Mostar

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the city in Herzegovina, not the Motorola Mostar two-way radio.
Mostar
Мостар
City
Mostar and the Old Bridge
Mostar and the Old Bridge
Flag of Mostar
Flag
Coat of arms of Mostar
Coat of arms
Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Mostar)
Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Mostar)
Coordinates: 43°20′N 17°48′E / 43.333°N 17.800°E / 43.333; 17.800
Country Bosnia and Herzegovina
Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Canton Herzegovina-Neretva
Founded 1452
Government
 • Mayor Ljubo Bešlić (HDZ)
Area
 • City 1,175 km2 (454 sq mi)
Elevation 60 m (200 ft)
Population
 • City 65,286
 • Density 96,3/km2 (2,490/sq mi)
 • Urban 113,169
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 88000
Area code(s) (+387) 36
Website Official website

Mostar (Cyrillic: Мостар) is a city and municipality in southern Bosnia and Herzegovina. Inhabited by 113,169 people,[1] it is one of the most important cities in the Herzegovina region, its cultural capital, and the center of the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation. Mostar is situated on the Neretva River and is the fifth-largest city in the country. Mostar was named after the bridge keepers (natively: mostari) who in the medieval times guarded the Stari Most (Old Bridge) over the Neretva. The Old Bridge, built by the Ottomans in the 16th century, is one of Bosnia and Herzegovina's most recognizable landmarks, and is considered one of the most exemplary pieces of Islamic architecture in the Balkans.[2][3][4][5]

History[edit]

Human settlements on the river Neretva, between the Hum Hill and the Velež Mountain, have existed since prehistory, as witnessed by discoveries of fortified enceintes and cemeteries. Evidence of Roman occupation was discovered beneath the present town.[6]

As far as medieval Mostar goes, although the Christian basilicas of late antiquity remained in use, few historical sources were preserved and not much is known about this period. The name of Mostar was first mentioned in a document dating from 1474, taking its name from the bridge-keepers (mostari); this refers to the existence of a wooden bridge from the market on the left bank of the river which was used by traders, soldiers, and other travelers. During this time it was also the seat of a kadiluk (district with a regional judge). Since Mostar was on the trade route between the Adriatic and the mineral-rich regions of central Bosnia, the settlement began to spread to the right bank of the river.[6]

Prior to the 1474 the names of two towns appear in medieval historical sources, along with their later medieval territories and properties – the towns of Nebojša and Cimski grad. In the early 15th century the late medieval county of Večenike covered the site of the present-day Mostar along the right bank of the Neretva: Zahum, Cim, Ilići, Hraštani and Vojno. It was at the center of this area, which in 1408 belonged to the Radivojević's, that Cim fort was built (prior to 1443). Mostar is indirectly referred to in a charter of King Alfonso V of Aragon dating from 1454 as Pons (Bridge), for a bridge had already been built there. Prior to 1444, the Nebojša fort was built on the left bank of the Neretva, which belonged to the late medieval county still known as Večenike or Večerić.[7] The earliest documentary reference to Mostar as a settlement dates from April 3, 1452, when natives of Dubrovnik wrote to their fellow countrymen in the service of Đorđe Branković to say that Vladislav Hercegović had turned against his father and occupied the town called Blagaj and other places, including “Duo Castelli al ponte de Neretua.”.[8]

People of Mostar in 1890-1900

In 1468 Mostar came under Ottoman rule[8] and the urbanization of the settlement began. Following the unwritten oriental rule, the town was organized into two distinct areas: čaršija, the crafts and commercial centre of the settlement, and mahala or a residential area. In 1468 Mostar acquired the name Köprühisar, meaning fortress at the bridge, at the centre of which was a cluster of 15 houses.[9]

The town was fortified between the years 1520 and 1566, and the wooden bridge was rebuilt in stone.[6] The stone bridge, the Old Bridge (Stari Most), was erected in 1566 on the orders of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman ruler.[10] Later becoming the city's symbol, the Old Bridge (Stari Most) is one of the most important structures of the Ottoman era and perhaps Bosnia's most recognizable architectural piece, and was designed by Mimar Hayruddin,[4] a student and apprentice of the famous Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan. In the late 16th century, Mostar was the chief administrative city for the Ottoman Empire in the Herzegovina region.

