Mother Teresa

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Blessed Teresa of Calcutta, M.C.
MotherTeresa 094.jpg
Mother Teresa at a pro-life meeting in 1986 in Bonn, West Germany
Religion Roman Catholic
Institute Sisters of Loreto
(1928–1948)
Missionaries of Charity
(1950–1997)
Personal
Nationality Ottoman subject (1910–1912)
Serbian subject (1912–1915)
Bulgarian subject (1915–1918)
Yugoslavian subject (1918–1943)
Yugoslavian citizen (1943-1948)
Indian subject (1948–1950)
Indian citizen (1948-1997)
Albanian citizen (1991–97)[citation needed]
Born Anjezë Gonxhe Bojaxhiu
(1910-08-26)26 August 1910
Üsküp, Kosovo Vilayet, Ottoman Empire
(modern Skopje, Republic of Macedonia)
Died 5 September 1997(1997-09-05) (aged 87)
Calcutta, West Bengal, India
Senior posting
Title Superior General
Period in office 1950–1997
Successor Sister Nirmala Joshi, M.C.
Blessed Teresa of Calcutta, M.C.
StThomasMount Theresa.JPG
Bl. Mother Teresa Statue in St. Thomas Mount
Honored in
Catholic Church
(Missionaries of Charity and India)
Beatified 19 October 2003, St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City, by Pope John Paul II
Major shrine Mother House of the Missionaries of Charity, Calcutta (Kolkata), West Bengal, India
Feast 5 September
Patronage World Youth Day

Blessed Teresa of Calcutta, M.C.,[1] commonly known as Mother Teresa (26 August 1910 – 5 September 1997), was a Roman Catholic Religious Sister and missionary[2] of Albanian origin, her family originating from Kosovo[3][4][5][6][7] who lived for most of her life in India .

Mother Teresa founded the Missionaries of Charity, a Roman Catholic religious congregation, which in 2012 consisted of over 4,500 sisters and is active in 133 countries. They run hospices and homes for people with HIV/AIDS, leprosy and tuberculosis; soup kitchens; dispensaries and mobile clinics; children's and family counselling programmes; orphanages; and schools. Members of the institute must adhere to the vows of chastity, poverty and obedience, and the fourth vow, to give "wholehearted free service to the poorest of the poor".[8]

Mother Teresa was the recipient of numerous honours including the 1979 Nobel Peace Prize. In 2003, she was beatified as "Blessed Teresa of Calcutta". A second miracle credited to her intercession is required before she can be recognised as a saint by the Catholic Church.[1]

A controversial figure both during her life and after her death, Mother Teresa was widely admired by many for her charitable works, but also widely criticised, particularly for her efforts opposing contraception and for substandard conditions in the hospices for which she was responsible.[9][10][11][12]

Early life

An ethnic Albanian born Anjezë Gonxhe Bojaxhiu (Albanian: [aˈɲɛz ˈɡɔɲdʒe bɔjaˈdʒiu]) (gonxha meaning "rosebud" or "little flower" in Albanian) on 26 August 1910, she considered 27 August, the day she was baptised, to be her "true birthday".[13] Her birthplace of Skopje, now capital of the Republic of Macedonia, was at the time part of the Ottoman Empire.[13][14] Her family continued to live in Skopje until 1934 , when they moved to Tirana in Albania [15]

She was the youngest of the children of Nikollë and Dranafile Bojaxhiu (Bernai).[16] Her father, who was involved in Albanian politics, died in 1919 when she was eight years old.[13][17] Her father may have been from Prizren, Kosovo while her mother may have been from a village near Yakova.[18]

According to a biography written by Joan Graff Clucas, in her early years Agnes was fascinated by stories of the lives of missionaries and their service in Bengal, and by age 12 had become convinced that she should commit herself to a religious life.[19] Her final resolution was taken on 15 August 1928, while praying at the shrine of the Black Madonna of Letnice, where she often went on pilgrimage.[20]

She left home at age 18 to join the Sisters of Loreto as a missionary. She never again saw her mother or sister.[21]

Agnes initially went to the Loreto Abbey in Rathfarnham, Ireland, to learn English, the language the Sisters of Loreto used to teach school children in India.[22] She arrived in India in 1929, and began her novitiate in Darjeeling, near the Himalayan mountains,[23] where she learnt Bengali and taught at the St. Teresa's School, a schoolhouse close to her convent.[24] She took her first religious vows as a nun on 24 May 1931. At that time she chose to be named after Thérèse de Lisieux, the patron saint of missionaries,[25][26] but because one nun in the convent had already chosen that name, Agnes opted for the Spanish spelling Teresa.[27]

She took her solemn vows on 14 May 1937, while serving as a teacher at the Loreto convent school in Entally, eastern Calcutta.[13][28][29] Teresa served there for almost twenty years and in 1944 was appointed headmistress.[30]

Although Teresa enjoyed teaching at the school, she was increasingly disturbed by the poverty surrounding her in Calcutta (Kolkata).[31] The Bengal famine of 1943 brought misery and death to the city; and the outbreak of Hindu/Muslim violence in August 1946 plunged the city into despair and horror.[32]

Missionaries of Charity

Missionaries of Charity's Mother House (Headquarters) in Kolkata
Missionaries of charity with the traditional sari.

On 10 September 1946, Teresa experienced what she later described as "the call within the call" while travelling by train to the Loreto convent in Darjeeling from Calcutta for her annual retreat. "I was to leave the convent and help the poor while living among them. It was an order. To fail would have been to break the faith."[33] One author later observed, "Though no one knew it at the time, Sister Teresa had just become Mother Teresa".[34]

She began her missionary work with the poor in 1948, replacing her traditional Loreto habit with a simple white cotton sari decorated with a blue border. Mother Teresa adopted Indian citizenship, spent a few months in Patna to receive a basic medical training in the Holy Family Hospital and then ventured out into the slums.[35][36] Initially she started a school in Motijhil (Calcutta); soon she started tending to the needs of the destitute and starving.[37] In the beginning of 1949 she was joined in her effort by a group of young women and laid the foundations to create a new religious community helping the "poorest among the poor".

