List of battles by casualties

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The following is a list of the casualty count in battles in world history. The list includes both sieges (not technically battles but usually yielding similar combat-related deaths) and civilian casualties during the battles. Large battle casualty counts are almost impossible to calculate precisely. Many of these figures are estimates, and, where possible, a range of estimates is presented. Figures display numbers of all types of casualties when available (killed, wounded, missing, and sick) but may only include number killed. Where possible, the list specifies whether or not prisoners are included in the count. This list does not include most bombing runs or missile strikes (such as the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki), which, despite potentially massive casualties, are not typically classified as "battles," since they are usually one-sided engagements. Tactical or strategic strikes, however, may form part of larger engagements which are themselves battles.

Classical formation battles[edit]

These refer to battles in which armies met on a single field of battle and fought each other for anywhere from one to several days. With more advanced weapons, military formations lost their impact and use of this type of battle died out in favor of grander military operations. Many of these battles are ancient and old, and in several cases, the few extant historical records differ, sometimes wildly, on casualties. Entries here use modern figures when available.

This list is sortable. Click a column heading to sort by that criterion.

Battle Conflict Casualties Year
Battle of Qarqar Assyrian Conquest of Syria 0,014,000 Approximately 14,000[1] !9146 853 BC
Battle of Thymbra Lydian–Persian War 0,100,000 Approximately 100,000[1] !9452 547 BC
Battle of Thermopylae Greco–Persian Wars 0,022,300 22,300[2]–22,500[3] !9519 480 BC
Battle of Plataea Greco–Persian Wars 0,051,500 51,500[3]–257,000[2] !9520 479 BC
Battle of Chaeronea Wars of Alexander the Great 0,020,000 20,000 or more[4] !9661 338 BC
Battle of the Granicus Wars of Alexander the Great 0,015,000 15,000 or more[4] !9665 334 BC
Battle of Issus Wars of Alexander the Great 0,050,450 50,450[5] !9666 333 BC
Battle of Gaugamela Wars of Alexander the Great 0,053,500 53,500[6] !9668 331 BC
Battle of the Hydaspes Wars of Alexander the Great 0,023,310 23,310[6] !9673 326 BC
Battle of Sentinum Third Samnite War 0,033,500 33,500[7] !9704 295 BC
Battle of Heraclea Pyrrhic War 0,011,000 11,000–26,000[7] !9719 280 BC
Battle of Kalinga Kalinga-Maurya Empire 0,150,001 150,000[8]–200,000[9][10] (including civilians) !9737 262 BC
Battle of Changping Qin's wars of unification 0,700,000 700,000 (doubtful, according to ancient sources) !9739 260 BC
Battle of the Trebia Second Punic War 0,035,000 35,000[11] !9781 218 BC
Battle of Lake Trasimene Second Punic War 0,030,000 Approximately 30,000[11] !9782 217 BC
Battle of Cannae Second Punic War 0,056,000 56,000[12]–92,000 or more[13] !9783 216 BC
Battle of the Metaurus Second Punic War 0,012,000 12,000[14] !9792 207 BC
Battle of Zama Second Punic War 0,021,500 21,500[14] !9797 202 BC
Battle of Magnesia Roman–Syrian War 0,053,350 53,350[15] !9809 190 BC
Battle of Pydna Third Macedonian War 0,021,000 21,000[15] !9831 168 BC
Battle of Arausio Germanic Wars (Cimbrian War) 0,084,000 84,000[16][17][18] !9894 105 BC
Battle of Carrhae Roman–Persian Wars 0,024,000 24,000[19] !9946 53 BC
Battle of Pharsalus Caesar's Civil War 0,017,000 17,000[20] !9951 48 BC
Battle of Teutoburg Forest Roman–Germanic wars 0,020,000 20,000[21] !Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "#". #0009 AD
Battle of Watling Street Iceni Revolt 0,080,400 80,400[22] !Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "#". #0061 AD
Battle of Mons Graupius Roman conquest of Britain 0,010,360 10,360[23] !Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "#". #0084 AD
Battle of Red Cliffs Three Kingdoms 0,100,001 Approximately 100,000[24] #0208
Battle of Adrianople Gothic War 0,040,000 40,000 or more[25] #0378
Battle of Fei River Wu Hu Era 0,150,001 150,000 or more [26] #0383
Battle of the Catalaunian Plains Hunnic Invasion 0,165,000 165,000[27] #0451
Battle of Salsu Goguryeo–Sui Wars 0,302,300 302,300[28] #0612
Battle of al-Qādisiyyah Muslim conquest of Persia 0,031,000 31,000[29] #0636
Battle of Muzayyah Muslim conquest of Persia 0,010,000 10,000 #0633
Battle of Ullais Muslim conquest of Persia 0,035,000 35,000[30] #0633
Battle of River Muslim conquest of Persia 0,015,000 more than 15,000[31] #0633
Battle of Walaja Muslim conquest of Persia 0,022,000 22,000[32] #0636
Battle of Saniyy Muslim conquest of Persia 0,005,000 5,000 #0633
Battle of Nahāvand Muslim conquest of Persia 0,028,500 28,500[33] #0642
Battle of Yarmouk Byzantine–Arab Wars 0,070,000 70,000 circa[34] #0636
Battle of Didgori Georgian-Seljuk wars 0,210,000 Approximately 210,000 [35][not in citation given] #1121
Battle of Hattin Ayyubid–Crusader War 0,017,000 17,000–20,000[36] #1187
Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa Reconquista 0,060,000 Approximately 60,000[37] #1212
Battle of the Kalka River Mongol invasion of Rus' 0,020,000 20,000 or more[38] #1223
Battle of Liegnitz Mongol invasion of Poland 0,030,000 Approximately 30,000[39] #1241
