Moroccan dirham

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Moroccan dirham
درهم مغربي (Arabic)
ISO 4217 code MAD
Central bank Bank Al-Maghrib
 Website www.bkam.ma
User(s)  Morocco (All places it has sovereignty over)
Inflation 2%
 Source The World Factbook, 2007 est.
Subunit
 1/100 santim
Symbol د.م.
Coins 1, 5, 10, 20 & 50 santimat, ½, 1, 2, 5 & 10 dirhams
 Rarely used 5 santimat
Banknotes 20, 50, 100 & 200 dirhams

The dirham (Arabic: درهم, plural: دراهم‎) is the currency of Morocco. The plural form is pronounced darahim, although in French and English "dirhams" is commonly used. Its ISO 4217 code is "MAD". It is subdivided into 100 santimat (singular: santim, Arabic singular: سنتيم, plural: سنتيما or سنتيمات). The dirham is issued by the Bank Al-Maghrib, the central bank of Morocco.

History[edit]

Before the introduction of a modern coinage in 1882, Morocco issued copper coins denominated in falus, silver coins denominated in dirham & gold coins denominated in benduqi. From 1882, the dirham became a subdivision of the Moroccan rial, with 50 Mazunas = 10 dirham = 1 rial.

When most of Moroccon became a French protectorate in 1912 it switched to the Moroccan franc. The dirham was reintroduced on 16 October 1960.[1] It replaced the franc as the major unit of currency but, until 1974, the franc continued to circulate, with 1 dirham = 100 francs. In 1974, the santim replaced the franc.[2]

Coins[edit]

In 1960, silver 1 dirham coins were introduced. These were followed by nickel 1 dirham and silver 5 dirham coins in 1965. In 1974, with the introduction of the santim, a new coinage was introduced in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 santimat and 1 dirham. The 1 santim coins were aluminium, the 5 up to 20 santimat were minted in brass, with the highest two denominations in cupro-nickel. Cupro-nickel 5 dirham coins were added in 1980 and changed to a bi-metal coin in 1987. The bi-metal coins bear two year designations for the issue date—1987 in the Gregorian calendar and the 1407 in the Islamic calendar. The 1 santim was only minted until 1987 when new designs were introduced, with a ½ dirham replacing the 50 santimat without changing the size or composition. The new 5 dirham coin was bimetallic, as was the 10 dirham coin introduced in 1995. Cupro-nickel 2 dirham coins were introduced in 2002. In 2011, a new series of coins has been issued, with the 5 and 10 dirham coin utilizing a latent image as a security feature.[3]

Dirham Coins [4]
Value Technical parameters Description
Diameter Mass Composition Edge Obverse Reverse
1 santim 17 mm 0.7 g Aluminium Smooth Arms of the Kingdom and inscription "Kingdom of Morocco" Design of fishing
5 santimat 17.5 mm 2 g Aluminium bronze
92% copper
6% aluminium
2% nickel
Smooth Arms of the Kingdom and inscription "Kingdom of Morocco" Fish in a fishing net under a boat tiller
10 santimat 20 mm 3 g Nordic gold
89% copper
5% aluminium
5% zinc
1% tin
Reeded An ear of corn
20 santimat 23 mm 4 g Reeded Design representing a Fibule
½ dirham 21 mm 4 g Cupronickel
75% copper
25% nickel
Reeded Arms of the Kingdom and inscription "Kingdom of Morocco" Design representing communications and new technology
1 dirham 24 mm 6 g Reeded Mohammed VI (earlier issues show Hassan II) Arms of the Kingdom and inscription "Kingdom of Morocco"
2 dirhams 26 mm 7 g Reeded Mohammed VI
5 dirhams 25 mm 7.5 g Ring: Cupronickel (as 1 dirham)
Center: 70% Cu 24.5% Zn 5.5% Ni
Reeded Mohammed VI (earlier issues show Hassan II)
10 dirhams 28 mm 12 g Ring: Aluminium bronze (as 5 santimat)
Center: Cupronickel (as 1 dirham)
Reeded Mohammed VI (earlier issues show Hassan II) Arms of the Kingdom and inscription "Kingdom of Morocco"
For table standards, see the coin specification table.