Her efforts quickly caught the attention of Indian officials, including the prime minister, who expressed his appreciation.[38]

Teresa wrote in her diary that her first year was fraught with difficulties. She had no income and had to resort to begging for food and supplies. Teresa experienced doubt, loneliness and the temptation to return to the comfort of convent life during these early months. She wrote in her diary:

Our Lord wants me to be a free nun covered with the poverty of the cross. Today I learned a good lesson. The poverty of the poor must be so hard for them. While looking for a home I walked and walked till my arms and legs ached. I thought how much they must ache in body and soul, looking for a home, food and health. Then the comfort of Loreto [her former congregation] came to tempt me. 'You have only to say the word and all that will be yours again,' the Tempter kept on saying ... Of free choice, my God, and out of love for you, I desire to remain and do whatever be your Holy will in my regard. I did not let a single tear come.[39]

Teresa received Vatican permission on 7 October 1950 to start the diocesan congregation that would become the Missionaries of Charity.[40] Its mission was to care for, in her own words, "the hungry, the naked, the homeless, the crippled, the blind, the lepers, all those people who feel unwanted, unloved, uncared for throughout society, people that have become a burden to the society and are shunned by everyone."

It began as a small congregation with 13 members in Calcutta; by 1997 it had grown to more than 4,000 sisters running orphanages, AIDS hospices and charity centres worldwide, and caring for refugees, the blind, disabled, aged, alcoholics, the poor and homeless, and victims of floods, epidemics, and famine.[41]

2007 image of Mother Teresa's Home for the Dying, Nirmal Hriday, in Kolkata.

In 1952 Mother Teresa opened the first Home for the Dying in space made available by the city of Calcutta (Kolkata). With the help of Indian officials she converted an abandoned Hindu temple into the Kalighat Home for the Dying, a free hospice for the poor. She renamed it Kalighat, the Home of the Pure Heart (Nirmal Hriday).[42] Those brought to the home received medical attention and were afforded the opportunity to die with dignity, according to the rituals of their faith; Muslims were read the Quran, Hindus received water from the Ganges, and Catholics received the Last Rites.[43] "A beautiful death," she said, "is for people who lived like animals to die like angels—loved and wanted."[43]

Mother Teresa soon opened a home for those suffering from Hansen's disease, commonly known as leprosy, and called the hospice Shanti Nagar (City of Peace).[44] The Missionaries of Charity also established several leprosy outreach clinics throughout Calcutta, providing medication, bandages and food.[45]

As the Missionaries of Charity took in increasing numbers of lost children, Mother Teresa felt the need to create a home for them. In 1955 she opened the Nirmala Shishu Bhavan, the Children's Home of the Immaculate Heart, as a haven for orphans and homeless youth.[46]

The congregation soon began to attract both recruits and charitable donations, and by the 1960s had opened hospices, orphanages and leper houses all over India. Mother Teresa then expanded the congregation throughout the globe. Its first house outside India opened in Venezuela in 1965 with five sisters.[47] Others followed in Rome, Tanzania, and Austria in 1968; during the 1970s the congregation opened houses and foundations in dozens of countries in Asia, Africa, Europe and the United States.[48]

The Missionaries of Charity Brothers was founded in 1963, and a contemplative branch of the Sisters followed in 1976. Lay Catholics and non-Catholics were enrolled in the Co-Workers of Mother Teresa, the Sick and Suffering Co-Workers, and the Lay Missionaries of Charity. In answer to the requests of many priests, in 1981 Mother Teresa also began the Corpus Christi Movement for Priests,[49] and in 1984 founded with Fr. Joseph Langford the Missionaries of Charity Fathers[50] to combine the vocational aims of the Missionaries of Charity with the resources of the ministerial priesthood. By 2007 the Missionaries of Charity numbered approximately 450 brothers and 5,000 sisters worldwide, operating 600 missions, schools and shelters in 120 countries.[51]

International charity

Mother Teresa said "By blood, I am Albanian. By citizenship, an Indian. By faith, I am a Catholic nun. As to my calling, I belong to the world. As to my heart, I belong entirely to the Heart of Jesus."[52]

In 1982, at the height of the Siege of Beirut, Mother Teresa rescued 37 children trapped in a front line hospital by brokering a temporary cease-fire between the Israeli army and Palestinian guerrillas.[53] Accompanied by Red Cross workers, she travelled through the war zone to the devastated hospital to evacuate the young patients.[54]

When Eastern Europe experienced increased openness in the late 1980s, she expanded her efforts to Communist countries that had previously rejected the Missionaries of Charity, embarking on dozens of projects. She was undeterred by criticism about her firm stand against abortion and divorce stating, "No matter who says what, you should accept it with a smile and do your own work." She visited the Soviet republic of Armenia following the 1988 earthquake,[55] and met with Nikolai Ryzhkov, the Chairman of the Council of Ministers.[56]

Mother Teresa travelled to assist and minister to the hungry in Ethiopia, radiation victims at Chernobyl, and earthquake victims in Armenia.[57][58][59] In 1991, Mother Teresa returned for the first time to her homeland and opened a Missionaries of Charity Brothers home in Tirana, Albania.

By 1996, Mother Teresa was operating 517 missions in more than 100 countries.[60] Over the years, Mother Teresa's Missionaries of Charity grew from twelve to thousands serving the "poorest of the poor" in 450 centres around the world. The first Missionaries of Charity home in the United States was established in the South Bronx, New York; by 1984 the congregation operated 19 establishments throughout the country.[61] Mother Teresa was fluent in five languages: Bengali,[62] Albanian, Serbian, English, and Hindi.[63]

Declining health and death

Mother Teresa suffered a heart attack in Rome in 1983 while visiting Pope John Paul II. After a second attack in 1989, she received an artificial pacemaker. In 1991, after a battle with pneumonia while in Mexico, she suffered further heart problems. She offered to resign her position as head of the Missionaries of Charity, but the sisters of the congregation, in a secret ballot, voted for her to stay. Mother Teresa agreed to continue her work as head of the congregation.[64]

