||This article may primarily relate to a different subject, or to only one aspect rather than the subject as a whole. (January 2014)|
1st row: Ahmad al-Mansur • Hassan I of Morocco • Leo Africanus • Ibn Battuta • Karim al-Khattabi • Marcellus of Tangier
Rajae El Mouhandiz • Jamel Debbouze • Loreen • Hassan Hakmoun • Ahmed Aboutaleb • Younes El Aynaoui
|Regions with significant populations|
|United Arab Emirates||7,400|
|Predominantly Arabic and Berber.|
|Predominantly Sunni, Nondenominational Muslims, Muwahhid, Zahiri Muslim and Sufi Islam, Judaism, Christianity.|
In addition to the 33 million Moroccans in Morocco, there are large migrant populations of Moroccan origins in France, Belgium, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Libya, and smaller groups in United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Arab states of the Persian Gulf.
Morocco is a country with a multiethnic society. Throughout Moroccan history, Morocco has hosted many peoples, in addition to the indigenous Berbers, coming from the East (Phoenicians, Arabs), South (Sub-Saharan African), and North (Romans, Vandals, Spanish-Andalusians both Muslims and Jewish). All of these have left an impact on the social structure of Morocco. It has also hosted many forms of beliefs, from Paganism, Judaism, Christianity to Islam. Each region possesses its own uniqueness, contributing to the national culture. Morocco has set among its top priorities, the protection of its diversity, and the preservation of its cultural heritage.
According to the leading evolutionary theory of human origins, known as the Out of Africa theory, anatomically modern humans first emerged in Africa 150,000–200,000 years ago. All non-Africans are descended from at least one group of humans who migrated out of Africa into western Asia 50,000–70,000 years ago. The first modern humans in Europe, the Cro-Magnons, arrived from north-west Africa and are believed to have completely replaced the previous inhabitants, the Neanderthals. Cro-Magnons are known as Ibero-Maurisians or Mechta-Afalou people; they were in Morocco 45,000 years ago. They probably evolved from the Aterians, the Cro-Magnon people who had populated much of North Africa. There was a massive major human migration from Morocco, and this Paleolithic population was weakly mixed with later Capsian migrations during the Neolithic Era. This prehistoric population survived isolated in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco, known in our time as Berbers.
The area of present-day Morocco has been inhabited since Paleolithic times, sometime between 90,000 and 190,000 BC. During the Upper Paleolithic, the Maghreb was more fertile than it is today, resembling a savanna more than today's arid landscape. 22,000 years ago, the Aterian was succeeded by the Iberomaurusian culture, which shared similarities with Iberian cultures. Skeletal similarities have been suggested between the Iberomaurusian "Mechta-Afalou" burials and European Cro-Magnon remains. The Iberomaurusian was succeeded by the Beaker culture in Morocco.
North Africa and Morocco were slowly drawn into the wider emerging Mediterranean world by the Phoenicians, who established trading colonies and settlements in the early Classical period. Mogador was a Phoenician colony as early as the early 6th century BC.[page needed]
Morocco later became part of a North African empire headquartered in Carthage. The earliest known independent Moroccan state was the Berber kingdom of Mauretania under king Bocchus I. This kingdom in northern Morocco, not to be confused with the present state of Mauritania, dates at least to 110 BC.
The Roman Empire controlled this region from the 1st century BC, naming it Mauretania Tingitana. Christianity was introduced in the 2nd century AD and gained converts in the Roman towns, among slaves and some Berber farmers.
In the 5th century AD, as the Roman Empire declined, the region was invaded from the north first by the Vandals and then by the Visigoths. In the 6th century AD, northern Morocco was nominally part of the East Roman, or Byzantine Empire. Throughout this time, the Berber inhabitants in the high mountains of the interior of Morocco remained unsubdued.
Early Islamic era
In 670 AD, the first Islamic conquest of the North African coastal plain took place under Uqba ibn Nafi, a general serving under the Umayyads of Damascus. The Umayyad Muslims brought their language, their system of government, and Islam to Morocco. Many of the Berbers slowly converted to Islam, mostly after Arab rule had receded. The first independent Muslim state in the area of modern Morocco was the Kingdom of Nekor, an emirate in the Rif Mountains. It was founded by Salih I ibn Mansur in 710, as a client state to the Rashidun Caliphate. After the outbreak of the Great Berber Revolt in 739, the Berbers formed other independent states such as the Miknasa of Sijilmasa and the Barghawata.
