|Directed by||Ishirō Honda|
|Produced by||Tomoyuki Tanaka|
|Written by||Shinichi Sekizawa|
|Music by||Yuji Koseki|
|Editing by||Kazuji Taira|
|Distributed by||Toho (Japan)
Columbia Pictures (US)
|Running time||100 min.|
Mothra (モスラ Mosura ) is a 1961 Kaiju film from Toho Studios, directed by genre regular Ishirō Honda with special effects by Eiji Tsuburaya. It is the kaiju eiga debut of screenwriter Shinichi Sekizawa, whose approach to the genre grew to prominence during the 1960s. The film stars Frankie Sakai, a popular comedian in Japan at the time, and Hiroshi Koizumi, in the first of many academic roles he would adopt in tokusatsu. Jerry Ito (transliterated as "Jelly Ito" in the credits of the U.S. release) stars in the film, his only contribution to Toho's kaiju eiga genre. Ito also appeared in 1958's Japanese/US co-production The Manster (a.k.a. "The Split"), and in Toho's 1961 end-of-the-world science fiction feature Sekai Daisensou ("The Last War").
Its basic plot was recycled in King Kong vs. Godzilla and Mothra vs. Godzilla (1962 and 1964, both also written by Sekizawa), and the daikaiju Mothra would become one of Toho's most popular, appearing in seven more Godzilla films and her own trilogy in the 1990s.
An expedition to an irradiated island brings civilization in contact with a primitive native culture. When one sensationalist entrepreneur tries to exploit the islanders, their ancient deity arises in retaliation.
In waters off Infant Island, a presumedly uninhabited site for Rolisican atomic tests, the Daini-Gen'you-Maru is caught and run aground in the turbulence of a typhoon. A rescue party following the storm finds four sailors alive and strangely unafflicted with radiation sickness, which they attribute to the juice provided them by island natives. The story is broken by tenacious reporter Zenichiro (also known as "Bulldog" or "Zen-chan") Fukuda (Sakai) and photographer Michi Hanamura (Kagawa), who infiltrate the hospital examining the survivors.
The Rolisican Embassy responds by co-sponsoring a joint Japanese–Rolisican scientific expediction to Infant Island, led by capitalist Clark Nelson (Ito). Also on the expedition are radiation specialist Dr. Harada (Ken Uehara), linguist/anthropologist Shin'ichi Chūjō (Koizumi), and stowaway reporter Fukuda. Chūjō has studied the cultures of islands in the area and ascertained that one of the key hieroglyphs in their written language, a radiant cross-shaped star, translates as Mothra. There the team discover a vast jungle of mutated flora, a fleeting native tribe, and two young women only twelve inches tall (The Peanuts). The "Shobijin" (small beauties), as Fukuda dubs them, wish their island to be spared further atomic testing. Acknowledging this message, the team returns and conceals these events from the public.
Nelson, however, returns to the island with a crew of henchmen and abducts the girls, gunning down several natives who try to save them. While Nelson profits off a "Secret Fairies Show" in Tokyo featuring the girls singing, both they and the island natives beseech their god Mothra, a giant egg, for help. Fukuda, Hanamura, and Chūjō communicate with the young women via telepathy; they express conviction that Mothra will come to their aid and warn that "good people are sure to be hurt". Meanwhile, Fukuda's newspaper has accused Nelson of holding the girls against their will; Nelson denies the charge and files a libel suit against the paper. Meanwhile, the island egg hatches to reveal a gigantic caterpillar, which begins swimming the Pacific Ocean toward Japan. The caterpillar destroys a cruise ship and survives a napalm attack on a beeline path for Tokyo. The Rolisican Embassy, however, defends Nelson's property rights over the girls, ignoring any connection to the monster.
Mothra finally arrives on the Japanese mainland, impervious to the barrage of weaponry directed at it, ultimately building a cocoon in the ruins of Tokyo Tower. Public feeling turns against Nelson, and he is ordered to release the girls. He flees incognito to Rolisica, where Mothra, newly hatched in an imago form, immediately resumes her search. Police scour New Kirk City for Nelson as Mothra lays waste to the metropolis. Ultimately Nelson is killed in a shootout with police, and the girls are assigned to Chūjō's care. Church bells begin to ring, and sunlight illuminates the cross atop the steeple with radiant beams, reminding Chūjō and Hanamura of Mothra's unique symbol and of the girls' voices. Chūjō hits upon a novel way to attract Mothra to an airport runway. The girls are returned amid salutations of "sayōnara", and Mothra flies back to Infant Island.
Based on the novel The Luminous Fairies and Mothra, this adaptation was penned by Shinichi Sekizawa, who submitted his first draft proposal in 1960. Vaguely titled The Giant Monster Thing, this early concept featured a race of tiny women alongside the movie's giant monster. A name for the fairies was not specified in this first proposal, as apparently even at this early stage Sekizawa was contemplating a name change from their original title of the Airenas from the book.