In April 1996, Mother Teresa fell and broke her collar bone. In August she suffered from malaria and failure of the left heart ventricle. She had heart surgery but it was clear that her health was declining. The Archbishop of Calcutta, Henry Sebastian D'Souza, said he ordered a priest to perform an exorcism on Mother Teresa with her permission when she was first hospitalised with cardiac problems because he thought she may be under attack by the devil.[65]

On 13 March 1997, she stepped down from the head of Missionaries of Charity. She died on 5 September 1997.[66]

At the time of her death, Mother Teresa's Missionaries of Charity had over 4,000 sisters, and an associated brotherhood of 300 members, operating 610 missions in 123 countries.[67] These included hospices and homes for people with HIV/AIDS, leprosy and tuberculosis, soup kitchens, children's and family counselling programs, personal helpers, orphanages, and schools. The Missionaries of Charity were also aided by Co-Workers, who numbered over 1 million by the 1990s.[68]

Mother Teresa lay in repose in St Thomas, Kolkata for one week prior to her funeral, in September 1997. She was granted a state funeral by the Indian government in gratitude for her services to the poor of all religions in India.[69] Her death was mourned in both secular and religious communities. In tribute, Nawaz Sharif, the Prime Minister of Pakistan said that she was "a rare and unique individual who lived long for higher purposes. Her life-long devotion to the care of the poor, the sick, and the disadvantaged was one of the highest examples of service to our humanity."[70] The former U.N. Secretary-General Javier Pérez de Cuéllar said: "She is the United Nations. She is peace in the world."[70]

Recognition and reception

In India

Mother Teresa had first been recognised by the Indian government more than a third of a century earlier when she was awarded the Padma Shri in 1962 and the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding in 1969.[71] She continued to receive major Indian awards in subsequent years, including India's highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna, in 1980.[72] Her official biography was written by an Indian civil servant, Navin Chawla, and published in 1992.[73]

On 28 August 2010, to commemorate the 100th anniversary of her birth, the government of India issued a special 5 Rupee coin, being the sum she first arrived in India with. President Pratibha Patil said of Mother Teresa, "Clad in a white sari with a blue border, she and the sisters of Missionaries of Charity became a symbol of hope to many – the aged, the destitute, the unemployed, the diseased, the terminally ill, and those abandoned by their families.[74]

Indian views on Mother Teresa were not uniformly favourable. Her critic Aroup Chatterjee, who was born and raised in Calcutta but lived in London, reports that "she was not a significant entity in Calcutta in her lifetime". Chatterjee blames Mother Teresa for promoting a negative image of Calcutta, exaggerating the work done by her Mission, and misusing the funds and privileges at her disposal.[75] Her presence and profile grated in parts of the Indian political world, as she often opposed the Hindu Right. The Bharatiya Janata Party clashed with her over the Christian Dalits, but praised her in death, sending a representative to her funeral. The Vishwa Hindu Parishad, on the other hand, opposed the government's decision to grant her a state funeral. Its secretary Giriraj Kishore said that "her first duty was to the Church and social service was incidental" and accused her of favouring Christians and conducting "secret baptisms" of the dying.[76][77] But, in its front page tribute, the Indian fortnightly Frontline dismissed these charges as "patently false" and said that they had "made no impact on the public perception of her work, especially in Calcutta". Although praising her "selfless caring", energy and bravery, the author of the tribute was critical of Mother Teresa's public campaigning against abortion and that she claimed to be non-political when doing so.[78]

In the rest of the world

President Ronald Reagan presents Mother Teresa with the Presidential Medal of Freedom at a White House ceremony, 1985

In 1962, Mother Teresa received the Philippines-based Ramon Magsaysay Award for International Understanding, given for work in South or East Asia. The citation said that "the Board of Trustees recognizes her merciful cognizance of the abject poor of a foreign land, in whose service she has led a new congregation".[79] By the early 1970s, Mother Teresa had become an international celebrity. Her fame can be in large part attributed to the 1969 documentary Something Beautiful for God, which was filmed by Malcolm Muggeridge and his 1971 book of the same title. Muggeridge was undergoing a spiritual journey of his own at the time.[80] During the filming of the documentary, footage taken in poor lighting conditions, particularly the Home for the Dying, was thought unlikely to be of usable quality by the crew. After returning from India, however, the footage was found to be extremely well lit. Muggeridge claimed this was a miracle of "divine light" from Mother Teresa herself.[81] Others in the crew thought it was due to a new type of ultra-sensitive Kodak film.[82] Muggeridge later converted to Catholicism.

Around this time, the Catholic world began to honour Mother Teresa publicly. In 1971, Paul VI awarded her the first Pope John XXIII Peace Prize, commending her for her work with the poor, display of Christian charity and efforts for peace.[83] She later received the Pacem in Terris Award (1976).[84] Since her death, Mother Teresa has progressed rapidly along the steps towards sainthood, currently having reached the stage of having been beatified.

Mother Teresa was honoured by both governments and civilian organisations. She was appointed an honorary Companion of the Order of Australia in 1982, "for service to the community of Australia and humanity at large."[85] The United Kingdom and the United States each repeatedly granted awards, culminating in the Order of Merit in 1983, and honorary citizenship of the United States received on 16 November 1996.[86] Mother Teresa's Albanian homeland granted her the Golden Honour of the Nation in 1994.[78] Her acceptance of this and the Haitian Legion of Honour proved controversial. Mother Teresa attracted criticism from a number of people for implicitly giving support to the Duvaliers and to corrupt businessmen such as Charles Keating and Robert Maxwell. In Keating's case she wrote to the judge of his trial asking for clemency to be shown.[12][78]

Universities in both the West and in India granted her honorary degrees.[78] Other civilian awards include the Balzan Prize for promoting humanity, peace and brotherhood among peoples (1978),[87] and the Albert Schweitzer International Prize (1975).[88]