Battle of Mohi Mongol invasion of Europe 0,015,000 Approximately 15,000[40] #1241
Siege of Baghdad (1258) Mongol conquests 2,100,000 2,100,000+ including civilians[41] #1258
Battle of Yamen Mongol conquest of the Song Dynasty 0,100,000 Approximately 100,000 #1279
Battle of Bannockburn First War of Scottish Independence 0,019,000 Approximately 19,000[42] #1314
Battle of Kulikovo List of Tatar and Mongol raids against Rus' 0,136,000 Approximately 136,000 #1380
Battle of the Terek River Tokhtamysh–Timur war 0,100,000 Approximately 100,000[43] #1395
Conquest of Delhi Timur's Indian campaign 0,100,000 Approximately 100,000[44][45] #1398
Battle of Ankara Ottoman–Timur War 0,015,000 15,000 or more[46] #1402
Battle of Grunwald Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War 0,013,001 Approximately 13,000[47] #1410
Tumu Crisis Ming–Mongol War 0,200,001 200,000 or more[citation needed] #1449
Battle of Towton Wars of the Roses 0,028,000 28,000[48] #1461
Battle of Kabul Campaigns of Babur 0,020,000 20,000 or more[49] #1504
Battle of Ravenna War of the League of Cambrai 0,013,500 13,500[50] #1512
Battle of Marignano War of the League of Cambrai 0,011,000 11,000–15,000[51] #1515
Battle of Ridaniya Ottoman wars in the Near East 0,013,000 13,000[52] #1517
First Battle of Panipat Mughal Conquest 0,020,000 20,000–50,000[53] #1526
Battle of Mohács Ottoman–Hungarian Wars 0,030,000 Probably 30,000[54] #1526
Battle of Ghaghra Mughal Conquest 0,013,000 Approximately 13,000[55] #1529
Battle of Lepanto Ottoman-Venetian Wars 0,022,566 22,566–27,566[56] #1571
Battle of Sekigahara Sengoku Period 0,060,000 60,000 or less[57] #1600
First Battle of Breitenfeld Thirty Years' War 0,020,000 20,000 or more[58] #1631
Battle of Lützen Thirty Years' War 0,011,000 11,000–14,000[58] #1632
Battle of Nördlingen Thirty Years' War 0,017,000 17,000[59] #1634
Battle of the Downs Eighty Years' War 0,015,000 15,000 or more[60] #1639
Battle of Samugarh Mughal Conquest 0,032,000 32,000[60] #1658
Battle of Khajwa Mughal Conquest 0,020,000 20,000[60] #1659
Battle of Vienna Ottoman–Habsburg wars 0,019,500 19,500[61] #1683
Battle of Bijapur Mughal Conquest 0,017,000 17,000[62] #1686
Battle of Landen War of the Grand Alliance 0,028,000 28,000[62] #1693
Battle of Zenta Ottoman–Habsburg wars 0,030,300 30,300[63] #1697
Battle of Jinji Mughal Conquest 0,016,000 16,000[62] #1698
Battle of Blenheim War of the Spanish Succession 0,032,000 32,000[62] #1704
Battle of Ramillies War of the Spanish Succession 0,015,600 15,600[64] #1706
Battle of Malplaquet War of the Spanish Succession 0,095,000 95,000[64] #1709
Battle of Fontenoy War of the Austrian Succession 0,014,000 14,000[65] #1745
Battle of Leuthen Seven Years' War 0,011,800 11,800[66] #1757
Battle of Zorndorf Seven Years' War 0,030,000 30,000[citation needed] #1758
Third Battle of Panipat Marathas and Afghans 0,100,000 Approximately 100,000; up to 200,000 (including civilian camp followers)[67][68] #1761
Battle of Arcole War of the First Coalition 0,011,000 11,000[69] #1796
Battle of Marengo War of the Second Coalition 0,016,400 16,400[70] #1800
Ulm Campaign War of the Third Coalition 0,011,500 11,500[70] #1805
Battle of Austerlitz War of the Third Coalition 0,024,300 24,300[71] #1805
Battle of Jena-Auerstedt War of the Fourth Coalition 0,052,000 52,000 including prisoners later killed[72] #1806
Battle of Eylau War of the Fourth Coalition 0,040,000 40,000[72] #1807
Battle of Wagram War of the Fifth Coalition 0,077,000 77,000[72]–79,000[73] #1809
Battle of Talavera Peninsular War 0,013,900 13,900[74] #1809
Battle of Salamanca Peninsular War 0,018,800 18,800[75] #1812
Battle of Borodino French Invasion of Russia 0,074,000 74,000[76] #1812
Battle of Berezina French Invasion of Russia 0,060,000 60,000[76] #1812
Battle of Vitoria Peninsular War 0,013,000 13,000[75] #1813
Battle of Leipzig War of the Sixth Coalition 0,124,000 124,000[77] #1813
Battle of Ligny Hundred Days 0,028,000 28,000[78] #1815
Battle of Waterloo Hundred Days 0,047,000 47,000 or more (not including prisoners and missing)[79][80] #1815
Battle of Blood River Zulu purge of Voortrekkers 0,003,000 3,000 or more to Zulu side only (not including wounded)[81] #1838
Battle of Inkerman Crimean War 0,015,857 15,857[82] #1854
Battle of Shiloh American Civil War 0,024,000 24,000[83] #1862
Battle of Antietam American Civil War 0,023,000 23,000[84]–26,193[85] #1862
Battle of Fredericksburg American Civil War 0,017,300 17,300[84]–17,962[86] #1862
Battle of Gettysburg American Civil War 0,051,000 51,000[87][88] #1863
Battle of Chickamauga American Civil War 0,034,000 Approximately 34,000[89] #1863
Battle of Spotsylvania Court House American Civil War 0,030,000 Approximately 30,000[90] #1864
Battle of Königgrätz Austro–Prussian War 0,047,500 47,500[91] #1866
Battle of Tuyutí Paraguayan War 0,016,000 7,000–16,000[92] #1866
Battle of Mars-la-Tour/Battle of Gravelotte Franco–Prussian War 0,034,000 34,000[91] #1870
Battle of Sedan Franco–Prussian War 0,026,000 26,000[93] #1870
Battle of Adowa First Italo–Ethiopian War 0,017,300 17,300[94] #1896
Battle of Binakayan-Dalahican Philippine Revolutionary War 0,005,000 2,000-15,000[95] #1896
Battle of Omdurman Mahdist War 0,020,430 20,430[96] #1898
Battle of Mons/Battle of Le Cateau World War I 0,018,000 18,000[97] #1914
Battle of Sakarya Greco–Turkish War of 1919–22 0,061,000 61,000[98][99] #1921