The Stari Most bridge: 28 meters long and 20 meters high (90' by 64'), quickly became a wonder in its own time. The famous traveler Evliya Çelebi wrote in the 17th century that: the bridge is like a rainbow arch soaring up to the skies, extending from one cliff to the other. ...I, a poor and miserable slave of Allah, have passed through 16 countries, but I have never seen such a high bridge. It is thrown from rock to rock as high as the sky.[11]

The Austro-Hungarian Empire absorbed Mostar in 1878 and it ruled there until the aftermath of World War I in 1918. During this period, Mostar was recognized as the unofficial capital of all of Herzegovina[12] (as it always was). The first church in the city of Mostar, a Serbian Orthodox Church, was built in 1834 during Ottoman rule. In 1881 the town became the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Mostar-Duvno and in 1939, it became a part of the Banovina of Croatia. During World War II Mostar was also an important city in the fascist Independent State of Croatia.

The Old Town Street

After the World War II, Mostar developed a production of plastics, tobacco, bauxite, wine, aircraft and aluminium products. Several dams (Grabovica, Salakovac, Mostar) were built in the region to harness the hydroelectric power of the Neretva. The city was a major industrial and tourist center and prospered economically during the time of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

Between 1992 and 1993, after Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence from Yugoslavia, the town was subject to an 18 month siege. The Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) first bombed Mostar on 3 April 1992, and over the following week gradually established control over a large part of the town. By 12 June 1992, the 4th Corps of the ARBiH (which was one of five later seven corps formed in 1992) and the Croatian Defence Council (HVO) in a joined action amassed enough strength to force the JNA out of Mostar. The JNA responded with shelling. Amongst the monuments destroyed were a Franciscan monastery, the Catholic cathedral and the bishop's palace (with a library of 50,000 books), a number of secular institutions as well as the Karadžoz-bey mosque, and thirteen other mosques.

In mid June 1992, after the battle line moved eastward, the HVO demolished the Serbian Orthodox Žitomislić Monastery as well as the Saborna Crkva (Orthodox Cathedral Church) that was built in 1863-1873. During the Bosnian War of 1992-95, the Serb Orthodox Cathedral of the Holy Trinity (Serbian: Саборна црква Св. Тројице) and the Church of the Birth of the Most Holy Virgin (Црква Рођења Пресвете Богородице/Crkva Rođenja Presvete Bogorodice), both dating to the mid 19th century, were demolished by the HVO.[13][14] The cathedral was also known as the New Orthodox Church (Нова православна црква/Nova pravoslavna crkva), while the latter was known as the Old Orthodox Church (Стара православна црква/Stara pravoslavna crkva). According to the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Nikola Špirić, the reconstruction of the cathedral was due to begin in Spring 2008, and was to be funded by Prince Charles.[15]

On 18 November 1991, the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ) branch in Bosnia and Herzegovina proclaimed the existence of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Mostar was divided into a western part, which was dominated by the Croat forces, and an eastern part, where the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was largely concentrated with most of the Bosniak population being expelled and driven from their homes in the western part of the city during the war. After the war, the ICTY accused the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia leadership for the crimes against humanity and other war crimes during the war, including the destruction of the Stari Most.

Geography[edit]

Climate[edit]

Mostar, and Herzegovina area in general, have more affinity to the Croatian region of Dalmatia, which can be oppressively hot during the summer. In Mostar, situated along the Neretva River, the coldest month is January, averaging about 41 °F (5 °C), and the warmest month is July, averaging about 78 °F (26 °C). Mostar experiences a relatively dry season from June to September. The remainder of the year is wet and mild.[16] The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is Cfa, which in this case is an "Oceanic climate with hot summers and Mediterranean tendency" (close to Csa subtype).[17]

During the 2012 European cold wave, Mostar experienced unusual cold weather with temperatures below zero[clarification needed] lasting for days and a record snow depth of 86 cm (34 inches).[18]

Climate data for Mostar
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8.4
(47.1)
10.8
(51.4)
14.6
(58.3)
19.0
(66.2)
24.0
(75.2)
27.6
(81.7)
31.1
(88)
30.8
(87.4)
26.9
(80.4)
21.0
(69.8)
14.5
(58.1)
9.7
(49.5)
19.87
(67.76)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.2
(41.4)
7.0
(44.6)
10.0
(50)
13.7
(56.7)
18.7
(65.7)
21.7
(71.1)
24.9
(76.8)
24.6
(76.3)
21.1
(70)
16.1
(61)
10.6
(51.1)
6.5
(43.7)
15.01
(59.03)
Average low °C (°F) 1.9
(35.4)
3.2
(37.8)
5.4
(41.7)
8.4
(47.1)
12.5
(54.5)
15.8
(60.4)
18.6
(65.5)
18.4
(65.1)
15.3
(59.5)
11.2
(52.2)
6.7
(44.1)
3.3
(37.9)
10.06
(50.1)
Precipitation mm (inches) 165
(6.5)
151
(5.94)
150
(5.91)
127
(5)
102
(4.02)
78
(3.07)
43
(1.69)
74
(2.91)
96
(3.78)
151
(5.94)
200
(7.87)
179
(7.05)
1,516
(59.68)
Avg. precipitation days 13 12 12 13 12 12 7 8 8 11 13 13 134
Source: World Meteorological Organisation (UN)[19]