In 1979, Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, "for work undertaken in the struggle to overcome poverty and distress, which also constitutes a threat to peace." She refused the conventional ceremonial banquet given to laureates, and asked that the $192,000 funds be given to the poor in India,[89] stating that earthly rewards were important only if they helped her help the world's needy. When Mother Teresa received the prize, she was asked, "What can we do to promote world peace?" She answered "Go home and love your family." Building on this theme in her Nobel Lecture, she said: "Around the world, not only in the poor countries, but I found the poverty of the West so much more difficult to remove. When I pick up a person from the street, hungry, I give him a plate of rice, a piece of bread, I have satisfied. I have removed that hunger. But a person that is shut out, that feels unwanted, unloved, terrified, the person that has been thrown out from society—that poverty is so hurtable [sic] and so much, and I find that very difficult." She also singled out abortion as "the greatest destroyer of peace today. Because if a mother can kill her own child – what is left for me to kill you and you kill me – there is nothing between."[90]

During her lifetime, Mother Teresa was named 18 times in the yearly Gallup's most admired man and woman poll as one of the ten women around the world that Americans admired most, finishing first several times in the 1980s and 1990s.[91] In 1999, a poll of Americans ranked her first in Gallup's List of Most Widely Admired People of the 20th Century.[92] In that survey, she out-polled all other volunteered answers by a wide margin, and was in first place in all major demographic categories except the very young.[92][93]

Criticism

After the award of the Nobel Peace Prize for 1979, Mother Teresa's adherence to the Church's condemnation of abortion and contraception attracted some negative attention in the Western media. Teresa was criticised for using her celebrity status to promote the Church's moral teachings on abortion and contraception.[9]

The support, recognition, and donations she received also aroused criticism, particularly from professed atheists who were dismayed at what they considered to be people's gullibility.[94] Some Bengali critics accused Mother Teresa of exploiting or even fabricating the degraded image of Calcutta in order to win international fame.[95]

Allegations have been made that she knowingly accepted donations from disreputable sources. It was said that in one notorious case she knew or ought to have known that the money was stolen; and that she accepted money from the autocratic and corrupt Duvalier family in Haiti, which she visited in early 1981. In neither case were these aspersions substantiated, although this did not stop her critics from repeating them.[96]

The increasing wealth of the order she founded became yet another grievance. On the one hand, large sums accumulated in checking (non-interest bearing) accounts in the United States, and large sums were being spent on opening new convents and increasing missionary work; on the other, her Home for the Dying continued to maintain the same austere ethos with which it had been founded, that is to say, as a place for those who had nowhere else to go – a point even hostile sources conceded.[97]

She was also criticised for her view on suffering. She felt that suffering would bring people closer to Jesus.[98][99] At a press conference during her October 1981 visit to Washington D.C, Mother Teresa stated, "I think it is very beautiful for the poor to accept their lot, to share it with the passion of Christ. I think the world is being much helped by the suffering of the poor people."[100]

Critics complained that she did not apply donors' money on founding a modern medical facility in Calcutta, or transforming her Home for the Dying into a western-style hospice. Two writers in the Western medical press in the mid-1990's commented adversely on an approach to illness and suffering that disregarded elements of modern medical care, such as systematic diagnosis and strong analgesics.[12] Her defenders pointed out that the Home did not claim to offer primary medical care, but was a refuge for the dying, with nowhere else to go.[101] Apart from the barriers that advanced technologies and the need for specialist physicians to manage pain would interpose between carers and those they cared for (disrupting the ethos of the Home),[102] the use of opioids in India for managing cancer pain remains—ten years after Mother Teresa's death—highly problematic for legal, regulatory, cultural, and other reasons (including supply interruptions, harsh punishments imposed for even minor infractions of the rules, and the fear of addiction by health workers).[103] Despite the lack of sophisticated analgesic regimes, volunteers (including those with western medical qualifications and experience) reported that her Home for the Dying was a place of joy not sadness.[104] As late as 2001, researchers could write that "pain relief is a new notion in [India]", and "palliative care training has been available only since 1997".[105] It was only in 2012 that the government of West Bengal finally amended the applicable regulations simplifying "the process of possession, transport, purchase, sale and import of inter-state of morphine or any preparation containing morphine by 'Recognized Medical Institution'."[106]

Notwithstanding these practical considerations, the advanced treatment Mother Teresa received for an increasingly aggravated heart condition (which eventually killed her) was said to evidence her personal hypocrisy, while the factors that impelled the Missionaries of Charity to prolong her active life were ignored.[107] She herself—at an advanced age—attempted to resign as Superior general of the order, but the sisters were unanimous in re-electing her in 1990, when she was already 80 years old.[108]

Spiritual life

Analyzing her deeds and achievements, John Paul II asked: "Where did Mother Teresa find the strength and perseverance to place herself completely at the service of others? She found it in prayer and in the silent contemplation of Jesus Christ, his Holy Face, his Sacred Heart."[109] Privately, Mother Teresa experienced doubts and struggles over her religious beliefs which lasted nearly 50 years until the end of her life, during which "she felt no presence of God whatsoever", "neither in her heart or in the eucharist" as put by her postulator Rev. Brian Kolodiejchuk.[110] Mother Teresa expressed grave doubts about God's existence and pain over her lack of faith:

Where is my faith? Even deep down ... there is nothing but emptiness and darkness ... If there be God—please forgive me. When I try to raise my thoughts to Heaven, there is such convicting emptiness that those very thoughts return like sharp knives and hurt my very soul ... How painful is this unknown pain—I have no Faith. Repulsed, empty, no faith, no love, no zeal, ... What do I labor for? If there be no God, there can be no soul. If there be no soul then, Jesus, You also are not true.[111]

Plaque dedicated to Mother Teresa, Wenceslas Square, Olomouc, Czech Republic.

