It was an extension of the Muslim Quarter to the north, and was founded by a son of Saladin in the late 12th century.[3]

The quarter was razed three days after the Six-Day War in order to broaden the narrow alley leading to the Western Wall and prepare it for public access by Jews seeking to pray there.[4]

History[edit]

Mamluk era[edit]

According to the 15th-century historian Mujir ad-Din, the quarter was established in 1193 by Saladin's son al-Malik al-Afdal, as a waqf (charitable trust) dedicated to Moroccan immigrants; he also established a school there, the Afdaliyyah.[3] Later pious Moroccan donors extended this with several other waqfs: in 1303, one Umar ibn Abdullah ibn Abdun-Nabi al-Masmudi al-Mujarrad endowed the al-Masmudia zaouia (religious school) for the benefit of Moroccans living in the Moroccan Quarter, while in 1320 Shuayb ibn Muhammad ibn Shuayb, a grandson of the major Sufi Abu Madyan, endowed a second zaouia there to be funded by his lands at Ain Karim. In 1352, the Marinid sultan of Morocco, Abu Inan Faris, established a smaller waqf - a Qur'an donated to the al-Aqsa Mosque, together with a representative to ensure that it was read from regularly.[3][5]

Ottoman era[edit]

The Jewish and Moroccan quarters
Moroccan neighborhood dwellings bordering the Wailing Wall, 1898-1914

According to the French traveler Chateaubriand who visited in 1806, some of the residents of the quarter were descended from Moors who had been expelled from Spain in the late 15th century. They had been well received by the local community and a mosque had been built for them.[6] Residents of the neighborhood held on to their culture in the way of food, clothing and traditions until it became assimilated with the rest of the Old City in the 19th century.[7] Thus it also became a natural place of stay to Moroccans who came on pilgrimage to the al-Aqsa Mosque.[7]

Taxation registers listed 13 households in the quarter in 1525–6, 69 households, 1 bachelor and 1 imam in 1538–9, 84 households and 11 bachelors in 1553–4, 130 households and 2 bachelors in 1562–3, and 126 households and 7 bachelors in 1596–7.[8]

Over the years a small number of schools, scientific institutions[dubious ] and mosques were established in the quarter and Muslim clerics who performed religious duties at the al-Aqsa Mosque lived there.[7]

Buildings in the quarter were only four meters away from the Wailing Wall (now known as the Western Wall), a remnant of the Second Temple plaza and the holiest most important place of pilgrimage for Jews. Public access to the wall was through a narrow passage from King David's Street, sometimes leading to disputes between the Jewish worshipers, jostling for space, and the residents, who complained of the noise.[9] The Moroccans, who regarded the Jews as infidels, subjected them to harassment and extracted payment in return for allowing them to pray undisturbed.[10]

In an account of his travels to the Holy Land in 1845, T. Tobler noted the existence of a mosque in the Moroccan quarter.[11]

In 1887 an attempt to buy the Moroccan Quarter was made by Baron Rothschild who conceived a plan to purchase the quarter and rebuild it as "a merit and honor to the Jewish People"[12] and to rehouse the inhabitants in better accommodation elsewhere.[13] The proposed purchase was approved by the Ottoman Governor of Jerusalem, Rauf Pasha, and by the Mufti of Jerusalem, Mohammed Tahir Husseini. After permission was obtained from the highest secular and Muslim religious authority[who?] to proceed, the plan was shelved because authorities[who?] banned any construction there, only permitting the planting of trees to beautify the area. Additionally they would not allow Jews to have full control over the area, as they might ask people to stop using the plaza for various activities that disturbed the worshipers, such as "driving mules." [12] Other reports claim the plan fell through because of speculations that it would trigger a negative Arab reaction.[14]

In the first two months after the Ottoman Empire’s entry into the First World War, the Turkish governor of Jerusalem, Zakey Bey, offered to sell the Moroccan Quarter, which consisted of about 25 houses, to the Jews in order to enlarge the area available to them for prayer. He requested a sum of £20,000 which would be used to both rehouse the Muslim families and to create a public garden in front of the Wall. However, the Jews of the city lacked the necessary funds.[15]

British Mandate era[edit]