Subdivision[edit]

Mostar municipality is composed by the town itself and 56 villages and suburbs. They are:

Bačevići, Banjdol, Blagaj, Bogodol, Buna, Cim, Čule, Dobrč, Donja Drežnica, Donji Jasenjani, Dračevice, Gnojnice, Goranci, Gornja Drežnica, Gornje Gnojnice, Gornji Jasenjani, Gubavica, Hodbina, Humilišani, Ilići, Jasenica, Kosor, Kremenac, Krivodol, Kružanj, Kutilivač, Lakševine, Malo Polje, Miljkovići, Orlac, Ortiješ, Pijesci, Podgorani, Podgorje, Podvelež, Polog, Potoci, Prigrađani, Rabina, Raška Gora, Raštani, Ravni, Rodoč, Selište, Slipčići, Sovići, Sretnice, Striževo, Vihovići, Vojno, Vranjevići, Vrapčići, Vrdi, Željuša, Žitomislići and Žulja.

After the Bosnian War, following the Dayton Agreement, the villages of Kamena, Kokorina and Zijemlje were separated to Mostar to form the new municipality of Istočni Mostar (East Mostar), in the Republika Srpska.

Architecture[edit]

Mostar has architecturally noteworthy buildings in a wide range of styles. Historicist architectural styles reflected cosmopolitan interest and exposure to foreign aesthetic trends and were artfully merged with indigenous styles. Examples include the Italianate Franciscan church, the Ottoman Muslibegovića house, the Dalmatian Corovic House and an Orthodox church which was built as gift from the Sultan.

The Ottomans used monumental architecture to affirm, extend and consolidate their colonial holdings. Administrators and bureaucrats – many of them indigenous people who converted from Christianity to Islam – founded mosque complexes that generally included Koranic schools, soup kitchens or markets.[20]

Old Town of Mostar
Gimnazija Mostar, designed by architect František Blažek

Out of the thirteen original mosques dating from the 16th and 17th centuries, seven have been lost during the 20th century for ideological reasons or by bombardment. One of the two 19th-century Orthodox churches has also disappeared, while the early 20th-century synagogue, after suffering severe damage in the World War II, has been converted into a theatre. Several Ottoman inns also survived, along with other buildings from this period of Mostar's history, such as fountains and schools.[6]

The Old Bridge

The majority of administrative buildings are from the Austro-Hungarian period and have neoclassical and Secessionist characteristics. A number of surviving late Ottoman houses demonstrate the component features of this form of domestic architecture - upper storey for residential use, hall, paved courtyard, and verandah on one or two storeys. The later 19th-century residential houses are predominantly in neoclassical style.[6]

A number of early trading and craft buildings still exist, notably some low shops in wood or stone, stone storehouses, and a group of former tanneries round an open courtyard. Once again, the 19th-century commercial buildings are predominantly neoclassical. A number of elements of the early fortifications are visible. Namely the Hercegusa Tower dating from the medieval period, whereas the Ottoman defence edifices are represented by the Halebinovka and Tara Towers - the watchtowers on the ends of the Old Bridge, and a stretch of the ramparts.[6]

During the period of Austro-Hungarian rule (1878–1918), Mostar’s city council cooperated with the Austro-Hungarians to implement sweeping reforms in city planning: broad avenues and an urban grid were imposed on the western bank of the Neretva, and significant investments were made in infrastructure, communications and housing. City administrators like Mustafa Mujaga Komadina were central players in these transformations, which facilitated growth and linked the eastern and western banks of the city. Noteworthy examples of Austro-Hungarian architecture include the Municipality building, which was designed by the architect Josip Vancas from Sarajevo, Residential districts around the Rondo, and Gimnazija Mostar from 1902 designed by František Blažek.

Between 1948 and 1974 the industrial base was expanded with construction of a metal-working factory, cotton textile mills, and an aluminum plant. Skilled workers, both men and women, entered the work force and the social and demographic profile of the city was broadened dramatically; between 1945 and 1980, Mostar’s population grew from 18,000 to 100,000.