Banknotes[edit]

The first notes denominated in dirham were overprints on earlier franc notes, in denominations of 50 dirham (on 5000 francs) and 100 dirham (on 10,000 francs). In 1965, new notes were issued for 5, 10 and 50 dirham. 100 dirham notes were introduced in 1970, followed by 200 dirham notes in 1991 and 20 dirham in 1996. 5 dirham notes were replaced by coins in 1980, with the same happening to 10 dirham notes in 1995. In mid-October 2009, Bank Al-Maghrib issued four million 50-dirham banknotes to commemorate the bank's 50th anniversary. The commemorative note measures 147 x 70 mm and features the portraits of Kings Mohammed VI, Hassan II, and Mohammed V. The back of the notes features the headquarters of Bank Al-Maghrib in Rabat. The speech delivered in 1959 by Mohammed V at the opening of Bank Al-Maghrib is microprinted on the back.[5]

In December 2012, Bank-Al Maghrib issued a 25-dirham banknote to commemorate the 25th anniversary of banknote production at the Moroccan State Printing Works, Dar As-Sikkah. It is the first banknote in the world to be printed on Durasafe, a paper-polymer-paper composite substrate produced by Fortress Paper. The front of the commemorative note features an intaglio vignette and a watermark of King Mohammed VI, and a magenta-green color shift security thread. The thread, like the watermark, is embedded inside the banknote yet visible behind a one-sided Viewsafe polymer window. It also has a fully transparent polymer window embossed with the King's royal crest. The back of the note carries a print vignette commemorating 25 years of banknote printing at the Moroccan State Printing Works, Dar As-Sikkah. The windows in Durasafe are formed by die cutting each side of the three layer composite substrate separately. One-sided Viewsafe windows give a clear view inside the substrate where the thread and the watermark of King Mohammed VI are protected, but fully visible behind the polymer core. The transparent Thrusafe window is created by die-cutting both the outer paperlayers to reveal only the transparent polymer core.[6]

On August 15, 2013, Bank Al-Maghrib has announced a new series of banknotes. The notes feature a portrait of King Mohammed VI and the royal crown. Each of the notes show a Moroccan door to the left of the portrait, demonstrating the richness of the country's architectural heritage, and symbolizing the openness of the country.[7][8][9][10]

Dirham Banknotes [11]
1987 Series (Including 1991 Revision)
Value Dimensions Obverse Reverse Main Colour Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Watermark printing issue
10 dirhams 143 × 70 mm 10 dirham.jpg 10 dirham back.jpg Yellow and pink (1987)
violet (1991)
Hassan II Moroccan lute, pillar Hassan II 1987 1987/ca. 1991
50 dirhams 148 × 70 mm 50 dirham.jpg 50 dirham back.jpg Green Hassan II A fantasia scene Hassan II 1987 1987/ca. 1991
100 dirhams 153 × 75 mm 100 dirham.jpg 100 dirham back.jpg Brown Hassan II The Green March into the Spanish Sahara (October, 1975), Desert rose Hassan II 1987 1987/ca. 1991
200 dirhams 158 × 75 mm Front 200 Dirham.jpg Back 200 Dirham.jpg Blue Hassan II Conch shell, a branch of coral, and a Dhow. Hassan II 1987 ca. 1991
1996 Series
20 dirhams 130 × 68 mm 20 dirham 1996.jpg 20 dirham 1996 back.jpg Brown-reddish Hassan II, Great mosque of Casablanca Wall fountain of the Hassan II Mosque Hassan II 1996 1996
2002 Series
20 dirhams 140 × 70 mm [1] [2] Violet Mohammed VI, "Bab Challah" (Challah gate) in Rabat A panoramical view of the Oudayas Mohammed VI and "20" 2005 2005
50 dirhams 147 × 70 mm [3] [4] Green Mohammed VI A clay-made building (Ksour) Mohammed VI and "50" 2002 2002
100 dirhams 150 × 78 mm [5] [6] Brown Mohammed VI, Mohammed V and Hassan II The Green March into the Spanish Sahara (October, 1975) Mohammed VI and "100" 2002 2002
200 dirhams 158 × 78 mm [7] [8] Blue Mohammed VI and Hassan II, Grand mosque of Casablanca A window of the Hassan II Mosque, Lighthouse of Casablanca (Pointe el-Hank) Mohammed VI and "200" 2002 2002
2013 Series
20 dirhams 131 x 70 mm [9] [10] Purple, orange and blue Mohammed VI, coat of arms of Morocco Train crossing Hassan II Bridge over the Bou Regreg river in Rabat; Hassan II Mosque and city buildings in Casablanca Mohammed VI and electrotype 20 2012 2013
50 dirhams 138 x 70 mm [11] [12] Green, yellow and blue Mohammed VI, coat of arms of Morocco Ouzoud Falls; tree, fruit, and bird Mohammed VI and electrotype 50 2012 2013
100 dirhams 145 x 70 mm Brown, yellow, violet and blue Mohammed VI; coat of arms of Morocco Touareg tent; wind turbine farm; three camels with riders on a desert Mohammed VI and electrotype 100 2012 2012
200 dirhams 151 x 70 mm [13] [14] Blue, green and violet Mohammed VI; coat of arms of Morocco Cargo ship, gantry cranes, and shipping containers in the port of Tangier; lighthouse and trees on Cape Spartel in Tangier Mohammed VI and electrotype 200 2012 2012