Sieges and urban combat[edit]

This list includes sieges, as well as modern battles that were fought primarily in urban areas. Major military operations that included city fighting are listed below. Sieges and urban combat often include heavy civilian casualties, which are included in this list.

This list is sortable. Click the box next to a column heading to sort by that criterion.

Siege Conflict Casualties Year
Siege of Sidon Phoenician Rebellion Against Persia 0,040,000 Over 40,000[100] !9656 343 BC
Siege of Jerusalem First Jewish–Roman War 0,060,000 ~60,000 to 1,100,000[101] #0070
Siege of Jerusalem Roman–Persian Wars 0,070,000 ~70,000 to 90,000[102] #0614
Siege of Constantinople Byzantine–Arab Wars 0,130,000 130,000–170,000[34] #0717–718
Siege of Jerusalem First Crusade 0,040,000 ~40,000[103] #1099
Siege of Baghdad Mongol invasions 0,080,000 80,000[104] #1258
Siege of Tenochtitlan Spanish Conquest of Mexico 0,100,000 ~100,000 to 240,000[105][106] #1521
Siege of Rhodes Ottoman wars in Europe 0,055,200 55,200[52] #1522
Siege of Malta Ottoman wars in Europe 0,029,000 29,000[63]–40,000[107] #1565
Siege of La Rochelle French Wars of Religion 0,018,600 Over 18,600[60] #1627–28
Sack of Magdeburg Thirty Years' War 0,020,000 20,000[108]–25,000+[109] #1630
Second Siege of Zaragoza Peninsular War 0,019,000 64,000[110] #1808-09
Siege of Vicksburg American Civil War 0,019,000 19,000[110] #1863
Siege of Petersburg American Civil War 0,070,000 70,000[111] #1864–65
Siege of Plevna Russo–Turkish War 0,037,000 37,000[112] #1877
Siege of Port Arthur Russo–Japanese War 0,100,000 100,000[113] #1904–05
Siege of Adrianople First Balkan War 0,093,282 93,282, including captured[114] #1912–13
Siege of Odessa World War II 0,100,000 133,813[115] #1941
Battle of Stalingrad World War II 1,250,000 1,250,000[116]–1,798,619[117] #1942–43
Siege of Leningrad World War II 4,500,000 1,117,000[118][119] – 4,500,000[120] #1941–44
Warsaw Uprising World War II 0,200,000 200,000+ killed[121] #1944
Siege of Budapest World War II 0,422,000 422,000[122] #1944–45
Battle of Berlin World War II 1,298,745 1,298,745[123][124] #1945
Siege of Changchun Chinese Civil War 0,425,000 425,000[125] #1948[126]
Battle of Kiev World War II 0,700,544 700,544[127] #1941
Nanking Massacre World War II 0,050,000 50,000-300,000 [128] 1937-19381937-38
Siege of Sarajevo Bosnian War 0,012,000 12,000 killed, with 50,000 wounded[129][130] #1992–96


Major operations[edit]

This list includes major operations and prolonged battles or operations fought over a large area or for a long time. The duration of some operations, like the Battle of Moscow, are disputed so numbers found in various sources may differ for that reason alone.