In 1918, Chaim Weizmann, then a prominent Zionist leader, sent a letter to the Foreign and Commonwealth Office asking for the quarter to be vacated and the wall placed under Jewish ownership; however, the British maintained the status quo ante. The wall as well as the Moroccan Quarter remained Waqf property, while Jews retained their longstanding right to visit it.[citation needed] After the 1929 Palestine riots, Great Britain appointed a commission under the approval of the League of Nations to settle the issue. The Commission again reaffirmed the status quo, while placing certain restrictions on activities, including forbidding Jews from conducting the Yom Kippur prayers, which involved the blowing of the Shofar, and Muslims from carrying out the Zikr ceremony (the playing of music) close to the wall or to cause annoyance to the Jews.[9]

Jordanian era[edit]

When Jordanian forces occupied the Old City in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, 1,500 Jewish residents were expelled from the Jewish Quarter.[1] Both the Jewish quarter and the Moroccan quarter were largely destroyed in the fighting.[16]

In 1965, Palestinian squatters in Jewish properties on the edge of the Moroccan Quarter were evicted by the Jordanian government and resettled in the Shuafat refugee camp, four kilometers north of the Old City.[1]

State of Israel[edit]

Clearing the plaza in front of the "Wailing Wall", July 1967

On the evening of 10 June 1967, three days after the Six Day War, 650 residents of the Moroccan Quarter were told to vacate their homes on short notice. Workers guarded by soldiers first demolished a public lavatory, and then the remaining buildings,[17] which included 135 houses and the Bou Medyan zaouia. Some of the residents refused to leave until their homes were collapsing. An elderly woman discovered in the rubble died soon after.[18]

The Sheikh Eid Mosque, one of the few mosques remaining from the time of Saladin was also destroyed.[19]

The demolition was approved by the Mayor of Jerusalem Teddy Kollek, who wrote about it in his 1978 autobiography.[20][21] In a letter to the United Nations, the Israeli government stated that the buildings were demolished after the Jordanian government had allowed the neighborhood to become a slum area.[22] The work was done quickly in anticipation of a huge crowd of Jewish worshipers, who would be able to pray at the wall for the first time in 19 years.[1][21] Lieutenant Colonel Yaakov Salman, the deputy military governor in charge of the operation, aware of possible legal trouble on account of the Geneva Convention, had brought documents from the East Jerusalem municipality testifying to the poor sanitary conditions in the neighborhood and Jordanian plans to eventually evacuate it.[17]

On April 18, 1968, the Israeli government expropriated the land for public use and paid 200 Jordanian dinars to each family that had been displaced.[1][20] A group of former residents wrote to Kollek to thank him for his assistance in resettling them in better housing conditions.[23]

A complex of buildings close to the wall, that included Madrasa Fakhriya and the house that the Abu al-Sa'ud family had occupied since the 16th century, were spared in the 1967 destruction, but demolished in 1969.[24][25]

The prayer site was extended southwards to double its length from 28 to 60 meters, and the original plaza of four meters to 40 meters: the small 120 square meter area in front of the wall became the Western Wall Plaza, now in use as an open-air synagogue covering 20,000 square meters.[20]