Because Mostar’s eastern bank was burdened by inadequate infrastructure, the city expanded on the western bank with the construction of large residential blocks. Local architects favored an austere modernist aesthetic, prefabrication and repetitive modules. Commercial buildings in the functionalist style appeared on the historic eastern side of the city as well, replacing more intimate timber constructions that had survived since Ottoman times. In the 1970s and 1980s, a healthy local economy fueled by foreign investment spurred recognition and conservation of the city’s cultural heritage. An economically sustainable plan to preserve the old town of Mostar was implemented by the municipality, which drew thousands of tourists from the Adriatic coast and invigorated the economy of the city. The results of this ten-year project earned Mostar an Aga Khan Award for Architecture in 1986.[20]

The oldest single arch stone bridge in Mostar, the Kriva Cuprija ("Sloping Bridge"), was built in 1558 by the Ottoman architect Cejvan Kethoda. It is said that this was to be a test before the major construction of the Stari Most began. The Old Bridge was completed in 1566 and was hailed as one of the greatest architectural achievement in the Ottoman controlled Balkans. This single-arch stone bridge is an exact replica of the original bridge that stood for over 400 years and that was designed by Hajrudin, a student of the great Ottoman architect Sinan. It spans 28.7 meters of the Neretva river, 21 meters above the summer water level. The Halebija and Tara towers have always housed the guardians of the bridge and during Ottoman times were also used as storehouses for ammunition. The arch is a perfect semicircle 8.56 m in width and 4.15 m in height. The frontage and vault are made of regular stone cubes incorporated into the horizontal layers all along the vault. The space between vault, frontal walls and footpath is filled with cracked stone. The bridge footpath and the approaching roads are paved with cobblestones, as is the case with the main roads in the town. Stone steps enable people to ascend to the bridge either side. During the armed conflict between Bosniaks and Bosnian Croats in the Bosnian War in the 1990s, the bridge was destroyed by the Croatian Defence Council.

Koski Mehmed pasa Mosque.

The Cejvan Cehaj Mosque, built in 1552, is the oldest mosque in Mostar. Later a madrasah (Islamic school) was built on the same compound. The Old Bazaar, Kujundziluk is named after the goldsmiths who traditionally created and sold their wares on this street, and still sells authentic paintings and copper or bronze carvings of the Stari Most, pomegranates (the natural symbol of Herzegovina) or the famed stećaks (medieval tombstones).

The Koski Mehmed Paša Mosque, built in 1617 is open to visitors. Visitors may enter the mosque and take photos free of charge. The minaret is also open to the public and is accessible from inside the mosque. Just around the corner from the mosque is the Tepa Market. This has been a busy marketplace since Ottoman times. It now sells mostly fresh produce grown in Herzegovina and, when in season, the figs and pomegranates are extremely popular. Local honey is also a prominent specialty, being produced all around Herzegovina.

Reconstruction[edit]

The Old Bridge undergoing reconstruction in June 2003.

Since the end of the wider war in 1995, great progress has been made in the reconstruction of the city of Mostar. The city was under direct monitoring from a European Union envoy, several elections were held and each nation was accommodated with regard to political control over the city. Over 15 million dollars has been spent on restoration.[citation needed]

A monumental project to rebuild the Old Bridge, which was destroyed during the Bosnian war, to the original design, and restore surrounding structures and historic neighbourhoods was initiated in 1999 and mostly completed by Spring 2004. The money for this reconstruction was donated by Spain[citation needed] (who had a sizable contingent of peacekeeping troops stationed in the surrounding area during the conflict), the United States, Turkey, Italy, the Netherlands, and Croatia. A grand opening was held on 23 July 2004 under heavy security.

In parallel with the restoration of the Old Bridge, the Aga Khan Trust for Culture and the World Monuments Fund, with funding provided by the World Bank, undertook a five-year long restoration and rehabilitation effort in historic Mostar. Realizing early on that the reconstruction of the bridge without an in-depth rehabilitation of the surrounding historic neighbourhoods would be devoid of context and meaning, they shaped the programme in such a way as to establish a framework of urban conservation schemes and individual restoration projects that would help regenerate the most significant areas of historic Mostar, and particularly the urban tissue around the Old Bridge. The project also resulted in the establishment of the Stari Grad Agency which has an important role in overseeing the ongoing implementation of the conservation plan, as well as operating and maintaining a series of restored historic buildings (including the Old Bridge complex) and promoting Mostar as a cultural and tourist destination. The official inauguration of the Stari grad Agency coincided with the opening ceremony of the Bridge.[21]

The Old Bridge in September 2008 after reconstruction.

