|Ghost in the Shell character|
Major Motoko Kusanagi as portrayed in Ghost in the Shell: S.A.C. 2nd GIG
|First appearance||Ghost in the Shell|
|Created by||Masamune Shirow|
Maaya Sakamoto (young, Arise)
Hiromi Tsuru (PlayStation game)
Mimi Woods (film, PlayStation game)
Mary Elizabeth McGlynn (TV series, Innocence)
Alison Matthews (OVA)
Peggy O'Neal (young)
|Aliases||Chroma (online name)|
Major Motoko Kusanagi (草薙 素子 Kusanagi Motoko ) is a fictional character in the Ghost in the Shell anime and manga series. She is a cyborg employed as the squad leader of Public Security Section 9, a fictional division of the real Japanese National Public Safety Commission.
Kusanagi's various incarnations in the manga, movies, and TV series all portray her differently. Since each of these series have an independent storyline, Kusanagi's physical characteristics and personality have been modified in different ways to reflect the focus of each respective story.
Motoko's Kusanagi's body was chosen by Shirow to be a mass production model so she would not be conspicuous. Her electrical and mechanical system within is special and features parts unable to be obtained in the civilian market. Shirow intentionally chose this appearance so Motoko would not be harvested for those parts.
Kenji Kamiyama had a difficult time identifying her and could not understand her motives during the first season of Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex. Due to this, he created an episode in the second season where he recounted her past. He was then able to describe her as a human who was chosen to gain this superhuman power; she probably believes that she has an obligation to use that ability for the benefit of others. English voice actor and director Mary Elizabeth McGlynn states she loved playing the role of Motoko Kusanagi and described her as "someone [who] was that strong, and still kind of feminine at times, but also kick-ass".
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Motoko is a commanding presence when on assignment, but also trades insults with her troops. She constantly calls Aramaki "Ape Face" as well as other members in Public Security Section 9, and when the Puppet Master reveals the "Motokos" that exist in the minds of those who know her, Aramaki's "Motoko" is sticking her tongue out. She is much more light-hearted and immature in some occasions. Due to the Puppeteer case, she started to change and become much more serious.
In the sequel, Ghost in the Shell 2: Man/Machine Interface, a person known as Motoko Aramaki appears. She identifies herself as containing "Motoko Kusanagi" elements, along with Project 2501, the Puppeteer. She is also identified as "Motoko 11" hinting that there is more than one.
A second character is also introduced in Ghost in the Shell 2: Man/Machine Interface by the name of Millennium. Millennium controls a group by the name of "Stabat Mater" that is researching a process known as "Brain Expansion." This research is apparently called off after Millennium is taken over by Motoko Aramaki. At this time Millennium is revealed to be "'No. 20' (Millennium)," indicating that Millennium is another of the Motoko Kusanagi/Project 2501 hybrid entities.
In the film series by Mamoru Oshii, the Major's design is significantly different in comparison with her original manga appearance. Unlike her manga counterpart, the Major has an androgynous face and rarely shows emotion. Like the manga, Public Security Section 9 investigate the crimes of a genius hacker called the Puppet Master. Kusanagi is frequently portrayed in the film as contemplative and brooding, in contrast to the down-to-earth nature of her partner Batou. Since she has a full cybernetic body, she is not certain her "ghost"[clarification needed] retains any humanity and speculates on the possibility that she is entirely synthetic, with artificially generated memories designed to fool her into thinking she was once human. Throughout the movie, she seeks to find answers to her questions and finally meets the Puppet Master, a rogue AI who became sentient and who is also looking for existential meaning. In the climax of the film, Kusanagi and the Puppet Master "merge" to form an entirely new entity that exists free of physical boundaries and propagate itself through the Net.
In Innocence, picking up three years after the events of the original movie, the Major herself does not make any sort of appearance. Throughout the film, the Major makes her first "true" appearance in Kim's manor, where she breaks into the hallway component of Kim's looping false memories and inserts herself (represented by the little girl prosthetic body she inhabited at the end of the first movie), and providing clues to alert Batou to Kim's attempted "ghost-hack" on himself and Togusa. The Major's "ghost" eventually returns in person to help Batou on the Locus Solus gynoid factory ship. Using a satellite transmission, she attempts to download her "ghost" into one of the Hadaly gynoid production models - however, due to the insufficient memory of the gynoid's e-brain, she is only able to download a fraction of her full "ghost" into the doll. (She notes with marked disdain that the gynoid had barely enough memory for her combat protocols.) Her personality has not changed much from the first movie - she still retains her fondness for philosophy and her considerable skills in battle, though she has also gained the Puppet Master's formidable hacking abilities. In a climactic sequence, she tears apart her mechanical body in the process of opening the ship's CPU hatch in order to hack into it. After successfully locking down the ship and uncovering the truth behind the conspiracy, Kusanagi prepares to once again disappear into the Net, but reassures a despondent Batou that whenever he logs in, she will always be beside him.
