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For other uses, see Moskal (disambiguation).
Text in Ukrainian: "Thank God I am not a Moskal"

Moskal (Russian and Ukrainian: москаль, Belarusian: маскаль, Polish: moskal, German: moskowiter) is a historically a neutral designation for a person from Muscovy,[1] and currently an ethnic slur referring to Russians used in Ukraine, Belarus,[1] and Poland.[2]

Another disparaging term for Russians used in Ukraine, Belarus and Poland is katsap (uk:кацап) or kacap (kacap) also kacapas in Lithuanian.

History and etymology[edit]

M.Fartukh "Moskali destroy Kiev", illustration from an 1934 history textbook (referring to the destruction of Kiev in 1169)

Initially, as early as the 11th century, moskal referred to the residents of Moscovia (Muscovy) - the word literally translating as Muscovite (as differentiating the residents of the Grand Duchy of Moscow from other Eastern Slavs such as people from White Rus' (Belarusians), Red Rus' (Galicians), and others). With time, the word became an archaism in all the Eastern Slavic languages, and survived only as a family name in each of those languages — see below.[3]

The negative connotation, however, came in around the late 18th-early 19th centuries in the form of an ethnic slur labelling all Russians. At that time, soldiers of the Russian Imperial Army (and later those of the Soviet Army) stationed in parts of present-day Ukraine and Poland became known as moskali, and those men who were drafted by force into the Army were described in Ukrainian as taken into moskali (Ukrainian: у москалі). Because most of them, after serving in the Army (for 25 years, at some periods of Russian history), kept speaking in Russian beyond demobilization, the word obtained its negative connotation and applied to those who lost their roots as well.[citation needed]

Cultural influence[edit]

"Moskal" is a stock character of the traditional Ukrainian puppet theatre form vertep.

It also gave rise to a number of East Slavic family names: Moskal, Moskalenko, Moskalyov/Moskalyova/Moskalev/Moskaleva/Moskalov/Moskalova, Moskalik, Moskalyuk/Moskaluk, Moskalchuk, Moskalchik/Moskalczyk.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Alexander Mikaberidze (2011). Ilya Radozhitskii's Campaign Memoirs. Lulu. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-105-16871-0. 
  2. ^ Benjamin Harshav (1986). American Yiddish Poetry: A Bilingual Anthology. University of California Press. p. 559. ISBN 978-0-520-04842-3. 
  3. ^ Edyta M. Bojanowska (2007) "Nikolai Gogol: Between Ukrainian And Russian Nationalism" ISBN 0-674-02291-2, p. 55: "In the 'low', folksy world of the provincial narrators, a Russian is a moskal ("Muscovite")", a foreigner and an intruder, at best a carpetbagger, at worst a thief in league with the devil."

External links[edit]