In July 2005, UNESCO inscribed the Old Bridge and its closest vicinity onto the World Heritage List.

Culture[edit]

The city is the birthplace of many famous people, including Aleksa Šantić, Alois Podhajsky, Džemal Bijedić, Osman Đikić, Avdo Humo, Vladimir Ćorović, Svetozar Ćorović, Elisabeth Radó, Senad Lulić, Predrag Matvejević, Himzo Polovina, Zlatko Ugljen, and Grga Martić. Mostar is also widely celebrated in popular lore, featured frequently as the setting for books, movies, and television programs. Dani Matice Hrvatske is one of city's significant cultural events and it is commonly sponsored by the Croatian Government and the Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Mostar Summer is another umbrella event which includes Šantić Poetry Evenings, Mostar Summer Festival and Festival of Bosnia and Herzegovina choirs/ensembles. The city is a home of music festival called Melodije Mostara (Mostar Melodies) which has been held annually since 1995. Theatre festivals include Mostarska Liska (organized by the National Theatre Mostar) and The Mostar Spring (organized by the Matica hrvatska Mostar).[22][23]

Mostar Art institutions include:

Mostar cuisine is balanced between Western and Eastern influences. Traditional Mostar food is closely related to Turkish, Middle Eastern and other Mediterranean cuisines. However, due to years of Austrian rule and influence, there are also many culinary influences from Central Europe.[24][25] Some of the famous dishes include ćevapčići, burek, sarma, japrak, musaka, dolma, sujuk, sač, đuveč, and sataraš. Famous local desserts include baklava, hurmašice, sutlijaš, tulumbe, tufahije, and šampita.

Economy[edit]

The construction of the largest shopping center in Bosnia and Herzegovina- "Mepas Mall"

Mostar's economy relies heavily on the aluminum and metal industry, banking services and telecommunication sector.[citation needed] The city is the seat of some of the country's largest corporations.

Along with Sarajevo, it is the largest financial center in Bosnia-Herzegovina, with two out of three largest banks in the country having their headquarters in Mostar.[26][27] Bosnia-Herzegovina has three national electric, postal and telecommunication service corporations; one of them in each group has its seat in Mostar (electric service corporation 'Elektroprivreda HZHB', postal service company Hrvatska Pošta Mostar and HT Mostar, the third largest telecommunication company in the country). These three companies (along with banks and aluminium factory) make a vast portion of overall economic activity in the city.[citation needed] The private sector has seen a notable increase in small and medium enterprises over the past couple of years contributing to the positive business climate.[citation needed]

Considering the fact that three dams are situated on the city of Mostar’s territory, the city has a solid base for further development of production. There is also an ongoing project for the possible use of wind power and building of windmills.

Prior to the 1991-1995 Bosnian War, Mostar relied on other important companies which had been closed, damaged or downsized. They included SOKO (military aircraft factory), Fabrika duhana Mostar (tobacco industry), and Hepok (food industry). In 1981 Mostar's GDP per capita was 103% of the Yugoslav average[28]

The only company from the former Yugoslavia, which still works well is Aluminij. Aluminij is one of the country's strongest companies and it has a number of international partners. The company steadily increases its annual production and it collaborates with leading global corporations such as Daimler Chrysler and Fiat.[29] Aluminij is one of the most influential companies in the city, region, but also country. In relation to the current manufacturing capacity it generates an annual export of more than 150 million. The partners with which the Aluminij does business are renowned global companies, from which the most important are: Venture Coke Company L.L.C. (Venco-Conoco joint Venture) from the USA, Glencore International AG from Switzerland, Debis International trading GmbH, Daimler-Chrysler and VAW Aluminium Technologie GmbH from Germany, Hydro ASA from Norway, Fiat from Italy, and TLM-Šibenik from Croatia[5]. Mostar area alone receives an income of €40 million annually from Aluminij.

Mostar also hosts the annual International Economic Fair Mostar ("Međunarodni sajam gospodarstva Mostar")[30] which was first held in 1997. The Fair consist of several smaller sections: "The Economy Fair", "Wine Fair", "Book Fair" and "Food Day".