According to medieval legend, Idris ibn Abdallah had fled to Morocco after the Abbasids' massacre of his tribe in Iraq. He convinced the Awraba Berber tribes to break their allegiance to the distant Abbasid caliphs in Baghdad and he founded the Idrisid Dynasty in 788. The Idrisids established Fes as their capital and Morocco became a centre of Muslim learning and a major regional power. The Idrissids were ousted in 927 by the Fatimid Caliphate and their Miknasa allies. After Miknasa broke off relations with the Fatimids in 932, they were removed from power by the Maghrawa of Sijilmasa in 980.
From the 11th century onwards, a series of powerful Berber dynasties arose. Under the Almoravid dynasty  and the Almohad dynasty, Morocco dominated the Maghreb, much of present-day Spain and Portugal, and the western Mediterranean region. In the 13th and 14th centuries the Merinids held power in Morocco and strove to replicate the successes of the Almohads by military campaigns in Algeria and Spain. They were followed by the Wattasids. In the 15th century, the Reconquista ended Muslim rule in central and southern Spain and many Muslims and Jews fled to Morocco. Portuguese efforts to control the Atlantic coast in the 15th century did not greatly affect the interior of Morocco. According to Elizabeth Allo Isichei, "In 1520, there was a famine in Morocco so terrible that for a long time other events were dated by it. It has been suggested that the population of Morocco fell from 5 to under 3 million between the early sixteenth and nineteenth centuries."
In 1549, the region fell to successive Arab dynasties claiming descent from the Islamic prophet, Muhammad: first the Saadi dynasty who ruled from 1549 to 1659, and then the Alaouite dynasty, who remained in power since the 17th century.
Under the Saadi Dynasty, the country repulsed Ottoman incursions and a Portuguese invasion at the battle of Ksar el Kebir in 1578. The reign of Ahmad al-Mansur brought new wealth and prestige to the Sultanate, and a large expedition to West Africa inflicted a crushing defeat on the Songhay Empire in 1591. However, managing the territories across the Sahara proved too difficult. After the death of al-Mansur the country was divided among his sons.
In 1666 Morocco was reunited by the Alaouite Dynasty, who have been the ruling house of Morocco ever since. Morocco was facing aggression from Spain and the Ottoman Empire lies pressing westward. The Alaouites succeeded in stabilizing their position, and while the kingdom was smaller than previous ones in the region, it remained quite wealthy. Against the opposition of local tribes Ismail Ibn Sharif (1672–1727) began to create a unified state. With his Jaysh d'Ahl al-Rif (the Riffian Army) he seized Tangier from the English in 1684 and drove the Spanish from Larache in 1689.
Morocco was the first nation to recognize the fledgling United States as an independent nation in 1777. In the beginning of the American Revolution, American merchant ships in the Atlantic Ocean were subject to attack by the Barbary pirates. On 20 December 1777, Morocco's Sultan Mohammed III declared that American merchant ships would be under the protection of the sultanate and could thus enjoy safe passage. The Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship, signed in 1786, stands as the U.S.'s oldest non-broken friendship treaty.
Through Moroccan history, the country had many cultural influences (Europe, Middle East and sub-Saharan Africa). The culture of Morocco shares similar traits with those of neighboring countries, particularly Algeria and Tunisia and to a certain extent Spain.
Each region possesses its own uniqueness, contributing to the national culture. Morocco has set among its top priorities the protection of its diversity and the preservation of its cultural heritage.
The traditional dress for men and women is called djellaba, a long, loose, hooded garment with full sleeves. For special occasions, men also wear a red cap called a bernousse, more commonly referred to as a fez. Women wear kaftans decorated with ornaments. Nearly all men, and most women, wear balgha (بلغه) —- soft leather slippers with no heel, often dyed yellow. Women also wear high-heeled sandals, often with silver or gold tinsel.