In the post-1967 period, many of the residents returned to Morocco with the assistance of King Hassan II.[1] Other families resettled in Shuafat refugee camp and other parts of Jerusalem.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g T. Abowd, The Moroccan Quarter: A History of the Present, in: Jerusalem Quarterly File (Institute of Jerusalem Studies), no. 7 (2000), pp. 6-16 [1] (retrieved October 16, 2012)
  2. ^ Alternative spelling reported by :
     · The Legacy of Solomon. Retrieved November 28, 2012. 
     · Henry Cattan. The Palestine Question. Retrieved November 28, 2012. 
     · Annelies Moors. Discourse and Palestine: Power, Text and Context. Retrieved November 28, 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c F. E. Peters (1984). Jerusalem. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. pp. 357–359, 394–396. "one of the best documented endowments, one that embraced the entire quarter of Western muslims or Maghrebis" 
  4. ^ M. Dumper, Jerusalem: Then and Now, in Middle East Reeport, 182 [2] : "On June 10, 1967, within days of the Israeli occupation of Jerusalem, Israeli authorities flattened an area between the Western Wall and the Jewish Quarter known as the Harat al-Magharibeh, or Moroccan Quarter, and forced the Palestinian inhabitants to leave."
  5. ^ Abdul Latif Tibawi (1978). The Islamic Pious Foundations in Jerusalem. London: The Islamic Cultural Centre. pp. 10–15. 
  6. ^ François-René Chateaubriand (1812). Travels in Greece, Palestine, Egypt, and Barbary During the Years 1806 and 1807 2. Translated by Frederic Shorberl. p. 89. 
  7. ^ a b c "The Moroccan Community in Palestine", Noura al-Tijani, This Week In Palestine (retrieved August 25, 2007)
  8. ^ Amnon Cohen and Bernard Lewis (1978). Population and Revenue in the Towns of Palestine in the Sixteenth Century. Princeton University Press. pp. 81–91. 
  9. ^ a b "Report from the International Commission for the Wailing Wall", December 1930 (available as UN doc A/7057 - S/8427 at UNISPAL)
  10. ^ Jerusalem in the Nineteenth Century: The Old City, Yehoshua Ben-Arieh, Yad Yitzhak Ben Zvi and St. Martin's Press, 1984 p.157
  11. ^ Jerusalem in the Nineteenth Century: The Old City, Yehoshua Ben-Arieh, Yad Yitzhak Ben Zvi and St. Martin's Press, 1984 p.162-163
  12. ^ a b Rossoff, Dovid (1998). "Beyond the Walls: 1870–1900". Where Heaven Touches Earth. Jerusalem: Guardian Press. pp. g.331. ISBN 0-87306-879-3. 
  13. ^ Martin Gilbert (2008). The Routledge Historical Atlas of Jerusalem: Fourth Edition. Routledge. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-415-43343-3. Retrieved 29 May 2013. 
  14. ^ Stockman-Shomron, Israel (1984). "Jerusalem in Islam: Faith and Politics". Israel, the Middle East and the Great Powers. Transaction Publishers. pp. g.43. ISBN 965-287-000-5. 
  15. ^ Gilbert, Martin (1996). "War, 1914–1917". Jerusalem in the Twentieth Century. London: Chatto & Windus. pp. g.42. ISBN 0-7011-3070-9. 
  16. ^ Israel cements ownership of Jewish Quarter in Jerusalem's Old City
  17. ^ a b Occupied territories: the untold stories of Israel's settlements, Gershom Gorenberg
  18. ^ Tom Segev (2007). 1967. Metropolitan Books. pp. 400–401. 
  19. ^ Nit Hasson (June 15, 2012). "Rare photograph reveals ancient Jerusalem mosque destroyed in 1967". Haaretz. 
  20. ^ a b c "Simone RIcca: Heritage, Nationalism and the Shifting Symbolism of the Wailing Wall", Jerusalem Quarterly (Summer 2005/24), Institute of Jerusalem Studies (retrieved August 17, 2007)
  21. ^ a b "Teddy Kollek and the Native Question", Joost R. Hiltermann, Middle East Report 05-06/1993 (available at Archived December 1, 1998 at the Wayback Machine)
  22. ^ Letter to the Secretary General, letter from the Permanent Representative of Israel to the United Nations, March 6, 1968 (retrieved August 25, 2007)
  23. ^ Yonah Alexander; Nicholas N. Kittrie (June 1973). Crescent and star: Arab & Israeli perspectives on the Middle East conflict. AMS Press. p. 275. ISBN 978-0-404-10522-8. Retrieved 29 May 2013. "The following is the text of a letter dated 8 January 1968, addressed by forty-one heads of families to the Mayor of Jerusalem, Mr. Kollek: We, the undersigned, who constitute part of the residents of the Jewish Quarter and of the Moroccan Quarter in the Old City, who were evacuated from our homes there as a result of the six-day-war, wish to thank His Honor, as well as Mr. Meron Benvenisti, in charge of East Jerusalem, and Mr. Faris Ayub, head of the public relations bureau in the eastern part of the city, for the financial aid and human care which was extended and is still being extended to us, which impressed us profoundly and which afforded us and our families more decent alternative accommodations. We pray God will grant you long life and a continuance of your good deeds." 
  24. ^ Reinventing Jerusalem:Israel's Reconstruction of the Jewish Quarter after 1967, Simone Ricca, pp. 67–113
  25. ^ Robert Schick. "Mamluk and Ottoman Jerusalem". In Gideon Avni and Katharina Galor. Unearthing Jerusalem : 150 Years of Archaeological Research in the Holy City. pp. 475–490. 

Coordinates: 31°46′35.93″N 35°14′2.75″E / 31.7766472°N 35.2340972°E / 31.7766472; 35.2340972