Demographics[edit]

A waitress in the Old City of Mostar

Mostar now is the city with the largest population of Croats in Bosnia-Herzegovina. It has estimated population of 105,448.[citation needed] As in many other Bosnia and Herzegovina cities, its demographic profile was significantly altered after the 1992-1995 Bosnian war. The last demographic research was conducted in 1991 and its results were as follows:[31]

Today only unofficial estimates on demographic structure exist. According to the official data of the local elections 2008, among 6 city election districts, three western ones (Croatian-majority) have 53,917 registered voters, and those three on the east (Bosniak majority) have 34,712 voters.[32] The Serbs of Mostar amounted to approximately 30% of the population at the outbreak of the Bosnian War in 1992, during which a majority of them left or were forced to leave.[citation needed]

City government[edit]

Mostar at night

The City of Mostar has the status of a municipality. The city government is led by the Mayor. The current Mayor of Mostar is Ljubo Bešlić (HDZ). The City Council is composed of 35 representatives, coming from the following political parties:

2008 constitutional crisis

According to the constitution, imposed by High Representative Paddy Ashdown on January 28, 2004 after local politicians failed to reach an agreement, the mayor of Mostar has to be elected by the city council with 2/3 majority.[33][34] Ashdown abolished the six municipalities that were divided equally among Bosniaks and Croats and replaced them with six electoral units,[35] ridding Mostar of duplicate institutions and costs.[36] In the process Ashdown also reduced the number of elected officials from 194 to 35.[35] According to the constitution the constitutive nations of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs) are guaranteed a minimum of four seats and a maximum of 15 seats.[35] 18 deputies are elected by the election units: 3 deputies from each district and 15 deputies are elected at the level of entire city.[34] This move was opposed by the Party for Democratic Action (SDA) and the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ).[35]

In October 2008, there were elections for the city council. Relative winners were HDZ BiH with the greatest number of votes. However, neither party had enough votes to ensure election of the mayor from their party. The city council met 16 times without success. Eventually OHR was involved and High Representative made some minor changes to city's Statute. After that Ljubo Bešlić, running as a candidate of Croatian Democratic Union, was reelected as a mayor.

In a January 26 poll organized by the international community, 75 percent of Mostar’s citizens said that they support the idea of a unified city.[35]

Statute of the City of Mostar

In 2011. the constitutional court declared current Statute as unconstitutional, because the numbers of deputies from city districts don't match the number of voters in each district. The City is waiting for the new Statute to be created, and many believe that such a thing will need to be carried by OHR. In November 2011 Roderick W. Moore, the Principal Deputy High Representative, emphasized the importance of the urgent acts towards adoption of the new, constitutional Statute.

Education[edit]

Mostar has a number of various educational institutions. These include University of Mostar, University "Džemal Bijedić" of Mostar, United World College in Mostar, nineteen high-schools and twenty four elementary schools.[37] High-schools include sixteen vocational schools and three gymnasiums.[38]

University Džemal Bijedić of Mostar (Bosnian: Универзитет "Џемал Биједић" у Мостару/Univerzitet Džemal Bijedić u Mostaru) is the older of the two state universities and consists of eight faculties.[39] It employs around 250 professors and staff members. According to the Federal Office of Statistics, Džemal Bijedić University had 3443 students enrolled during the 2012/2013 academic year.[40]

The country's higher education reform and the signing of the Bologna Process have forced both universities to put aside their rivalry to some extent and try to make themselves more competitive on a regional level.[citation needed]

University of Mostar (Croatian: Sveučilište u Mostaru; Latin: Universitas Studiorum Mostariensis) is the largest university in the city and the only Croatian language university in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Herzegovina Franciscan Theological School, which was founded in 1895 and closed in 1945, was the first higher education institution in Mostar.[41] Today's University seal shows the building of the Franciscan Monastery.

As of 2012/2013 University of Mostar had 9896 students enrolled at eleven faculties making it the largest university in the city.[40] University, in total, is attended by 30 356 students on Bologna process of education.

United World College Mostar[edit]

The UWC Mostar is part of the broader UWC movement, founded in 1962, following the concept of the German educationalist Kurt Hahn, who believed that much could be done to overcome religious, cultural and racial misunderstanding and avoid conflict if young people from all over the world could be brought together.

Standing on the sharp edge of the UWC mission by being based in the City Of Mostar, emblematic of the bitterness and divisions of the war of the 90’s, the UWC Mostar enriches the UWC movement by adding its unique aim: “To equip the next generations of young people in Bosnia and Herzegovina with the knowledge, skills, leadership qualities and international values, necessary to bridge the still existing ethnic divisions and move their country into the 21st century.”