With reference to the above words, the Rev. Brian Kolodiejchuk, her postulator (the official responsible for gathering the evidence for her sanctification) said he thought that some might misinterpret her meaning, but her faith that God was working through her remained undiminished, and that while she pined for the lost sentiment of closeness with God, she did not question his existence.[112] and that she may have experienced something similar to what is believed of Jesus Christ when crucified who was heard to say "Eli Eli lama sabachthani?" which is translated to "My God, My God, why have you forsaken me?" Brian Kolodiejchuk, drew comparisons to the 16th century mystic St. John of the Cross, who coined the term the "dark night of the soul".[80] Many other saints had similar experiences of spiritual dryness, or what Catholics believe to be spiritual tests ("passive purifications"), such as Mother Teresa's namesake, St. Therese of Lisieux, who called it a "night of nothingness."[112] Contrary to the mistaken belief by some that the doubts she expressed would be an impediment to canonisation, just the opposite is true; it is very consistent with the experience of canonised mystics.[112]

Mother Teresa described, after ten years of doubt, a short period of renewed faith. At the time of the death of Pope Pius XII in the fall of 1958, praying for him at a requiem mass, she said she had been relieved of "the long darkness: that strange suffering." However, five weeks later, she described returning to her difficulties in believing.[113]

Mother Teresa wrote many letters to her confessors and superiors over a 66-year period. She had asked that her letters be destroyed, concerned that "people will think more of me—less of Jesus."[80][114] However, despite this request, the correspondences have been compiled in Mother Teresa: Come Be My Light (Doubleday).[80][115] In one publicly released letter to a spiritual confidant, the Rev. Michael van der Peet, she wrote, "Jesus has a very special love for you. [But] as for me, the silence and the emptiness is so great, that I look and do not see,—Listen and do not hear—the tongue moves [in prayer] but does not speak ... I want you to pray for me—that I let Him have [a] free hand."

In his first encyclical Deus Caritas Est, Benedict XVI mentioned Teresa of Calcutta three times and he also used her life to clarify one of his main points of the encyclical. "In the example of Blessed Teresa of Calcutta we have a clear illustration of the fact that time devoted to God in prayer not only does not detract from effective and loving service to our neighbour but is in fact the inexhaustible source of that service."[116] Mother Teresa specified that "It is only by mental prayer and spiritual reading that we can cultivate the gift of prayer."[117]

Although there was no direct connection between Mother Teresa's order and the Franciscan orders, she was known as a great admirer of St. Francis of Assisi.[118] Accordingly, her influence and life show influences of Franciscan spirituality. The Sisters of Charity recite the peace prayer of St. Francis every morning during thanksgiving after Communion and many of the vows and emphasis of her ministry are similar.[118] St. Francis emphasised poverty, chastity, obedience and submission to Christ. He also devoted much of his own life to service of the poor, especially lepers in the area where he lived.

Miracle and beatification

After Mother Teresa's death in 1997, the Holy See began the process of beatification, the third step toward possible canonisation. This process requires the documentation of a miracle performed from the intercession of Mother Teresa.[119]

In 2002, the Vatican recognised as a miracle the healing of a tumor in the abdomen of an Indian woman, Monica Besra, after the application of a locket containing Mother Teresa's picture. Besra said that a beam of light emanated from the picture, curing the cancerous tumor. Critics—including some of Besra's medical staff and, initially, Besra's husband—said that conventional medical treatment had eradicated the tumor.[120] Dr. Ranjan Mustafi, who told The New York Times he had treated Besra, said that the cyst was not cancer at all but a cyst caused by tuberculosis. He said, "It was not a miracle.... She took medicines for nine months to one year."[121] According to Besra's husband, "My wife was cured by the doctors and not by any miracle."[122]

An opposing perspective of the claim is that Besra's medical records contain sonograms, prescriptions, and physicians' notes that could prove whether the cure was a miracle or not. Besra has claimed that Sister Betta of the Missionaries of Charity is holding them. Time magazine received a "no comments" statement from Sister Betta. The officials at the Balurghat Hospital where Besra was seeking medical treatment have claimed that they are being pressured by the Catholic order to declare the cure a miracle.[122]

In the process of examining Teresa's suitability for beatification and canonisation, the Roman Curia (the Vatican) pored over a great deal of documentation of published and unpublished criticism of her life and work. Concerning allegations raised by journalist Christopher Hitchens, Vatican officials have responded by saying that these have been investigated by the agency charged with such matters, the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, and that they found no obstacle to Mother Teresa's beatification. Because of the attacks she has received, some Catholic writers have called her a sign of contradiction.[123] The beatification of Mother Teresa took place on 19 October 2003, thereby bestowing on her the title "Blessed."[124] A second miracle is required for her to proceed to canonisation.

Legacy and depictions in popular culture

Commemoration

Mother Teresa Memorial Home in Skopje

Mother Teresa inspired a variety of commemorations. She has been memorialised through museums, been named patroness of various churches, and had various structures and roads named after her, including Albania's international airport. Mother Teresa Day (Dita e Nënë Terezës) on 19 October is a public holiday in Albania. In 2009 the Memorial House of Mother Teresa was opened in her hometown Skopje, in the Republic of Macedonia. The cathedral of Pristina, in Kosovo, currently under construction, was dedicated in her honour as well.

Mother Teresa Women's University,[125] Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu, has been established in 1984 as a public university by government of Tamil Nadu, India.

Mother Theresa Post Graduate and Research Institute of Health Sciences,[126] Pondicherry has been established in 1999 by Government of Puducherry, India.

The charitable organization Sevalaya runs the Mother Teresa Girls Home, named in her honor and designed to provide poor and orphan girls children in the vicinity of the underserved Kasuva village in Tamil Nadu with free food, clothing, shelter, and education.[127]

Various tributes have been published in Indian newspapers and magazines written by her biographer, Navin Chawla.[128][129][130][131][132][133][134]

Indian Railways introduced a new train, "Mother Express", named after Mother Teresa, on 26 August 2010 to mark her birth centenary.[135]

The Tamil Nadu State government organised centenary celebrations of Mother Teresa on 4 December 2010 in Chennai, headed by Tamil Nadu chief minister M Karunanidhi.[136][137]

Beginning 5 September 2013, the anniversary of her death has been designated as the International Day of Charity by the United Nations General Assembly.[138]

