# Most-perfect magic square

Most-perfect magic square from the Parshvanath Jain temple in Khajuraho
 7 12 1 14 2 13 8 11 16 3 10 5 9 6 15 4
transcription of
the indian numerals

A most-perfect magic square of order n is a magic square containing the numbers 1 to n2 with two additional properties:

1. Each 2×2 subsquare sums to 2s, where s = n2 + 1.
2. All pairs of integers distant n/2 along a (major) diagonal sum to s.

## Examples

Specific examples of most-perfect magic squares that begin with the 2015 date demonstrate how theory and computer science are able to define this group of magic squares. [1][2] Only a fraction of the 2x2 cell blocks that sum to 130 are accented by the different colored fonts in the 8x8 example.

The 12x12 square below was found by making all the 42 principal reversible squares with ReversibleSquares, running Transform1 2All on all 42, making 23040 of each, (of the 23040 x 23040 total each), then making the most-perfect squares from these with ReversibleMost-Perfect. These squares were then scanned for squares with 20,15 in the proper cells for any of the 8 rotations. The 2015 squares all originated with principal reversible square number #31. This square has values that sum to 35 on opposite sides of the vertical midline in the first two rows.[2]

 20 15 60 49 24 51 132 123 92 89 128 87 119 136 79 102 115 100 7 28 47 62 11 64 25 10 65 44 29 46 137 118 97 84 133 82 126 129 86 95 122 93 14 21 54 55 18 57 31 4 71 38 35 40 143 112 103 78 139 76 113 142 73 108 109 106 1 34 41 68 5 70 13 22 53 56 17 58 125 130 85 96 121 94 138 117 98 83 134 81 26 9 66 43 30 45 8 27 48 61 12 63 120 135 80 101 116 99 131 124 91 90 127 88 19 16 59 50 23 52 2 33 42 67 6 69 114 141 74 107 110 105 144 111 104 77 140 75 32 3 72 37 36 39
 1 2 7 8 13 14 19 20 25 26 31 32 3 4 9 10 15 16 21 22 27 28 33 34 5 6 11 12 17 18 23 24 29 30 35 36 37 38 43 44 49 50 55 56 61 62 67 68 39 40 45 46 51 52 57 58 63 64 69 70 41 42 47 48 53 54 59 60 65 66 71 72 73 74 79 80 85 86 91 92 97 98 103 104 75 76 81 82 87 88 93 94 99 100 105 106 77 78 83 84 89 90 95 96 101 102 107 108 109 110 115 116 121 122 127 128 133 134 139 140 111 112 117 118 123 124 129 130 135 136 141 142 113 114 119 120 125 126 131 132 137 138 143 144

## Properties

All most-perfect magic squares are panmagic squares.

Apart from the trivial case of the first order square, most-perfect magic squares are all of order 4n. In their book, Kathleen Ollerenshaw and David S. Brée give a method of construction and enumeration of all most-perfect magic squares. They also show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between reversible squares and most-perfect magic squares.

For n = 36, there are about 2.7 × 1044 essentially different most-perfect magic squares.

## References

• Kathleen Ollerenshaw, David S. Brée: Most-perfect Pandiagonal Magic Squares: Their Construction and Enumeration, Southend-on-Sea : Institute of Mathematics and its Applications, 1998, 186 pages, ISBN 0-905091-06-X
• T.V.Padmakumar, Number Theory and Magic Squares, Sura books, India, 2008, 128 pages, ISBN 978-81-8449-321-4