Their aim of the school is to reach and to influence those young people in Bosnia who are seeking to shape their future in a society that has yet to come to terms with its past. They are the future of the country and its hope for reconciliation.

Furthermore, the UWC Mostar broadens this special mission by offering the same opportunities to the young people from all over the world, especially those coming from other post-conflict countries, particularly from the Balkans. All of them get full scholarships for attending the College which is called the “lighthouse” for the education reform in the region. We regard our recommendations as reaching out to those generations of potential leaders who are the future of the region and its hope for reconciliation.

The UWC Mostar educates students to learn and appreciate their differences, at the same time promoting equality, tolerance and critical thinking.

Sports[edit]

One of the most popular sports in Mostar is football. The two most successful teams are FK Velež Mostar and Zrinjski. FK Velež Mostar won the Yugoslav cup in 1981 and 1986 which was one of the most significant accomplishments this club has achieved. Today two teams from Mostar compete in the Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Since the Bosnian War each club has generally been supported by a particular ethnic group (Velež for the Bosniaks and Zrinjski for the Croats). The matches between the two clubs are some of the country's most intense matches.

Bijeli Brijeg Stadium (former stadium of FK Velež) and Vrapčići Stadium are the city's two main football grounds.

In basketball, HKK Zrinjski Mostar competes at the nation's highest level while the Zrinjski banner also represents the city in the top handball league. Vahid Halilhodžić, a former Bosnian football player who currently manages the Algerian national football team, started his professional career in FK Velež Mostar.[42]

Springtime in Mostar by Tivadar Kosztka Csontváry (1853–1919)

Tourism[edit]

Mostar is an important tourist destination in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Mostar International Airport serves the city as well as the train and bus stations which connect it to a number of national and international destinations. Mostar's old town is an important tourist destination with the Stari Most being its most recognizable feature.

Some of the Mostar's noteworthy sites include Bishop’s Ordinariate building, the remains of the Early Christian Basilica Cim, Public Turkish Bath (hammam), clock tower (sahat-kula), Synagogue (1889) and Jewish Memorial Cemetery, Nesuh-aga Vučjaković Mosque, Hadži-Kurt Mosque or Tabačica, Metropolitan Palace (1908), Karagöz Bey Mosque (1557), Orthodox Church, Catholic Church and Franciscan Monastery, Ottoman Residences (16th-19th century), Crooked Bridge Mostar, Tara and Halebija Towers.[43]

The Partisan cemetery in Mostar, which is a World War II memorial, is another important symbol of the city. It was designed by the famous architect Bogdan Bogdanović. Its sacrosanct quality is derived from the unity of nature (water and greenery) with the architectural expression of the designer; the monument was inscribed on the list of National Monuments in 2006.[44]