Moroccan style is a new trend in decoration which takes its roots from Moorish architecture; it has been made popular by the vogue of riad renovation in Marrakech. Dar is the name given to one of the most common types of domestic structures in Morocco; it is a home found in a medina, or walled urban area of a city. Most Moroccan homes traditionally adhere to the Dar al-Islam, a series of tenets on Islamic domestic life. Dar exteriors are typically devoid of ornamentation and windows, except occasional small openings in secondary quarters, such as stairways and service areas. These piercings provide light and ventilation.
Moroccan cuisine is home to Berber, Moorish, and Arab influences. It is known for dishes like couscous, pastilla, and others. Spices such as cinnamon are used in Moroccan cooking. Sweets like halwa are popular, as well as other sweets. Cuisines from neighbouring countries also influence the country's culinary traditions.
Moroccan craftsmanship has a rich tradition of jewellery, pottery, leather-work and woodwork.
The music of Morocco ranges and differs according to the various areas of the country. Moroccan music has a variety of styles from complex sophisticated orchestral music to simple music involving only voice and drums. There are three varieties of Berber folk music: village and ritual music, and the music performed by professional musicians. Chaabi الشعبي is a music consisting of numerous varieties which descend from the multifarious forms of Moroccan folk music. Chaabi was originally performed in markets, but is now found at any celebration or meeting. Gnawa is a form of music that is mystical. It was gradually brought to Morocco by sub-Saharan Africans and later became part of the Moroccan tradition. Sufi brotherhoods (tarikas) are common in Morocco, and music is an integral part of their spiritual tradition. This music is an attempt at reaching a trance state which inspires mystical ecstasy.
Morocco's official languages are Classical Arabic and since July 2011, also "Amazigh language" which is a standardized version of the Berber languages.
The majority of the population natively speaks Moroccan-Arabic. More than 12 million Moroccans speak Berber — which exists in Morocco in three different dialects (Riff, Shilha, and Central Atlas Tamazight) — either as a first language or bilingually with Moroccan Arabic.
Hassaniya Arabic is spoken in the southern part of the country. Morocco has recently included the protection of Hassaniya in the constitution as part of the July 2011 reforms.
Spanish is also spoken by some in the northern part of the country as a foreign language. Meanwhile English is increasingly becoming more popular among the educated, particularly in the science fields.
Spoken languages in Morocco
The below table presents statistical figures of speakers, based on the 2004 population census (Population aged 5 and above)
|Average population||Live births||Deaths||Natural change||Crude birth rate (per 1,000)||Crude death rate (per 1,000)||Natural change (per 1,000)||Fertility rates|
|1962||12 177||561 360||227 710||333 650||46.1||18.7||27.4||7.20|
|1982||20 334||756 425||215 504||540 921||37.2||10.6||26.6||5.52|
|1994||25 996||675 896||174 173||501 723||26.0||6.7||19.3||3.28|
|2004||29 840||602 768||173 072||429 696||20.2||5.8||14.4||2.47|
|2010||31 894||599 607||178 606||421 001||18.8||5.6||13.2||2.19|
Source: Haut-Commissariat au Plan (HCP)
Ethnic groups and ancestry
Morocco's population is composed of two major ethnic groups, the Berbers and the Arabised berbers. However,due to arabisation Berber and Arab identity became largely meaningless in many communities. In addition, because there were many marriages between Arab men and Berber women in the first centuries of Arab rule, many Arabs in Morocco today are of Berber ancestry. Assuming that it is possible to separate Arabs from Berbers in Morocco, Arabs are believed to be about 46-51% of the Moroccan population, although this includes people of mixed Arab and Berber descent. Arabs are an indigenous group in the middle east and are the majority population in 15 nations in the Middle East and North Africa.
Others insist on the Berber-African identity of Morocco. About 70% acknowledge a berber identity. Classical Arabic is not the only official language of Morocco and is used in limited socio-economic and cultural activities and written newspapers. There are two official languages in Morocco Arabic and Berber languages.
Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. Most if not all of the invaders into North Africa, i.e.: Phoenicians, Romans have left some imprint upon the modern Berbers as have slaves brought from throughout Europe between 1530 and 1780 in a series of raids which depopulated coastal towns from Sicily to Cornwall, England (some estimates place the number of European slaves (Saqaliba) brought to North Africa during the Ottoman period as high as 1.25 million).
Jews were once a major ethnic group in Morocco as well, though the majority of them have emigrated to Israel.