Film and literature

Mother Teresa is the subject of the 1969 documentary film and 1972 book Something Beautiful for God, a 1997 Art Film Festival award winning film starring Geraldine Chaplin called Mother Teresa: In the Name of God's Poor, a 2003 Italian miniseries titled Mother Teresa of Calcutta, (which was re-released in 2007 and received a CAMIE award,) and was portrayed by Megan Fox in a satirical film-within-a-film in the 2007 movie How to Lose Friends and Alienate People.[139] Hitchens' 1994 documentary about her, Hell's Angel, claims that she urged the poor to accept their fate, while the rich are portrayed as being favoured by God.[140][141]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Blessed Mother Teresa". (2007). Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 4 July 2010.
  2. ^ Poplin, Mary (Jan 28, 2011). Finding Calcutta: What Mother Teresa Taught Me About Meaningful Work and Service. InterVarsity Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-0830834723. "Remember, brother, I am a missionary and so are you" 
  3. ^ Poplin, Mary (Jan 28, 2011). The Marriage Devotional: 365 Simple Ways to Celebrate Your Love. InterVarsity Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-0830834723. "Mother Teresa,Albanian Catholic Nun Founder of The missionaries of charity" 
  4. ^ Group, Salisbury (Jan 28, 2011). The Salisbury Review, Volumes 19-20. InterVarsity Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0830834723. "Mother Teresa,Albanian by birth" 
  5. ^ "Kosovo to Honor Mother Teresa". Zenit. 6 March 2007. Retrieved 15 November 2014. 
  6. ^ "Mother Teresa Beyond the Image". New York Times. 1997. Retrieved 15 November 2014. 
  7. ^ Alpion, Gëzim (2006). Mother Teresa: Saint or Celebrity?. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0203087518. Retrieved 15 November 2014. "the nun's mother was born in Prizren in Kosova, her family came originally from the Gjakova region, also in Kosova" 
  8. ^ Muggeridge (1971), chapter 3, "Mother Teresa Speaks", pp. 105, 113
  9. ^ a b Smoker 1980, pp. 11, 28
  10. ^ Hitchens 1995, pp. 31f., 53, 55–57, 59
  11. ^ Hitchens 2003: "ultra-reactionary and fundamentalist even in orthodox Catholic terms"
  12. ^ a b c Loudon, Mary. (1996)The Missionary Position: Mother Teresa in Theory and Practice, Book Review, BMJ vol.312, no.7022, 6 January 2006, pp.64–5. Retrieved 2 August 2007. See also Fox, Robin (1994). "Mother Theresa's care for the dying". The Lancet 344 (8925): 807. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(94)92353-1. 
  13. ^ a b c d (2002) "Mother Teresa of Calcutta (1910–1997)". Vatican News Service. Retrieved 30 May 2007.
  14. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1979: Mother Teresa". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  15. ^ Conversations with Mother Teresa: A Personal Portrait of the Saint. 
  16. ^ Lester, Meera (2004). Saints' Blessing. Fair Winds. p. 138. ISBN 1-59233-045-2. Retrieved 14 December 2008. 
  17. ^ Although some sources state she was 10 when her father died, in an interview with her brother, the Vatican documents her age at the time as "about eight".
  18. ^ "Moder Teresa" (in Danish). Retrieved 23 August 2010. "Hendes forældre var indvandret fra Shkodra i Albanien; muligvis stammede faderen fra Prizren, moderen fra en landsby i nærheden af Gjakova." 
  19. ^ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, p. 24. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
  20. ^ Meg Greene, Mother Teresa: A Biography, Greenwood Press, 2004, page 11.
  21. ^ Sharn, Lori (5 September 1997). "Mother Teresa dies at 87". USA Today. Retrieved 30 May 2007
  22. ^ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, pp. 28–29. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
  23. ^ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, p. 31. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
  24. ^ Meg Greene, Mother Teresa: A Biography, Greenwood Press, 2004, page 17.
  25. ^ Sebba, Anne (1997).Mother Teresa: Beyond the Image. New York. Doubleday, p.35. ISBN 0-385-48952-8.
  26. ^ "Blessed Mother Teresa of Calcutta and St. Therese of Lisieux: Spiritual Sisters in the Night of Faith". Thereseoflisieux.org. 4 September 2007. Retrieved 24 August 2010. 
  27. ^ Meg Greene, Mother Teresa: A Biography, Greenwood Press, 2004, page 18.
  28. ^ Spink, Kathryn (1997). Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York. HarperCollins, p.16. ISBN 0-06-250825-3.
  29. ^ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, p. 32. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
  30. ^ Meg Greene, Mother Teresa: A Biography, Greenwood Press, 2004, page 25.
  31. ^ Spink, Kathryn (1997). Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York. HarperCollins, pp.18–21. ISBN 0-06-250825-3.
  32. ^ Spink, Kathryn (1997). Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York. HarperCollins, pp.18, 21–22. ISBN 0-06-250825-3.
  33. ^ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, p. 35. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
  34. ^ Langford, Joseph (October 2008). Mother Teresa's Secret Fire: The Encounter That Changed Her Life, and How It Can Transform Your Own. Our Sunday Visitor Publishing. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-59276-309-2. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  35. ^ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, p. 39. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
  36. ^ "Blessed Mother Teresa". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 20 December 2007. 
  37. ^ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, pp. 48–49. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
  38. ^ Williams, Paul (2002). Mother Teresa. Indianapolis. Alpha Books, p. 57. ISBN 0-02-864278-3.
  39. ^ Spink, Kathryn (1997). Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York. HarperCollins, p.37. ISBN 0-06-250825-3.
  40. ^ Williams, Paul (2002). Mother Teresa. Indianapolis. Alpha Books, p. 62. ISBN 0-02-864278-3.
  41. ^ Spink, Kathryn (1997). Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York. HarperCollins, p.284. ISBN 0-06-250825-3.