Operation Conflict Casualties Year
Six Days Campaign War of the Sixth Coalition 0,080,000 80,000[77] #1814
Peninsula Campaign American Civil War 0,036,463 36,463[131] #1862
Battle of Chancellorsville American Civil War 0,030,000 30,000[132]–30,500[84] #1863
Overland Campaign American Civil War 0,087,000 87,000[133]–92,000[110] #1864
Appomattox Campaign American Civil War 0,016,500 16,500[111] #1865
Battle of Mukden Russo–Japanese War 0,160,000 160,000[134] #1905
Battle of Lule Burgas First Balkan War 0,042,162 42,162+[135] #1912
First Battle of Çatalca First Balkan War 0,022,000 22,000[136] #1912
Battle of Bregalnica Second Balkan War 0,036,620 36,620[114] #1913
Rape of Belgium World War I 0,032,000 32,000[97] #1914
Battle of Tannenberg World War I 0,145,000 145,000[137]–160,000[138] #1914
First Battle of the Marne World War I 0,513,000 513,000[139] #1914
First Battle of Ypres World War I 0,210,000 210,000[140] #1914
Battle of Łódź World War I 0,130,000 130,000[141] #1914
Second Battle of Ypres World War I 0,104,208 104,208[142]–107,000[143] #1915
Gallipoli Campaign World War I 0,503,000 503,000[142]–552,000[144] #1915
Second Battle of Artois World War I 0,186,000 186,000[142] #1915
Second Battle of ChampagneThird Battle of Artois World War I 0,075,000 75,000[143]–440,000[142] #1915
Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive World War I 0,300,000 300,000[142] #1915
Serbian Campaign (1915) World War I 0,331,000 331,000, including prisoners[145] #1915
Battle of Verdun World War I 0,755,000 755,000[146]–976,000[142] #1916
Battle of Asiago World War I 0,250,000 250,000[142] #1916
Brusilov Offensive World War I 1,600,000 1,600,000[142] #1916
Battle of the Somme World War I 1,120,000 1,120,000[147]–1,215,000[142] #1916
Monastir Offensive World War I 0,111,000 111,000[148] #1916
Romanian Campaign World War I 0,240,000 240,000[142][dubious ] #1916–1917
Nivelle Offensive World War I 0,354,000 354,000[149] #1917
Battle of Messines World War I 0,042,000 42,000[150][151] #1917
Tenth Battle of the Isonzo World War I 0,200,000 200,000[152] #1917
Third Battle of Ypres World War I 0,585,000 Over 585,000[153] #1917
Battle of Caporetto World War I 0,060,000 60,000[154] #1917
Battle of Cambrai World War I 0,095,000 95,000[154] #1917
Spring Offensive World War I 0,900,000 900,000[155] #1918
Second Battle of the Marne World War I 0,288,000 288,000[155] #1918
Battle of Warsaw Polish–Soviet War 0,130,000 About 130,000, not including prisoners[156] #1920
Battle of Guadalajara Spanish Civil War 0,012,000 12,000[157] #1937
Battle of Teruel Spanish Civil War 0,110,000 110,000, including prisoners[158] #1937–38
Battle of the Ebro Spanish Civil War 0,106,500 106,500[158] #1938
Battle of Khalkhin Gol Soviet-Japanese Border Wars 0,042,000 42,000[159] #1939
Invasion of Poland World War II 0,310,000 310,000[160] #1939
Winter War World War II 0,152,000 152,000[160]–225,000[161] #1939–40
Operation Weserübung World War II 0,012,800 12,800[160] #1940
Battle of France World War II 0,469,000 469,000[162] #1940
Greco-Italian War World War II 0,100,000 100,000 dead[163] #1940–41
Battle of Greece World War II 0,046,295 46,295 dead[164] #1941
Battle of Crete World War II 0,016,007 16,007 dead [165] #1941
Operation Barbarossa World War II 1,800,000 1,400,000[166]–5,000,000[167] #1941
Battle of Moscow World War II 1,000,000 1,000,000[166] #1941
Battle of Hong Kong World War II 0,018,000 18,000 including prisoners[168] #1941