Moroccan Y-DNA Haplogroups
|Morocco||87||—||—||9.2||—||5.7||52.8||—||26.4||—||Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. 2013|
|Morocco||159||—||—||—||7||—||49||—||10||—||Aboukhalid et al. 2010|
|Morocco||221||—||1.8||4.5||4||6.8||65||—||9||4||Fregel et al. 2009|
|Morocco||38||3.9||—||—||—||6||55||—||20||3.9||Onofri et al. 2008|
|Morocco||19||—||—||—||21.1||—||—||26.3||31.5||10.5||Francalacci et al. 2008|
|Morocco||176||—||—||6.3||5.1||6.3||63.6||—||13.6||2.8||Bosch et al. 2001|
|Arabs (Morocco)||49||—||—||—||—||42.9||32.6||—||20.4||—||Semino et al. 2004|
|Arabs (Morocco)||44||—||—||6.8||2.2||11.3||52.2||—||15.9||6.8||Bosch et al. 2001|
|Arabs (Morocco)||54||—||—||—||—||38.9||31.5||—||—||—||Cruciani et al. 2004|
|Arabs (Morocco)||55||—||—||—||—||40||—||—||—||—||Cruciani et al. 2007|
|Berbers (Morocco)||64||—||—||—||—||10.9||68.7||—||6.3||—||Semino et al. 2004|
|Berbers (Marrakesh)||29||—||—||—||3.4||6.9||72.4||—||—||—||Cruciani et al. 2004|
|Berbers (Middle Atlas)||69||—||—||—||—||10.1||71||4.3||5.8||—||Cruciani et al. 2004|
|Berbers (Southern Morocco)||40||—||—||2.5||7.5||12.5||65||—||10||2.5||Bosch et al. 2001|
|Berbers (North Central)||63||—||3.1||9.5||7.9||1.5||65||—||11.1||—||Bosch et al. 2001|
|Berbers (Amizmiz)||33||3||—||—||3||3||84.8||—||—||—||Alvarez et al. 2009|
|Berbers (Asni)||54||—||—||—||1.9||3.7||79.6||—||1.9||1.9||Dugoujon et al. (2005)|
|Berbers (Bouhria)||67||—||—||—||—||1.5||77.6||6||1.5||6||Dugoujon et al. (2005)|
|Berbers (Northern Morocco)||43||—||—||—||—||—||79.1||—||—||—||Ahmed Reguig et al. 2014|
|Berbers (Southern Morocco)||187||—||—||—||—||—||89.8||—||—||—||Ahmed Reguig et al. 2014|
|Berbers (Central Morocco)||65||—||—||—||—||—||98.5||—||—||—||Ahmed Reguig et al. 2014|
|Moroccan Sahrawi||89||—||8.9||11.2||—||—||59.5||—||20.2||—||Fregel et al. 2009|
|Moroccan Sahrawi||29||—||3.4||3.4||—||—||75.8||—||17.2||—||Bosch et al. 2001|
- "Haut Commissariat au Plan". Haut commisariat au plan. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
- "Répartition des étrangers par nationalité". INSEE. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
- "Être né en France d’un parent immigré". INSEE. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
- Fiches thématiques - Population immigrée - Immigrés - Insee Références - Édition 2012, Insee 2012
- Instituto Nacional de Estadística Population Figures at 1 January 2014 – Migration Statistics 2013
- "Statistical Abstract of Israel 2009 - No. 60 Subject 2 - Table NO.24". Israeli government. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
- "Statistiche de demografiche ISTAT".
- Bijlage bij BuG 22
- "CBS StatLine - Population". Dutch government - 2009. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
- Marokkanische Diaspora, Ministerie voor ontwikkelingssamenwerking Duitsland, 2007, page 3
- [http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet /DTTable?_bm=y&-context=dt&-ds_name=ACS_2008_1YR_G00_&-CONTEXT=dt&-mt_name=ACS_2008_1YR_G2000_B04003&-tree_id=306&-redoLog=false&-currentselections=ACS_2008_1YR_G2000_B04003&-geo_id=01000US&-search_results=ALL&-format=&-_lang=en "Detailed tables - American Fact Finder"]. census.gov. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
- "Ethnic Origin (264), Single and Multiple Ethnic Origin Responses (3), Generation Status (4), Age Groups (10) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2011 National Household Survey".