  42. ^ Sebba, Anne (1997).Mother Teresa: Beyond the Image. New York. Doubleday, pp. 58–60. ISBN 0-385-48952-8.
  43. ^ a b Spink, Kathryn (1997). Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York. HarperCollins, p.55. ISBN 0-06-250825-3.
  44. ^ Sebba, Anne (1997).Mother Teresa: Beyond the Image. New York. Doubleday, pp. 62–63. ISBN 0-385-48952-8.
  45. ^ "Mother Theresa". www.indianideology.com. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  46. ^ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, pp. 58–59. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
  47. ^ Spink, Kathryn (1997). Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York. HarperCollins, p.82. ISBN 0-06-250825-3.
  48. ^ Spink, Kathryn (1997). Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York. HarperCollins, pp.286–287. ISBN 0-06-250825-3.
  49. ^ "God's People Yearn For Holy Priests, Founded by Blessed Mother Teresa of Calcutta. ''Corpus Christi Movement for Priests''". Corpuschristimovement.com. Retrieved 2013-03-14. 
  50. ^ The Religious Community of priests founded by Mother Teresa. Missionaries of Charity Fathers
  51. ^ Slavicek, Louise (2007). Mother Teresa. New York; Infobase Publishing, pp. 90–91. ISBN 0-7910-9433-2.
  52. ^ Mother Teresa of Calcutta (1910–1997)Vatican news services retrieved 30 April 2012
  53. ^ CNN Staff, "Mother Teresa: A Profile", retrieved from CNN online[dead link] on 30 May 2007
  54. ^ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, p. 17. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
  55. ^ Milena, Faustova (26 August 2010). "Russian monument to Mother Teresa". Retrieved 13 September 2012. 
  56. ^ "Mother Teresa and Nikolai Ryzhkov". 20 December 1988. Retrieved 13 September 2012. 
  57. ^ Cooper, Kenneth J. (14 September 1997). "Mother Teresa Laid to Rest After Multi-Faith Tribute". The Washington Post. Retrieved 30 May 2007
  58. ^ A Vocation of Service". Eternal Word Television Network
  59. ^ Embassy of India in Armenia Official Website[dead link]. Describes how Mother Teresa journeyed to Armenia in December 1988 following the great earthquake. She and her congregation established an orphanage there. Retrieved 30 May 2007.
  60. ^ Williams, Paul (2002).Mother Teresa. Indianapolis. Alpha Books, pp. 199–204. ISBN 0-02-864278-3.
  61. ^ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, pp. 104. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
  62. ^ "Mother Teresa". bangalinet.com. Retrieved 3 September 2012. 
  63. ^ "Top Ten Things to Know About Mother Teresa". biographycentral.net. Retrieved 3 September 2012. 
  64. ^ "Blessed Mother Teresa". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 13 September 2012. 
  65. ^ Bindra, Satinder (7 September 2001). "Archbishop: Mother Teresa underwent exorcism". CNN Retrieved 30 May 2007.
  66. ^ "Indianborn nun to succeed Mother Teresa". cnn. 13 March 1997. Retrieved 13 September 2012. 
  67. ^ "Lights Out for Mother Teresa". Bernardgoldberg.com. 23 August 2010. Retrieved 25 March 2012. 
  68. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1979". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2013. Web. 6 Mar 2014
  69. ^ Associated Press (14 September 1997). ""India honors nun with state funeral". Archived from the original on 6 March 2005. ". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 30 May 2007.
  70. ^ a b Online Memorial Tribute to Mother Teresa
  71. ^ "List of the recipients of the Jawaharlal Nehru Award". ICCR website. 
  72. ^ List of recipients of Bharat Ratna
  73. ^ "Mother Teresa: The Authorized Biography" ISBN 978-0-7567-5548-5.
  74. ^ "Commemorative coin on Mother Teresa released". Timesofindia. 28 August 2010. Retrieved 13 September 2012. 
  75. ^ Chatterjee, Aroup, Introduction to The Final Verdict
  76. ^ "EIPS – Hell's Puppet Beatified: The Unseen Hands Behind Mother Teresa Of Calcutta". Ianpaisley.org. 20 October 2003. Retrieved 28 August 2011. 
  77. ^ "Secret Baptism". Usislam.org. Retrieved 28 August 2011. 
  78. ^ a b c d Parvathi Menon Cover story: A life of selfless caring[dead link], Frontline, Vol.14 :: No. 19 :: 20 September–3 October 1997
  79. ^ Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation (1962) Citation for Mother Teresa.
  80. ^ a b c d Van Biema, David (23 August 2007). "Mother Teresa's Crisis of Faith". Time. Retrieved 24 August 2007. 
  81. ^ Sebba, Anne (1997). Mother Teresa: Beyond the Image. New York. Doubleday, pp. 80–84. ISBN 0-385-48952-8.
  82. ^ Alpion, Gezmin (2007). Mother Teresa: Saint or Celebrity?. Routledge Press, pp. 9. ISBN 0-415-39246-2.
  83. ^ Clucas, Joan Graff. (1988). Mother Teresa. New York. Chelsea House Publications, pp. 81–82. ISBN 1-55546-855-1.
  84. ^ Quad City Times staff (17 October 2005). "Habitat official to receive Pacem in Terris honor". Peace Corps. Retrieved 26 May 2007.
  85. ^ "It's an Honour: AC". Itsanhonour.gov.au. 26 January 1982. Retrieved 24 August 2010. 
  86. ^ Joint Resolution to Confer Honorary Citizenship of the United States on Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu, also Known as Mother Teresa.
  87. ^ Mother Teresa of Calcutta[dead link], Fondazione Internazionale Balzan, 1978 Balzan Prize for Humanity, Peace and Brotherhood among Peoples. Retrieved 26 May 2007.
  88. ^ Jones, Alice & Brown, Jonathan (7 March 2007). "Opposites attract? When Robert Maxwell met Mother Teresa". The Independent. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
  89. ^ Locke, Michelle (22 March 2007). "Berkeley Nobel laureates donate prize money to charity[dead link]". San Francisco Gate. Associated Press. Retrieved 26 May 2007
  90. ^ Mother Teresa (11 December 1979). "Nobel Prize Lecture". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 25 May 2007.
  91. ^ Frank Newport, David W. Moore, and Lydia Saad (13 December 1999). "Most Admired Men and Women: 1948–1998", The Gallup Organization.
  92. ^ a b Frank Newport (31 December 1999). "Mother Teresa Voted by American People as Most Admired Person of the Century", The Gallup Organization.
