Moskva-class helicopter carrier

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Leningrad underway in 1990.
Leningrad underway in 1990.
Class overview
Name: Moskva
Operators:  Soviet Navy
 Russian Navy
Succeeded by: Kiev aircraft carriers
In service: 1967-1991
Planned: 3
Completed: 2
Cancelled: 1
Retired: 2
General characteristics
Type: helicopter carrier
Displacement: 14,950 tons standard
17,500 tons full load
Length: 189 m (620 ft)
Beam: 23 m (75 ft)
Draught: 13 m (43 ft)
Propulsion: 2 shaft steam turbines, 4 pressure fire boilers, 100,000 hp
Speed: 31 knots (57 km/h)
Range: 14,000 nm at 12 knots (22 km/h)
Complement: 850
Armament: 2× twin SA-N-3 'Goblet' SAM launchers

2 × twin 57 mm guns
1 × SUW-N-1 launcher for FRAS-1 anti submarine missiles
2 × RBU-6000 ASW rockets

10× 553 mm torpedo tubes (2 × 5)
Aircraft carried: 18× Kamov Ka-25 'Hormone' or Mi-8 helicopters
Notes: Ships in class include: Moskva, Leningrad
This article is about helicopter carriers. For the Moskva missile cruiser, see Slava-class cruiser.

The Moskva class helicopter carriers were the first operational Soviet Navy aircraft carriers. The Soviet designation was Project 1123 Kondor.

These ships were laid down at Nikolayev South (Shipyard No.444). The lead vessel was launched in 1965 and named Moskva; she entered commission two years later. Moskva was followed by Leningrad, which was commissioned in late 1968; there were no further vessels built, reportedly due to the poor handling of the ships in rough seas. Both were conventionally powered.

The Moskvas were not true "aircraft carriers" in that they did not carry any fixed-wing aircraft; the air wing was composed entirely of helicopters. They were designed primarily as anti-submarine warfare (ASW) vessels, and her weapons and sensor suite was optimized against the nuclear submarine threat. Their strategic role was to defend the Soviet ballistic missile submarine bastions against incursions by Western attack submarines, forming the flagships of an ASW task force.[citation needed]

Design[edit]

The operational requirement was issued by Admiral Sergey Gorshkov in 1959. The aim of the ships was to counter NATO Polaris submarines and act as a flagship for anti-submarine warfare. Initially it was hoped to operate 10 helicopters from an 8000 ton ship. The design evolved into a larger vessel capable of operating up to 14 helicopters with self defence armament.

Armament[edit]

Shipboard ASW armament included a twin SUW-N-1 launcher capable of delivering a FRAS-1 projectile carrying a 450 mm torpedo (or a 5 kiloton nuclear warhead); a pair of RBU-6000 ASW mortars; and a set of torpedo tubes. For self-defence, the Moskvas had two twin SA-N-3 SAM launchers with reloads for a total of 48 surface-to-air missiles, along with two twin 57 mm/80 guns.

Sensors[edit]

Radar
  • Top Sail (air warning)
  • Head Net
  • 2 x Head Light (SAM guidance)
  • 2 x Muff Comb (gun fire control)
  • 2 x Don 2 (navigation)
Sonar
  • Moose Jaw (low frequency bow mounted)
  • Mare Tail VDS

Propulsion[edit]

Gas turbines were considered but were as yet untried in such a large vessel. Instead a high pressure steam plant similar to that used by the Kynda-class cruisers was used. The machinery of the Moskva had severe problems and had to be rebuilt in 1973 following a fire. Operational performance was disappointing with a practical maximum speed of 30 knots and 24 knot maximum sustainable speed. Sea keeping was also disappointing.

Vessels[edit]

Moskva off Morocco coast in January 1970.
A port-quarter fantail view of Leningrad.

Both vessels were part of the Black Sea Fleet, and were retired in 1991. Both ships were scrapped in the late 1990s. A third ship to be named Kiev was cancelled in 1969, which was to have been an anti-surface warfare vessel. The Moskva class was succeeded by the Kiev class.

Name Namesake Builder Laid down Launched Commissioned Fate
Moskva City of Moscow Soviet Shipyard No. 444, Mykolaiv 15 December 1962 14 January 1965 25 December 1967 Broken up at Alang, 1997
Leningrad City of Leningrad Soviet Shipyard No. 444, Mkyolaiv 15 January 1965 31 July 1968 2 June 1969 Broken up, Greece, 1995

See also[edit]

References[edit]