- Morocco: General situation of Muslims who converted to Christianity, and specifically those who converted to Catholicism; their treatment by Islamists and the authorities, including state protection (2008-2011)
- The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3
- Field Projects – Jebel Irhoud . Department of Human Evolution. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
- Rubella, D. (1984). "Environmentalism and Pi Paleolithic economies in the Maghreb (c. 20,000 to 5000 B.P.)". In J.D. Clark & S.A. Brandt. From hunters to farmers the causes and consequences of food production in Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 41–56. ISBN 0520045742.
- The Megalithic Portal and Megalith Map. "C. Michael Hogan, ''Mogador: Promontory Fort'', The Megalithic Portal, ed. Andy Burnham". Megalithic.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- Moscati, Sabatino (2001) The Phoenicians, Tauris, ISBN 1-85043-533-2
- "Bocchus I". Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- Ramirez-Faria, Carlos (2007-01-01). Concise Encyclopaedia of World History. ISBN 978-81-269-0775-5.
- "Almoravides". Universalis Encyclopedia.
- "Marīnid dynasty". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- "The Maghrib under the Almoravids and the Almohads". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2011-08-01.
- "Morocco – History". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2011-08-01.
- Allo Isichei, Elizabeth (1997). A history of African societies to 1870. Cambridge University Press. p. 264. ISBN 0-521-45599-5
- "Morocco (Page 8 of 9)". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2009. 2009-11-01.
- Kozaryn, Linda D. "Cohen Renews U.S.-Morocco Ties". U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved 2009-03-12.
- Roberts, Priscilla H. and Richard S. Roberts, Thomas Barclay (1728–1793): Consul in France, Diplomat in Barbary, Lehigh University Press, 2008, pp. 206–223 ISBN 093422398X.
- "Milestones of American Diplomacy, Interesting Historical Notes, and Department of State History". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2007-12-17.
- Haut-Commissariat au Plan
- Ethnic groups in Morocco.
- New book reopens old arguments about slave raids on Europe
- Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. 2013, Genome-Wide and Paternal Diversity Reveal a Recent Origin of Human Populations in North Africa
- Aboukhalid et al. 2010, Y Chromosomal SNP Analysis Using the Minisequencing Strategy in a Moroccan Population Samples
- Fregel et al. 2009, Demographic history of Canary Islands male gene-pool: replacement of native lineages by European.
- Onofri et al. 2008, Y-chromosome markers distribution in Northern Africa: High-resolution SNP and STR analysis in Tunisia and Morocco populations
- Francalacci et al. 2008, History and geography of human Y-chromosome in Europe: a SNP perspective
- Bosch et al. 2001, High-resolution analysis of humanY-chromosome variation shows a sharp discontinuity and limited gene ﬂow between Northwestern Africa and the IberianPeninsula.
- Semino, O.; Magri, C.; Benuzzi, G.; Lin, A. A.; Al-Zahery, N.; Battaglia, V.; MacCioni, L.; Triantaphyllidis, C.; Shen, P. (2004). "Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area". The American Journal of Human Genetics 74 (5): 1023–34. doi:10.1086/386295. PMC 1181965. PMID 15069642.
- Cruciani et al. 2004, Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out Of Africa.
- Cruciani et al. 2007, Tracing Past Human Male Movements in Northern/Eastern Africa and Western Eurasia: New Clues from Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups E-M78 and J-M12.
- Cruciani, F.; La Fratta, R.; Santolamazza, P.; Sellitto, D.; Pascone, R.; Moral, P.; Watson, E.; Guida, V.; Colomb, E. B. (2004). "Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out of Africa". The American Journal of Human Genetics 74 (5): 1014–1022. doi:10.1086/386294. PMC 1181964. PMID 15042509.
- Alvarez, L.; Santos, C.; Montiel, R.; Caeiro, B.; Baali, A.; Dugoujon, J. M.; Aluja, M. P. (2009). "Y-chromosome variation in South Iberia: Insights into the North African contribution". American Journal of Human Biology 21 (3): 407–409. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20888. PMID 19213004.
- The Berbers: Linguistic and genetic diversity
- Ahmed Reguig et al. 2014, Phylogeography of E1b1b1b-M81 Haplogroup and Analysis of its Subclades in Morocco.