Stand Alone Complex
The Major retains much of her personality from the manga in the anime series Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex and its followup Ghost in the Shell: S.A.C. 2nd GIG, although she is not disrespectful toward the Chief like she is in the manga. As in the original manga and unlike the movies, where she had black hair and blue-grey eyes, she now has blue-purple hair and red-violet eyes. Throughout the series, The Major maintains her signature commanding presence and authority. Among the various members of Section 9, Kusanagi is usually the one Chief Aramaki singles out to accompany him on official and off the record business. Kusanagi's personal life is not shown much in the first season. She underwent cyberization at a very early age and had trouble adapting to the use of her body which resulted in her inadvertently breaking one of her favorite dolls. She holds a wrist watch as proof of her past.
In the first season, Kusanagi started questioning the use of the Tachikoma sentient tanks, due to them showing signs of individuality and curiosity not suited for combat. Ultimately, she decides to have them stripped of their weaponry and sent back to the lab that manufactured them for analysis and further work. When the Tachikoma sacrificed themselves to save Batou, Major Kusanagi understands that she was wrong in halting the usage of the Tachikoma and proposes that they might have evolved to have ghosts themselves.
In the second season her past was revealed. She was once a little girl who had been in a plane crash causing her to be in a coma. A boy who was also a victim of the plane crash continuously made origami cranes using only his left hand, as much of his body was paralyzed in the accident, in hopes of giving them to her when she woke up. Motoko was eventually taken away when medical complications occurred. The boy thought she had died, but she was actually being cyberized and given a full prosthetic body. When she returned to see the boy, the boy did not recognize her and ignored her. When she left the hospital, the boy realized she was the girl in the coma and made a decision to get cyberized and look for her, but he never saw her again. Throughout the second season, the Major and Section 9 go against a terrorist group called "The Individual Eleven". Believing it to be another stand alone complex they unwillingly teamed up with Kazundo Gouda in order to figure out their motive. When the 11 leaders of the individual eleven reveal themselves, they all kill each other except for Hideo Kuze. It was later revealed that Hideo Kuze was the little boy who Motoko once knew as a child; this discovery caused her some emotional confusion.
In the Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex: Solid State Society OVA, the Major has left Section 9 for two years and does not appear much in the first half of the film. She first appears on a building jumping off into the darkness. She shows up later as Chroma, CIS body,[clarification needed] to warn Batou to stay away from the "Solid State Society". She returns to her normal body after "Chroma" re-stores herself in the recharging chamber. She is suspected of being the Puppeteer, but is no longer suspected when she rescues Togusa from a (coerced) suicide attempt. She leads Section 9 on a raid to find the Puppeteer. At the end of Solid State Society, she repeats her famous line, "The net is truly vast and infinite."
Sexuality's Controversies in Stand Alone Complex
It has been suggested that Kusanagi may be lesbian since she has been intimate with other female cyborgs. This is common in part because of the high degree of compatibility with cybernetic devices in cyborgs of the same sex. It is much more likely however that the Major is bisexual as she has had boyfriends, and seems to have feelings for fellow Section 9 operative, Batou. Batou will also at times call her by her first name, Motoko, instead of using her title, which suggests he shares her feelings. 
In the Ghost in the Shell: Arise OVA series, Motoko is completely redesigned from her previous incarnations, as are all members of the main character cast. Her cybernetic body is shown as far younger in appearance and shorter in height to other versions, resembling a teenager or young adult and not much taller than Chief Aramaki. Her hair is cut in a close, straight bang form and usually is shown wearing full red leather pants and jackets and high heel boots.
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Motoko Kusanagi was well received by media. In 1996, The San Francisco Chronicle stated that she "sports the body of a Baywatch babe, the face of a beauty queen and the soul of a machine. She may frequently be topless, but she's tough." In 2008, UGO included this "one perfect cybernetic babe" among the 75 "Top Animated Hotties", adding that she should be played in the live-action film by Kate Beckinsale who "doesn't have the impressive bust, but that's what CG is for", also includin her in their "Hot Girls We Wish Were Real" list at the ninth place. Motoko ranked #13 in IGN's list of the top anime characters of all time in 2009, commenting that "though she may be cool, professional, and mostly artificial, she's unquestionably human, and following her adventures through Ghost in the Shell was never less than fascinating."
Motoko's female identity and appearance is countered by the autonomous subjectivity, resulting in a "male" cyborg body which cannot menstruate.[note 1] The film depicts Motoko's identity and ontological concerns with and ends with the evolution of the being, resulting in full subjectivity, through a new form of reproduction with the Puppet Master.[note 2] Austin Corbett commented on the lack of sexualiation from her team as freedom from feminity, noting that Motoko is "overtly feminine, and clearly non-female."
- The English dubbed version from Manga Video changes the line to "Yeah, I must have a wire loose!". Orbaugh described this change as "sanitized".
- "The juxtaposition, in the first five minutes of the film, of her reference to menstruation with the scenes of her cyborgian replication, immediately underscores the fact that this film's theme is the problematic of reproductive sexuality in a posthuman subject."
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