Popular denominations and usage[edit]

Popular denominations are words widely used in Morocco to refer to different values of the currency; they are not considered official by the state, though. Those include the rial (Arabic pronunciation: [rjal]), equivalent to 5 santimat, and the franc [frˤɑnk], equivalent to 1 santim. Usually, when dealing with goods with a value lower than a dirham, it is common to use the rial or santim. For very high priced goods, such as cars, it is normative to refer to the price in santimat. However, rial is used when speaking in Arabic and centime when speaking in French. Though not used by the young generation, the denomination 1000, 2000, ... to 100,000 francs will be used by people who lived during the French colonial period when referring to 10, 20 and 1000 dirham. Likewise, rial is also used for higher value than portions of the dirham, reaching 5000 dhs (100,000 rial). This denomination is used in Moroccan arabic speaking context, especially in popular milieu such as old medina souks or vegetable markets.

50 dirhams and Ksour in the background
Current MAD exchange rates
From Google Finance: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD
From Yahoo! Finance: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD
From XE.com: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD
From OANDA.com: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD
From fxtop.com: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Linzmayer, Owen (2013). "Morocco". The Banknote Book. San Francisco, CA: www.BanknoteNews.com. 
  2. ^ Krause and Mishler, 1995 Standard Catalog of World Coins, krause publications
  3. ^ Morocco 2011 - New coin series WorldCoinNews.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2011-10-15.
  4. ^ "Bank Al-Maghrib". Bkam.ma. Retrieved 2013-06-25. 
  5. ^ Morocco new 50-dirham commemorative confirmed BanknoteNews.com. Retrieved 2012-06-06.
  6. ^ Morocco new 25-dirham commemorative world's first printed on Durasafe substrate BanknoteNews.com. February 1, 2013. Retrieved on 2013-02-02.
  7. ^ Morocco new 20-, 50-, 100-, and 200-dirham notes to be issued 15.08.2013 BanknoteNews.com. July 25, 2013. Retrieved on 2013-07-26.
  8. ^ Morocco new 200-dirham note confirmed BanknoteNews.com. August 26, 2013. Retrieved on 2013-09-04.
  9. ^ Morocco new 100-dirham note confirmed BanknoteNews.com. September 16, 2013. Retrieved on 2013-09-18.
  10. ^ Morocco new 20- and 50-dirham notes confirmed BanknoteNews.com. December 28, 2013. Retrieved on 2014-01-15.
  11. ^ "Bank Al-Maghrib". Bkam.ma. Retrieved 2013-06-25. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]