Moscow Theological Academy
Moscow Theological Academy (Russian: Московская духовная академия) is a higher educational institution of the Russian Orthodox Church, training of clergy, teachers, scholars and officials for the Russian Orthodox Church. Its history of the Slavic Greek Latin Academy, founded in 1687. In 1814 it was reorganized and moved from Moscow to Sergeyev Posad, in the Holy Trinity-St Sergius Lavra, in 1913, among the other 3 on the occasion of the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty reigning, received the title of Emperor. The academy was closed in 1919, then re-established in 1946. The academy includes the Moscow Theological Seminary, the Regency School, School of Iconography.
In 1685, brothers and monks Greeks Ioanniky Sofronii Likhud, arriving in Moscow at the request of Tsar Fyodor Alexeyevich, first discovered in the Epiphany Monastery, then in Zaikonospassky - Spassky schools that taught grammar, piitika, rhetoric, logic and physics in Latin and Greek . Subsequently, on the basis of schools was created Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy with a stochastic trend of teaching.
Start of school coincides with the well-known argument of transubstantiation of the Holy Gifts in which the prominent role played by its organizers, the monuments of their polemical and educational activities are numerous writings (FG Mirkovic, "About the time of the consecration of the Holy Gifts. Dispute, the former in Moscow In the second half of the XVII century". Vilna 1886). Place Likhud school students have taken them - Nikolai Semyonov and Fedor Polikarpov, Latin was expelled from school. But with the passage of the school under the jurisdiction of the Palladium Rogowski Academy tends to Western education and remains so during the entire duration of the second period (1700-1775). Sam graduated from the head of school education in the West and has been for some time Uniate, contributed to this direction and the will of Peter I, and the sympathy of the educated people of that time, Stefan (Jaworski) to western education.
Mentors, and often students are invoked from Kiev, taught in Latin. Stood at the head of the Academy Rector and Prefect, the first observed mainly for teachers and teaching, and the second - for the students. Subjects of teaching: theology, philosophy, according to Aristotle, physics, metaphysics, psychology, meteorology, rhetoric. Mentors Academy, besides teaching, carried out the test persons determined to place clergymen and church, as well as students of theology preached in churches, preaching, these were not free from the scholastic methods, but under the influence of Theophanes Prokopovich and Stephen Yavorsky, some of them noticeable liveliness of presentation and freedom of thought, took part in correcting the Slavonic translation of the Bible (1712-1747 g), rectors and spiritual prefects criticized the writings and translations, testified against infidels, schismatics and apostates from the faith.
The disciples were recruited from the clergy, of the nobles and commoners, sometimes through coercive measures; among the students there were priests, deacons, monks and clergymen. The most gifted academic course held in 12–13 years, while others for 15 years barely reached the philosophical class, there were times when the students have learned from 20 years of age and in the same class were 10 years of age.
Many famous figures of the 18th century were educated at this academy: Met. Gabriel, Theophylact (Gorski) Bantysh-Kamensky NN, Prince Cantemir, AD, Campfires, Lomonosov.
Blooming period of the Academy: 1775-1814
Under the protection of Metropolitan Platon (Levshina). Historian Academy characterizes the time: "Circle of Science at the Met. Plato has spread significantly, introduced new subjects doctrine (church and civil history, Russian churches. History, churches. Law paschalion, physics in a new production, the history of philosophy, medicine, and the church. Charter and singing, new languages), new tutorials, the spirit of scholasticism had lost power and was replaced by a bright conception of the matter. Knowing from experience the brunt of systems, that time and learned the habit of law primacy, Plato found it necessary to introduce an element of the Great-the science of light and keep borrowing up some other way of teaching. Having a lot of learned people around him, he ended the call smart from Kiev, dismissed their systems, hitherto ex samples for Moscow theologians and philosophers, and formed his thoughts on the academy, telling her all the tools to acquire new knowledge. " Materiel Academy have been strengthened, improved content mentors for students arranged bursa, increased library. Shoots and concealment of students stopped. A number of preachers and scholars who came out of the academy, a testament to its accomplishment at the time of Metropolitan Platon.
In 1814, the Academy was reorganized and moved to Holy Trinity St. Sergius Lavra. New Academy to work hard to develop theology, church history and philosophy, in translating the works of the Fathers of the Church in the Russian language.
In 1944, he opened the Orthodox Theological College and Theological and pastoral courses in Moscow. In 1946, the Moscow Orthodox Theological Institute was transformed into the Moscow Theological Academy with four-year universities, which originally housed in the premises of the Novodevichy Convent. In 1947, the Moscow Patriarchate was transferred to the buildings of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra, and in 1949 there were returned Theological Academy and Seminary. May 21, 1955 Patriarch Alexy I blessed the restored Basil academic temple, and 1955/1956 academic year resumed the tradition of spending one year at the Academy act of the feast day of her temple, 14 (1) of October.
Absentee gained immense importance in the sector of MDA, which opened in 1964 (instead of the liquidated a few years earlier a similar sector of the Leningrad Theological Academy and Seminary) through which was perhaps the main part of the clergy.