Moshava

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Yokneam (Moshava)
Yavne'el (Moshava)

A moshava (Hebrew: מושבה‎), plural: moshavot (מושבות), is a form of rural settlement in Israel established mainly during the first two waves of proto-Zionist and Zionist immigration, the First and Second Aliyah.

In a moshava, as opposed to communal settlements like the kibbutz and the moshav, all the land and property are privately owned. The first moshavot, described as "colonies" in professional literature, were established by pioneers of the First Aliyah in Ottoman Palestine.[1] The economy of the early moshavot was based on agriculture.

Petah Tikva, known as the "Mother of the Moshavot" (Em HaMoshavot),[2] was founded in 1878, four years before the First Aliyah, by religious Jews from Europe. The first four moshavot of the First Aliyah period were Rishon LeZion, Rosh Pinna, Zikhron Ya'akov and Yesud HaMa'ala.[1]

The 28 moshavot established by the First Aliyah[edit]

Rishon LeZion (1882)

Rosh Pinna (1882, taking over and renaming the colony of Gei Oni established in 1878 and down to three families by 1882)

Zikhron Ya'akov (1882)

Petah Tikva (1882; reestablished after first attempt in 1878)

Mazkeret Batya (1883 established as "Ekron")

Ness Ziona (1883; began as "Nahalat Reuven")

Yesud HaMa'ala (1883)

Gedera (1884)

Bat Shlomo (1889)

Meir Shfeya (1889)

Rehovot (1890)

Mishmar HaYarden (1890)

Hadera (1891)

Ein Zeitim (1892)

Motza (1894)

Hartuv (1895)

Metula (1896)

Be'er Tuvia (1896 reestablished and renamed by Hovevei Zion; first settled in 1887 under the name Castina)

Bnei Yehuda (1898; not identical with the new Bnei Yehuda)

Mahanayim (1898-1912)

Sejera (1899)

Mas'ha (1901), renamed Kfar Tavor in 1903

Yavne'el (1901)

Menahemia (1901)

Beit Gan (1903; next to Yavne'el)

Atlit (1903)

Giv'at Ada (1903)

Kfar Saba (1904)

Not included here: the five ephemeral colonies of the First Aliyah in the Hauran.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b [1]Moshava, Kibbutz, and Moshav: Patterns of Jewish Rural Settlement and Development in Palestine by D. Weintraub; M. Lissak; Y. Azmon
  2. ^ Moshava Zionism and Israel - Encyclopedic Dictionary