Battle of Malaya/Battle of Singapore World War II 0,143,800 143,800, and 60,000 prisoners[169] #1941–42
Battle of Bataan/Battle of Corregidor World War II 0,030,000 30,000 killed[170] #1942
Battle of the Kerch Peninsula World War II 0,176,000 Over 176,000[171] #1942
Second Battle of Kharkov World War II 0,300,000 300,000[171] #1942
Battle of Gazala World War II 0,148,000 148,000[172] #1942
Guadalcanal Campaign World War II 0,031,100 31,100[173] #1942–43
Second Battle of El Alamein World War II 0,039,400 39,400[172]–82,500[174] #1942
Operation Iskra World War II 0,129,332 129,332[175] #1943
Guadalcanal Campaign World War II 0,029,100 29,100 dead[176] #1942–43
Battle of Kursk World War II 0,257,125 257,125[177]–388,000[178] #1943
Dnieper Campaign World War II 1,582,000 1,582,000 (lowest est.) - 2,480,000 (highest est.) #1943
Allied invasion of Sicily World War II 0,036,000 At least 36,000 killed, and over 100,000 Italian POWs[179] #1943
Allied invasion of Italy World War II 0,017,092 17,092 killed[180] #1943
Bougainville Campaign World War II 0,021,929 21,929 killed, and 23,571 Japanese prisoners[181] #1943–45
Battle of Monte Cassino World War II 0,185,000 185,000[182] #1944
Battle of Narva World War II 0,550,000 550,000 all causes[183] #1944
Operation Shingle World War II 0,052,200 52,200 killed[184] #1944
Normandy Landings World War II 0,014,000 14,000 – 19,000[185] #1944
First Jassy–Kishinev Offensive World War II 0,195,000 195,000[186] #1944
Battle of Saipan World War II 0,043,500 43,500 killed, including mass suicides[187] #1944
Operation Bagration World War II 0,528,000 528,000[122]–1,430,000[188] #1944
Falaise Pocket World War II 0,140,000 140,000[189] #1944
Second Jassy–Kishinev Offensive World War II 0,485,424 485,424, including prisoners[190][191] #1944
Operation Market Garden World War II 0,027,200 27,200[192] #1944
Battle of Hürtgen Forest World War II 0,063,000 63,000[193] #1944–45
Battle of Leyte Gulf World War II 0,012,000 12,000 killed[194] #1944
Battle of the Bulge World War II 0,186,369 186,369[195] #1944–45
Battle of Luzon World War II 0,340,330 332,330–345,330, including sick[196] #1945
Battle of the Rhineland World War II 0,082,000 82,000 and 250,000 prisoners[197] #1945
Battle of Iwo Jima World War II 0,044,821 44,821[198]–48,700[199] #1945
Battle of Okinawa World War II 0,113,920 113,920[200]–158,400[201] #1945
Arab–Israeli War Arab–Israeli conflict 0,012,000 12,000–19,000[202] #1948–49
Liaoshen Campaign Chinese Civil War 0,542,000 542,000, including captured[203] #1948
Huaihai Campaign Chinese Civil War 0,689,000 689,000, including captured[204] #1948
Pingjin Campaign Chinese Civil War 0,560,000 560,000, including captured[205] #1948–49
Battle of Inchon Korean War 0,017,429 17,429[206] #1950
Invasion of North Korea Korean War 0,051,700 51,700[207] #1950
Battle of Dien Bien Phu First Indochina War 0,031,500 31,500, not including prisoners[208] #1954
Tet Offensive Vietnam War 0,065,000 65,000[209] #1968
Operation OAU Nigerian Civil War 0,030,000 30,000[209] #1968
Easter Offensive Vietnam War 0,150,000 150,000[209] #1972
Yom Kippur War Arab–Israeli conflict 0,021,688 21,688, not including prisoners[210] #1973
Falklands War Falklands War 0,014,095 14,095, including prisoners[211] #1982
1982 Lebanon War Israeli–Lebanese conflict 0,018,500 18,500[210] #1982–85
Gulf War Gulf War 0,025,678 25,678[211] #1991
Invasion of Iraq Iraq War 0,034,543 34,543[212] #2003

