Most Serene Republic
Most Serene Republic (Republica Serenissima in Latin) is a title attached to a number of European states through history. By custom, the appellation "Most Serene" is an indicator of sovereignty (see also Serene Highness or Most Serene Highness for a sovereign prince); consequently "Most Serene Republic" emphasizes the sovereignty of the republic.
San Marino (English: the Most Serene Republic of San Marino; Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino) is the only modern independent state to use the style. Although commonly referred to as the Republic of San Marino or simply San Marino, it officially retains the longer form.
- Republic of Venice (English: the Most Serene Republic of Venice; Venetian: Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), a city-state that existed from 697 to 1797 based in the city of Venice with continuously controlled territory along the eastern Adriatic at its strongest period. "La Serenissima" was also popularly used as a specific reference to the Venetian government or state authorities.
- Republic of Genoa (English: the Most Serene Republic of Genoa; Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di Genova), an independent state based in present-day Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. 1100 to 1805. Long just plain "Republic", the honorific "Most Serene" was only added after the election of the first Doge of Genoa (1339). Even so, to distinguish their government from its ancient rival to the east, the Genoese rarely used the "Most Serene" designation, opting more frequently for the appellation "Superb Republic" (Italian: La Superba Repubblica), a nickname allegedly coined by Petrarch in 1358.
- Republic of Lucca (English: the Most Serene Republic of Lucca; Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di Lucca), a city-state that existed from 1119 to 1799 based in the city of Lucca, in northern Tuscany, Italy. Lucca was the third largest Italian city state (after Venice and Genoa) with a republican constitution ("comune") to remain independent over the centuries.
- Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (English: "the Most Serene" Commonwealth of Both Nations; Latin: "Serenissima" Res Publica Utriusque Nationis, Polish: "Najjaśniejsza" Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów), an elective monarchy in Central and Eastern Europe, existing from 1569 until 1795.
- (English) Gordon Swoger (2004). The strange odyssey of Poland's national treasures, 1939-1961: a Polish-Canadian story. Dundurn Press Ltd. p. 18. ISBN 1-55002-515-5.