The Catholic pilgrimage site of Međugorje is also nearby as well as the Tekija Dervish Monastery in Blagaj, 13th-century town of Počitelj, Blagaj Fort (Stjepan-grad), Kravice Falls, seaside town of Neum, Roman villa rustica from the early fourth century Mogorjelo, Stolac with its famous stećak necropolis and the remains of an ancient Greek town of Daorson. Nearby sites also include the nature park called Hutovo Blato, archeological site Desilo, Lake Boračko as well as Vjetrenica cave, the largest and most important cave in Bosnia and Herzegovina.[45]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Mostar is twinned with:[46]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Census 2013th official data.
  2. ^ Balić, Smail (1973). Kultura Bošnjaka: Muslimanska Komponenta. Vienna. pp. 32–34. Retrieved June 7, 2013. 
  3. ^ Čišić, Husein. Razvitak i postanak grada Mostara. Štamparija Mostar. p. 22. Retrieved June 7, 2013. 
  4. ^ a b Stratton, Arthur (1972). Sinan. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0-684-12582-X. 
  5. ^ Stover, Eric; Harvey M. Weinstein (2004). My Neighbor, My Enemy: Justice and Community in the Aftermath of Mass Atrocity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 151. "The bridge, built in 1566, was considered a masterpiece of Islamic architecture and a unique symbol of an undivided city." 
  6. ^ a b c d e f UNESCO: Old Bridge Area of the Old City of Mostar
  7. ^ Anđelić, 1974, 276-278
  8. ^ a b Mujezinović, 1998, p. 144
  9. ^ Institute for Regional Planning, Mostar, 1982, p. 21
  10. ^ Guardian Article: Mostar reclaims Ottoman heritage
  11. ^ "Hearts and Stones". Saudi Aramco World. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  12. ^ "Taking Vengeance on the Serbs". The Independent. Jul 13, 1914. Retrieved August 12, 2012. 
  13. ^ ICTY indictment against the Croat Herzeg-Bosnia leadership, Statement of the Case, Article 27, 2003.
  14. ^ Prof. Michael Sells' page documenting the destruction
  15. ^ Шпирић: Tреба се окренути будућности да би сви заједно успјели
  16. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica
  17. ^ Climate Summary for Mostar
  18. ^ "Historical Weather For 2012 in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina". Cedar Lake Ventures, Inc. Retrieved 30 April 2014. 
  19. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Mostar". United Nations. May 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2011. 
  20. ^ a b Pasic, Amir. Conservation and Revitalization of Historic Mostar. Geneva: The Aga Khan Trust for Culture, 2004.
  21. ^ "Resurgence of Mostar’s Historic City Centre". Retrieved 2006-11-29. 
  22. ^ NARODNO-MOSTAR.INFO . "Mostar Liska (in local language) ". Retrieved on 16 May 2013.
  23. ^ maticahrvatska-mostar.ba . "Mostarsko proljece (in local language) ". Retrieved on 16 May 2013.
  24. ^ Tim Clancy (2004). "Bosnia & Herzegovina, The Bradt Travel Guide". pp. 93–97. ISBN 1-84162-094-7. Retrieved 2013-06-07. 
  25. ^ Darra J. Goldstein, Kathrin Merkle Council of Europe. (ed.). Culinary cultures of Europe: identity, diversity and dialogue. pp. 87–94. ISBN 92-871-5744-8. Retrieved 2013-06-07. 
  26. ^ "UniCredit Bank" (in Croatian). Unicreditbank.ba. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  27. ^ "Hypo Alpe Adria :: Always There For Our Custormers". Hypo-alpe-adria.ba. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  28. ^ Radovinović, Radovan; Bertić, Ivan, eds. (1984). Atlas svijeta: Novi pogled na Zemlju (in Croatian) (3rd ed.). Zagreb: Sveučilišna naklada Liber. 
  29. ^ [1][dead link]
  30. ^ "NASLOVNICAPočetna stranica". Mostarski-sajam.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  31. ^ "Nacionalnost" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  32. ^ "IZBORI 2008". Izbori.ba. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  33. ^ Piše: srijeda, 28.1.2004. 15:53 (2004-01-28). "Ashdown nametnuo novi ustroj Mostara - Vijesti.net". Index.hr. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  34. ^ a b "Odluka kojom se proglašava Statut Grada Mostara". Ohr.int. 2004-01-28. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  35. ^ a b c d e "Hopeful rebirth for Bosnia's divided Mostar / ISN". Isn.ethz.ch. 2004-02-03. Retrieved 2013-06-07. 
  36. ^ "High Representative's Letter to the Citizens of Mostar". Ohr.int. 2004-01-28. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  37. ^ [2][dead link]
  38. ^ asdf121 16.01.2012. (2012-01-16). "Srednje škole / Opće informacije / Mostar / INFO" (in Croatian). MOSTARinfo. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  39. ^ UMNO
  40. ^ a b "UPISANI STUDENTI NA VISOKOŠKOLSKIM USTANOVAMA ŠKOLSKA 2012./2013.GODINA" (pdf). Retrieved 2013-06-07. 
  41. ^ Sreben Dizdar, Bakaršić Kemal (1996). Leland C. Barrows, ed. Report on higher education in Bosnia and Herzegovina : historical development, present state, and needs assessment. Bucharest: UNESCO/CEPES. p. 23. ISBN 9290691417. 
  42. ^ Burić, Ahmed (24 May 2002). "Vahid Halilhodžić: Moja životna priča (I)" (in Bosnian). BH Dani. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
  43. ^ of Mostar: Tourism Portal
  44. ^ UNESCO: Old Bridge Area of the Old City of Mostar
  45. ^ Visit Mostar
  46. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Mostar Gradovi prijatelji" [Mostar Twin Towns]. Grad Mostar [Mostar Official City Website] (in Macedonian). Archived from the original on 2013-10-30. Retrieved 2013-12-19. 
  47. ^ "Gradovi prijatelji Splita" [Split Twin Towns]. Grad Split [Split Official City Website] (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 2012-03-24. Retrieved 2013-12-19. 
  48. ^ Sporazum o prijateljstvu i suradnji između Grada Mostara i Grada Vukovara –Službene stranice Grada Mostara. Mostar.ba.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]