Motherland Party (Turkey)

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Anavatan Partisi
Motherland Party
Leader İbrahim Çelebi
Founder Turgut Özal
Founded May 20, 1983 (1983-05-20) (first organization)
September 11, 2011 (2011-09-11) (re-established)
Headquarters Istanbul
Ideology Economic liberalism
Social conservatism
Turkish nationalism
Political position Centre-right
Colours Orange, white
Website
Motherland Party official website (Turkish)
Politics of Turkey
Political parties
Elections

The Motherland Party, (Turkish: Anavatan Partisi, abbreviated as ANAVATAN (formerly ANAP) is a political party in Turkey. It was founded in 1983 by Turgut Özal.[1] It was merged to Democratic Party in October 2009. In September 2011, the party was re-established. Its president is İbrahim Çelebi.

The ANAP was considered a centre-right nationalist party which supported restrictions on the role that government can play in the economy, which favored private capital and enterprise, and which allowed for some public expressions of religion. In 1983 the elections were won by a new political organization the motherland party, led by Turgut Ozal. Although the motherland party was composed of a potentially disruptive mixture of Islamic revivalist and secular liberals, Ozal was able to form a majority government, and for the time being democracy was restored and politics was back in the hands of the people [2]

History[edit]

In the National Assembly on 6 November 1983, the Populist Party and the Motherland party were allowed to run for office. The ANAP won 212 of the 450 available seats and Turgut Özal, the leader of the party, became the Prime Minister.[3] The ANAP maintained a majority in the government of Turkey from 1983 until 1991. Turgut Özal held the position of Prime Minister from 1983 to 1989, then President from 1989 to 1993. Ozal died in office, and was succeeded by the True Path Party leader, Suleyman Demirel.

After the 1983 National assembly, ANAP allowed all political parties to participate in the local elections. In 1987, ANAP removed the 10-year ban on over 200 leaders of the Republican People's Party (Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi—CHP) and Justice Party (Adalet Partisi—AP), allowing them to run for office and participate in political affairs. The ANAP won 292 of the 450 seats that year.[4]

During this time, the ANAP leaders transformed the Turkish economy by beginning free-market reforms, particularly cutting down the public area and moving towards privately owned business. In 1987, the ANAP-led government filed for admission into the European Economic Community, the forerunner of the European Union. However, this attempt to enter the EEC was ended when the ANAP criticized the customs union of the EEC and decided the admission terms prescribed by the EEC to be not in the best interest of Turkey or its people. In 1991 ANAP lost the majority to a coalition of the True Path and Social Democrats parties.[5]

After its longest run, the ANAP has had few opportunities to return to leadership. In 1995, The Motherland party formed a brief coalition with the True Path Party (DYP), another center-right oriented party, that allowed their influence to return for a short period of time. Then, from July 1997 to November 1998, the ANAP was returned to the head of government with the leader Mesut Yılmaz during Turkey's first televised elections.[6]

However, The ANAP suffered one of the largest defeats during the April 1999 elections and became the fourth largest political party in Turkey with only 14% of the votes. Following these elections, ANAP received only 86 of 365 seats in the Parliament. During the 2002 elections, they got only 5.12% of the votes and no seats in Parliament.[7]

On 5 May 2007, it was announced that ANAP and True Path Party would merge to the Democratic Party (DP). However, this failed and ANAP announced that it would not run for the upcoming elections.

From 2008 to 2009, its president was Salih Uzun. On 31 October 2009, it was merged to Democratic Party.[8]

In 11 September 2011, the party was re-established, with the same ideology as the first organization. Its current president is İbrahim Çelebi.

Leaders[edit]

The chief executive member of the party is called the Genel Başkan. He/She is elected by party delegates in biennial party congresses. The party had seven leaders since its foundation in 1983 until 2009:

  1. Turgut Özal (May 20, 1983 – October 31, 1989)
  2. Yıldırım Akbulut (November 16, 1989 – June 15, 1991)
  3. Mesut Yılmaz (June 15, 1991 – November 4, 2002)
  4. Ali Talip Özdemir (November 18, 2002 – October 3, 2003)
  5. Nesrin Nas (October 15, 2003 – March 21, 2005)
  6. Erkan Mumcu (April 2, 2005 – October 26, 2008)
  7. Salih Uzun (October 26, 2008 – October 31, 2009)

(During periods between the resignation or incapacitation of a leader and the election of a new one, the central committee of the party collectively acted as leader.)

External links[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Motherland Party". http://countrystudies.us. Retrieved 24 April 2012. 
  2. ^ pg. 265. "A History of the Modern Middle East. WestView Publishing, 2013.
  3. ^ "Turkey - Political parties". Encyclopedia of the Nations. Retrieved 24 April 2012. 
  4. ^ "Turkey - Political parties". Encyclopedia of the Nations. Retrieved 24 April 2012. 
  5. ^ "Turkey - Political parties". Encyclopedia of the Nations. Retrieved 24 April 2012. 
  6. ^ "Turkey-Motherland Party". countrystudies.us. Retrieved 24 April 2012. 
  7. ^ "Turkey - Political parties". Encyclopedia of the Nations. Retrieved 24 April 2012. 
  8. ^ http://www.zaman.com.tr/haber.do?haberno=910155