In an unusual turn of events, another draft proposal was submitted shortly after. Re-titled Giant Monster Mothra, this second proposal fleshed out the concept more, giving the small women the name of the "Pichi Fairies" while citing that five would be seen during the course of the film. The size of the Pichi Fairies was stated as being 60 centimeters, showing a strange level of detail in this respect for a draft proposal. For reference, that would have been roughly twice the size of the Shobijin. The idea was seen as a winner, as a more fleshed out screenplay was finally commissioned.
In 1960, the first script for the production was completed, and was accompanied by a storyboard to help relate the concept. The storyboard, infamous for showing a rather frightening interpretation of Mothra, displayed a number of different concepts compared to the final film, including Mothra squaring off with a squadron of jets and also building a cocoon on the Diet Building, a concept that would eventually return in Godzilla vs. Mothra (1992). A lot of this was about to change, though, with the signing of two popular singers to the project.
On January 14, 1961, the second draft of Giant Monster Mothra was submitted. Since the first draft, the singing duet The Peanuts (Emi and Yumi Ito) had been attached to the production. Seeing a very lucrative idea in the making, the fairy role was altered to just that of the singing duo, while their name was also changed to the Shobijin. The concept would be altered even further by Sekizawa, as a third draft of the script was submitted on February 5 of that same year. Production on the movie was now in full swing, although the name Giant Monster Mothra hanged around for quite awhile, even being used on advance posters before it was shortened to simply Mothra (1961) for its final release.
The original climax for Mothra was entirely different from what ended up in the final print. Originally, Nelson and his group had planned to kidnap Shinji Chujo for a longer period of time, rather than leaving him tied up as they fled the country. Instead, they took the small boy on a private plane as they attempted to flee, only to accidentally crash near a mountainside. Meanwhile, the film's heroes are in close pursuit, having brought along the authorities to help save the boy. All of this takes place while Mothra is still in its cocoon, meaning that Fukuda and the others weren't originally planned to witness the birth of Mothra's Imago form. Instead they give chase to Nelson as Mothra breaks free after the Atomic Ray Gun attack. She then immediately flies to the mountainside and kills Nelson and goes back to Infant island with Shobijin.
It's hard to say how much of the original climax was finished before being cut, but there are a number of black and white production stills showing that the mountain chase sequence was filmed, at least in part; however, no photos have been seen of the story boarded sequence relating to the plane crash that would have occurred just before it.
Mothra was the first of the kaiju eiga to distance itself from the genre of horror. Unlike Godzilla (1954), Godzilla Raids Again (1955), and Rodan (1956), thematically and visually darker films full of allegory and scenes of death, Mothra is vibrant, colorful, and at times jovial. Even the scenes of destruction in Mothra are depicted with an air of fantasy: rather unlike actual automobiles, cars and trucks caught in Mothra's gusts are tossed and bounced about the cityscape of New Kirk like leaves in a dust devil.
As a daikaiju Mothra is assigned an unprecedented level of personality, imbued as the shobijin's guardian with loyalty and nobility. The film ends not with Mothra's death or incapacitation but with her success at retrieving the shobijin and returning—-in peace and on good terms with Japan—-to Infant Island. The true antagonist of the film is instead the greedy sensationalist Clark Nelson, whose role lends itself to broad interpretation. Fukuda describes him as an "art dealer", of the type who raid historic sites for riches. The film was conceived and released at the outset of the Japanese post-war economic miracle, amid the liberalization of business from government regulation; by placing an (Occidental) tycoon in such a villainous role, the film propounds a strong critique of the Western model of capitalism itself.
The ending of the film alludes heavily to Christianity: Mothra's symbol is revealed to bear a likeness to the Christian cross—though it more specifically resembles the Celtic cross—and its image, joined by the sound of ringing church bells, is used to summon Mothra and show her where to land. Remarkably, whereas the propagation of Western Big business is to blame for Mothra's destructive onslaught, it is Western religion which appeases it.
The fictional nation in the movie is clearly a substitute for America. Rolisica is an amalgam of both America and Russia (USSR at the time). The capital, New Kirk City, which Mothra attacks, shares an uncanny resemblance to that of New York City, specifically in its Manhattan-like skyline. The people of Rolisica are clearly coded as Americans; some were played by Turkish actors. The neighborhood where Nelson is killed seems to have an Eastern Orthodox ambiance, similar to that of Russia; in the Japanese version, two priests, one clearly Orthodox, comment that the people can only pray that Mothra will not destroy them. The church bells begin ringing immediately following this speech. The Rolisican flag displays a large crescent moon and small star, reflecting the flag of the Islamic Republic as well as the sickle of the Soviet Union. Roliscan military uniforms, seen in briefly when the Roliscan military lends Japan a weapon to defeat Mothra, resemble those of the Soviet military.
U.S. release 
Mothra was released in the United States in May 1962 on a double-bill with The Three Stooges in Orbit. Film critic A. H. Weiler in The New York Times gave the film a generally positive review, singling out the color and special effects for praise. "There's that color, as pretty as can be, that now and then smites the eye with some genuinely artistic panoramas and décor designs."