  93. ^ Greatest of the Century Gallup/CNN/USA Today Poll. 20–21 December 1999.
  94. ^ Hitchens 1995, p. 15
  95. ^ For fabricating, Chatterjee (2003), Introduction; for "cannibalising", Bannerjee (2002), p. 5204
  96. ^ Keating's donation: Hitchens (1993, "... must have known or should have known that that money doesn't belong to Keating and doesn't belong to her. It's stolen money), (1995, pp. 64–71, "... the clearest and best documented instance") – except that the convictions were overturned in 1996, a point Hitchens never mentioned. Duvaliers: Hitchens (1993, "The fact is, I don't know if she got any money from the Duvaliers"), not asserted in his 1995 book, nor in his Letter to The New York Review of Books, 19 December 1996, Mother Teresa, nor in his piece in Salon, 5 September 1997 Saint to the Rich, accessed 3 February 2014, but suddenly asserted as a fact by him more than 20 years after the alleged event (2003, "misappropriated"), (2007, "stolen")
  97. ^ Grievance: Hitchens (1995), pp. 46f., 64. Last resort: "[o]nly when no city hospital will take the dying are they brought to the Missionaries of Charity." review by Krishna Dutta of Chatterjee (2003), Mother Teresa: The Final Verdict in the British review Times Higher Education, 16 May 2003, Saint of the gutters with friends in high places, accessed 29 January 2014
  98. ^ Larivée, Serge; Carole Sénéchal; Geneviève Chénard (1 March 2013). "Mother Teresa: anything but a saint...". Université de Montréal. Retrieved 2013-03-06. 
  99. ^ Byfield, Ted (20 October 1997). "If the real world knew the real Mother Teresa there would be a lot less adulation". Alberta Report/Newsmagazine 24 (45). 
  100. ^ Hitchens 1995, p. 11
  101. ^ James Martin, SJ, Letter in The New York Review of Books, 19 September 1996 In Defense of Mother Teresa, accessed 2 February 2014
  102. ^ The dangers of "creeping medicalisation" of palliative care and of death are adverted to in, e.g. Clark (2002) passim; the difference between the ethos of the Home and hospice-type care noted by Fox (2004), quoted in Hitchens (1995), pp. 38f.
  103. ^ With reference to India, see, e.g., Rajagopal and Goranson (2007) passim. It was alleged on an Indian rationalist website that "on principle, strong painkillers were not administered even in severe cases", see Edamaruku, Sanal. "India has no reason to be grateful to Mother Teresa". Mukto-mona.com. Retrieved 28 August 2011. . With reference to the USA, Macpherson (2009) pp. 603f. "... access to pain relief is limited by socioeconomics, politics, culture and gender. Additionally, many physicians have taboos against opioids, and unduly restrictive regulations limit their prescription for medical use ... access to and standards of palliation vary widely even among prestigious institutions. ... In 2000, only 0.3% of primary care physicians in the USA were certified in palliative medicine"
  104. ^ See, e.g., Panke (2002), p. 13
  105. ^ Rajagopal et al. (2001), p. 139
  106. ^ International Association for Hospice & Palliative Care, Newsletter, 2012 Vol. 13, No. 12 (December); for a brief regulatory overview for the previous year, see Rajagopal (2011)
  107. ^ Hitchens (1995), p. 41; cf. Fr. James Martin, SJ, Letter in The New York Review of Books, 19 September 1996 In Defense of Mother Teresa, accessed 2 February 2014
  108. ^ McCarthy (1997)
  109. ^ John Paul II (20 October 2003). "Address of John Paul II to the Pilgrims Who Had Come To Rome for the Beatification of Mother Teresa". Vatican.va. Retrieved 13 March 2007. 
  110. ^ David Van Biema (23 August 2007). "Mother Teresa's Crisis of Faith". TIME. 
  111. ^ "Sermon – Some Doubted". Edgewoodpc.org. 19 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-28. 
  112. ^ a b c New Book Reveals Mother Teresa's Struggle with Faith Beliefnet, AP 2007
  113. ^ "Hitchens Takes on Mother Teresa". Newsweek. Retrieved 11 December 2008. 
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  115. ^ Teresa, Mother; Kolodiejchuk, Brian (2007). Mother Teresa: Come Be My Light. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-52037-9. 
  116. ^ Pope Benedict XVI (25 December 2005). Deus Caritas Est[dead link]. (PDF). Vatican City, pp.10. Retrieved 2 August 2007.
  117. ^ Mother Teresa (197). No Greater Love. Google Books (New World Library). ISBN 978-1-57731-201-7. Retrieved 12 August 2007. 
  118. ^ a b "Mother Teresa of Calcutta Pays Tribute to St. Francis of Assisi" on the American Catholic website. Retrieved 30 May 2007.
  119. ^ "Mother Teresa: The Road to Official Sainthood". www.americancatholic.org. Retrieved 13 September 2012. 
  120. ^ Orr, David (10 May. 2003). "Medicine cured 'miracle' woman – not Mother Teresa, say doctors". The Telegraph. Retrieved 30 May 2007.
  121. ^ "Her Legacy: Acceptance and Doubts of a Miracle", by David Rohde. The New York Times. 20 October 2003
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  123. ^ Shaw, Russell. (1 September 2005). Attacking a Saint at the Wayback Machine (archived May 26, 2007), Catholic Herald. Retrieved 1 May 2007.
  124. ^ "Vatican news release". Vatican.va. 19 October 2003. Retrieved 24 August 2010. 
  125. ^ http://www.motherteresawomenuniv.ac.in
  126. ^ "Mother Theresa Post Graduate And Research Institute of Health Sciences, Pondicherry". Mtihs.Pondicherry.gov.in. Retrieved 28 August 2011. 
  127. ^ "Activities: Children home". Sevalaya. 
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  135. ^ ""Mother Express" to be launched on Aug 26". IBN Live. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 5 August 2010. 
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Sources

External links

Catholic Church titles
New creation Superior General of the Missionaries of Charity
1950–1997
Succeeded by
Sister Nirmala Joshi, M.C.
Awards
Preceded by
Genevieve Caulfield
Ramon Magsaysay Award
1962
Succeeded by
Peace Corps
New award Templeton Prize
1973
Succeeded by
Frère Roger
Preceded by
Anwar El Sadat, Menachem Begin
Nobel Peace Prize
1979
Succeeded by
Adolfo Pérez Esquivel
Preceded by
K. Kamaraj
Bharat Ratna
1980
Succeeded by
Vinoba Bhave