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Grant, p. 17
  2. ^ a b Herodotus (440 BC). Histories.
  3. ^ a b Grant, p. 23
  4. ^ a b Grant, p. 26
  5. ^ Grant, p. 28
  6. ^ a b Grant, p. 27
  7. ^ a b Grant, p. 37
  8. ^ Grant, p. 56
  9. ^ Ashoka the Great (r. 272–231 BC), Edicts of Ashoka, Major Rock Edict 13.
  10. ^ Radhakumud Mookerji (1988). Chandragupta Maurya and His Times. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 81-208-0405-8.
  11. ^ a b Grant, p. 39
  12. ^ Grant, p. 40
  13. ^ Leonard Cottrell (1965). Enemy of Rome. Evans Bros. ISBN 0-237-44320-1.
  14. ^ a b Grant, p. 41
  15. ^ a b Grant, p. 31
  16. ^ Valerius Antias (1st century BC). Manubiae.
  17. ^ Albert A. Howard (1906). "Valerius Antias and Livy", Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 17, p. 161–182.
  18. ^ Canon Rawlinson (1877). "On the Ethnography of the Cimbri", The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 6, p. 150–158.
  19. ^ Grant, p. 43
  20. ^ Grant, p. 47
  21. ^ Wells, Peter S. The Battle that stopped Rome. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. 2003, p. 187. ISBN 0-393-32643-8.
  22. ^ http://www.search.com/reference/Battle_of_Watling_Street
  23. ^ Grant, p. 49
  24. ^ Records of Three Kingdoms,
  25. ^ Grant, p. 51
  26. ^ Book of Jin,
  27. ^ Jordanes (22 April 1997). "The Origin and Deeds of the Goths, chapter XLI". Translated by Charles C. Mierow. 
  28. ^ Book of Sui, Vol. 60.
  29. ^ The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History By Ibn Khaldūn, Franz Rosenthal, N. J.. Dawood pg, 12.
  30. ^ "The Sword of Allah", Chapter 22, by Lieutenant-General Agha Ibrahim Akram, Nat. Publishing. House, Rawalpindi (1970) ISBN 978-0-7101-0104-4.
  31. ^ A.I.Akram, Sword of Allah, Khalid ibn Walid, ch.13th, pg.137
  32. ^ A. I. Akram (1970). The Sword of Allah: Khalid bin al-Waleed, His Life and Campaigns. National Publishing House, Rawalpindi. ISBN 0-7101-0104-X.
  33. ^ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/arab-ii
  34. ^ a b Grant, p. 74
  35. ^ [1]
  36. ^ Jonathan Riley-Smith, the Crusades, 2005, p. 109
  37. ^ Grant, p. 89
  38. ^ Jackson, Peter (2005). The Mongols and the West, 1221–1410. Pearson Education Limited.
  39. ^ Grant, p. 92
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References[edit]