Some plot points, also, were favorably mentioned: "Fantastic though the plot may be, there are some genuinely penetrating moments, such as the contrast of the approaching terror and those patient, silvery-voiced little 'dolls,' serenely awaiting rescue. Several of the special effects shots are brilliant, such as the sight of a giant cocoon nestling against a large city's power station tower" (in reality, it was Tokyo Tower, a landmark broadcasting tower). The movie was edited also removing about 10 minutes from the original Japanese version for its release in America at 90 minutes.
- Zen'ichirou 'Zen-Chan' Fukuda, Nittou Journalist - Frankie Sakai
- Michi Hanamura, Nittou Photographer - Kyoko Kagawa
- Dr. Shin'ichi Tyuujou - Hiroshi Koizumi
- Dr. Harada - Ken Uehara
- Clark Nelson - Jerry Itou
- The Shoubijin - The Peanuts, Yumi Itou, Emi Itou
- Sadakatsu Amano, Nittou Editor - Takashi Shimura
- Shinji Tyuujou - Masamitsu Tayama
- Nelson's Henchman - Tetsu Nakamura
- Danny, Nelson's Henchman - Ousmane Yusef
- Nelson's Henchman - Akira Wakamatsu
- Nelson's Henchman - Hiroshi Takagi
- Nelson's Henchman - Toshio Miura
- Dr. Raaff, Captain of Infant Island investigating group- Audie Wyatt
- Director General of National Nucleus Center - Akihiko Hirata
- Commander of Defence Force A - Hisaya Itou
- Commander of Defence Force B - Yoshihumi Tajima
- Helicopter pilot A - Kenji Sahara
- Helicopter pilot B - Kenzou Echigo
- Secretary of Defense - Seizaburou Kawazu
- Captain of Daini Genyo Maru - Yoshio Kosugi
- Namiki, Shipmate - Ren Yamamoto
- Murata, Sailor - Haruya Katou
- Honma, Radio Communicator - Yutaka Nakamura
- Quartermaster - Kouji Iwamoto
- Member of task force - Hiroo Sakurai
- Officer Maritime Safety Agency - Sachiyuki Uemura
- Villager - Junnosuke Suda
- Villager - Akira Kittyouji
- Villager - Toshiko Nakano
- Detective of Rolisica - Dan Yuma (Robert Dunham)
- Ambassador Rolisica - Harold Conway
- Father of New Kirk City - Henrico Rossie
- Oldman of New Kirk City - E.P. Mcdermott
- Captain of Hayakaze - Kou Misima
- Medical officer - Tadashi Okabe
- Geiger counter Crew - Kouhei Furukawa
- Journalist A - Shinpei Mitsui
- Journalist B - Masaaki Tachibana
- Nittou Journalist - Toshio Miura
- Owner of a rest house - Junpei Natsuki
- Owner’s Wife - Teruko Mita
- Dam watchman A - Syouichi Hirose
- Dam watchman B - Shigeo Katou
- Dam watchman C - Jun Kuroki
- Nanny of the Tyuujous - Tsurue Ichimanji
- Theater guide girl - Terumi Oka
- Captain of deluxe liner Orion-Maru - Mitsuo Tsuda
- Shipmate - Keisuke Matsuyama
- Quartermaster - Yū Sekida
- Captain of big transport - Yutaka Oka
- Aims person - Akira Yamada
- Crew of Infant Island investigating group - Mitsuo Matsumoto
- Crew of Infant Island investigating group - Yoshio Katsube
- Crew of Infant Island investigating group - Hiroyuki Satake
- Crew of Infant Island investigating group - Akira Hayami
- Crew of Infant Island investigating group - Kazuo Imai
- Policeman of tunnel A - Kouji Uno
- Policeman of tunnel B - Yukihiko Gondou
- Woodcutter - Yasuhisa Tsutsumi
- Infant islander - Keiji Sakakida
- Infant islander - Nichigeki dancing team
- Mothra Larva (Head) - Haruo Nakajima
- Mothra Larva (Body) - Katsumi Tezuka/Other
Additional credits 
- Eiji Tsuburaya- special effects
- Teruyoshi Nakano- assistant special effects director
- Akira Watanabe- Special effects art director
- Yukio Manoda- special optical photography
- Teisho Arikawa- effects photography
- Hiroshi Mukoyama- matte shots
- Samaji Nonagase- chief assistant director
DVD release 
Columbia TriStar (Sony)
- Released: August 18, 2009 (as part of the Icons of Sci-Fi: Toho Collection, along with The H-Man and Battle in Outer Space)
- Kalat, David. A Critical History and Filmography of Toho's Godzilla Series, McFarland, 1997. ISBN 0-7864-0300-4
- Weiler, A. H. (1962). "Screen: 'Hatari!' Captures the Drama of Tanganyika Wildlife:Howard Hawks Film Opens at DeMille Neighborhood Houses Offer 2 Twin Bills". New York Times. Retrieved January 25, 2006.
- Mothra (film) at Rotten Tomatoes
- "モスラ (Mosura)" (in Japanese). Japanese Movie Database. Retrieved 2007-07-16.
- Mothra at the Internet Movie Database