Moroccan citron

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Moroccan citron
Species C. medica

The Moroccan sweet citron (Hebrew: אֶתְרוֹג מָרוֹקָנִי‎) is a true citron variety that is native to Assads in Morocco, which is still today its main center of cultivation.


It was first described in detail by the Moroccan professor Henri Chapot, along with illustrations of many forms, and all details of the shrub, leaves and flowers. He discovered that the acidity in the more common citrons or lemons, is represented by violet pigmentation on the outer side of the flower blossom, and also by the new buds that are reddish-purplish. The Moroccan citron which is acidless is completely lacking the red color.

This designation was cited by Herbert John Webber and Leon Dexter Batchelor the editors of the fundamental treatise on citrus, namely The Citrus Industry, which was published by the University of California, Riverside in 1967.[1]

Chapot also mentions that the true citron of Morocco, which is only grown in the region of Assads, is much different then the citron hybrid, Rhobs el Arsa, that is more commonly grown in the entire country of Morocco.[2]

Use as etrog[edit]

The exact date when the variety came into use for etrog is unknown. According to the local Jewry, it was with them since they were exiled to Morocco after the destruction of the Second Temple. From then on it was highly revered by all the rabbis and communities of North Africa, without any interruption or controversy.[3] During time, it got accepted also by Ashkenazi communities all over Europe.[4]

Berbers at their etrog plantations.

The precise location of cultivation is at the village Assads in the Taroudant Province, and a 100 km east of Agadir, as was numerously reported by rabbinical and secular sources.

In 1995, professor Eliezer E. Goldschmidt together with a delegation of rabbis were hired by rabbi Yosef Shalom Eliashiv of Jerusalem, Israel, to check out if Morocco is still in the same state of kashrut, and if any grafted etrog is to be found over there. Goldschmidt asked the Moroccan professor of horticulture, namely Mohamed El-Otmani from Agadir, to assist.

Berber peasants climbing up the steep mountain at the way to their orchards.

All together they climbed up the Anti-Atlas canyon where the local Berbers have been cultivating the Moroccan citron for many centuries, and they were very impressed from the old tradition which is practiced there, finding not one grafted citron tree. (Grafted citrons are not kosher for ritual use on the biblical Jewish holiday Sukkot, according to Jewish religious laws, halakha.[5])

The delegation presented their finding to Eliashiv, who was very happy about the information that the Moroccan wilderness still presents the unbroken lineage, of a non-grafted etrog.

The lack of seeds[edit]

However in 1960, Schraga Schlomai, a renowned etrog grower[6] recounted the misfortunes of all the used etrog types besides the one he was growing, which he claimed to be a descendant of the Balady citron from Umm al-Fahm.

A Moroccan citron with vertically pointing seeds.

As to the Diamante citron (Yanova) and the Greek citron (Corfu), he argued based on the booklet from the Salant partners, that since some of them are proven to be grafted, no certification may be granted to the rest, since it is impossible to determine if the non-grafted citrons are not descendents of the grafted ones.

As to the Moroccan and Yemenite citron he argued, that although there were no grafted trees ever discovered among those kinds, they should be unfit, in light of the differentiation from the Ashkenazi types. The Moroccan citron is allegedly noted for its seedlessness, and the Yemenite for its pulplessness, both are too much different in morphology from the usual Yanova and Israeli esrogs.[7]

He was then disputed by rabbi Shmuel David Munk in his responsa "Pe'ath Sadcha" chapter 62, that at least with those who are surely ungrafted, the differentials cannot regret them, since the etrog of one country must not match the morphology of that of another origin.

In 1980, when the market in Brooklyn, New York, changed very much in favor of the Moroccan, rabbi Yekusiel Yehudah Halberstam, the Klausenberger Rebbe, banned the Moroccan citron for religious use.[8] His ruling (printed in 1980) was based on the fact that some of them have no seeds, and seeing that the Shiyurei Kneseth haGedola (Orach Chaim 648) discuses what direction the seeds should be facing to prove their purity, he concluded that an authentic citron should always be seedy.

The seeds of the Moroccan citron are actually facing utmost vertically as required, and the partial seedlessness cannot be a result of graft, as the trees were already checked various times, as being completely free of any grafting.

As to natural hybridization that may have occurred to certain types of citron, and should result in genetic and morphological changes, it is very unlikely in light of the DNA comparison conducted by Goldschmidt among researchers around the globe, where it was found to be extremely similar to the Yemenite citron and the rest of kosher etrogs.[9]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Available online at The Citrus Industry
  2. ^ Un curieux cedrat Marocain (1950) Rev. Intl. Bot. Appl. Agr. Trop. 30:506–514.
  3. ^ Website from North African Rabbi
  4. ^ HaLevanon 11 no 7, page 2, Rabbi Yakov Ettlinger about Moroccan Etrog.
    • HaLevanon 13, no 3 Nathan Adler, rabbi of London, and Yakov Sapir about Moroccan etrogs in 1876 - go right away to page 5
  5. ^ Aruch Hashulchan 648;27
  6. ^ who republished the "Pri Etz Hadar" booklet that was originally authored by the Salant partners in 1962, see his introduction with the name "Davar el haKorei"
  7. ^ דבר אל הקורא, שרגא שלומאי, תשכ"ב
  8. ^ Letters of Shefa Chaim, Vol. 1 No. 34
  9. ^ Search Authentic Citron