Motor cognition

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The concept of motor cognition grasps the notion that cognition is embodied in action, and that the motor system participates in what is usually considered as mental processing, including those involved in social interaction.[1] The fundamental unit of the motor cognition paradigm is action, defined as the movements produced to satisfy an intention towards a specific motor goal, or in reaction to a meaningful event in the physical and social environments. Motor cognition takes into account the preparation and production of actions, as well as the processes involved in recognizing, predicting, mimicking and understanding the behavior of other people. This paradigm has received a great deal of attention and empirical support in recents years from a variety of research domains including developmental psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and social psychology.

Perception-action coupling[edit]

The idea of a continuity between the different aspects of motor cognition is not new. In fact, this idea can be traced to the work of the American psychologist William James and more recently, American neurophysiologist and Nobel prize winner Roger Sperry. Sperry argued that the perception–action cycle is the fundamental logic of the nervous system.[2] Perception and action processes are functionally intertwined: perception is a means to action and action is a means to perception. Indeed, the vertebrate brain has evolved for governing motor activity with the basic function to transform sensory patterns into patterns of motor coordination.

More recently, there is growing empirical evidence from cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, cognitive neuroscience, cognitive science, as well as social psychology which demonstrates that perception and action share common computational codes and underlying neural architectures. This evidence has been marshaled in the "common coding theory" put forward by Wolfgang Prinz and his colleagues at the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences in Leipzig, Germany.[3] This theory claims parity between perception and action. Its core assumption is that actions are coded in terms of the perceivable effects (i.e., the distal perceptual events) they should generate.[4] Performing a movement leaves behind a bidirectional association between the motor pattern it has generated by and the sensory effects that it produces. Such an association can then be used backwards to retrieve a movement by anticipating its effects. These perception/action codes are also accessible during action observation.Other authors suggest a new notion of the phylogenetic and ontogenetic origin of action understanding that utilizes the motor system; motor cognition hypothesis. This states that motor cognition provides both human and nonhuman primates with a direct, prereflexive understanding of biological actions that match their own action catalog.[5]

The discovery of mirror neurons in the ventral premotor and parietal cortices of the macaque monkey that fire both when it carries out a goal-directed action and when it observes the same action performed by another individual provides neurophysiological evidence for a direct matching between action perception and action production.[6] An example of such coupling is the ease with which people can engage in speech repetition when asked to shadow words heard in earphones.[7]

In humans, common neural activation during action observation and execution has been well documented. A variety of functional neuroimaging studies, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography, and magnetoencephalography have demonstrated that a motor resonance mechanism in the premotor and posterior parietal cortices occurs when participants observe or produce goal directed actions.[8][9] Such a motor resonance system seems to be hard wired, or at least functional very early in life.[10][11]

Shared representations between other and self[edit]

The common coding theory also states that perception of an action should activate action representations to the degree that the perceived and the represented action are similar.[12] As such, these representations may be shared between individuals. Indeed, the meaning of a given object, action, or social situation may be common to several people and activate corresponding distributed patterns of neural activity in their respective brains.[13] There is an impressive number of behavioral and neurophysiological studies demonstrating that perception and action have a common neuronal coding and that this leads to shared representations between self and others, which can lead to host of phenomena such as emotional contagion, empathy, social facilitation, and understanding others minds.[14]

Motor priming[edit]

One consequence of the functional equivalence between perception and action is that watching an action performed by another person facilitates the later reproduction of that action in the observer. For instance, in one study, participants executed arm movements while observing either a robot or another human producing the same or qualitatively different arm movements.[15] The results show that observing another human make incongruent movements interferes with movement execution but observing a robotic arm making incongruent movements does not.

Social facilitation[edit]

The fact that the observation of action can prime a similar response in the observer, and that the degree to which the observed action facilitates a similar response in the observer cast some light into the phenomenon called social facilitation, first described by Robert Zajonc, which accounts for the demonstration that the presence of other people can affect individual performance.[16] A number of studies have demonstrated that watching facial expression of emotions prompts the observer to resonate with the state of another individual, with the observer activating the motor representations and associated autonomic and somatic responses that stem from the observed target.[17]

Motor cognition and mental state understanding[edit]

Humans have a tendency to interpret the actions of others with respect to underlying mental states. One important question is whether the perception-action matching mechanism and its product, shared motor representations, can account (or to what extent it does) for the attribution of mental states to others (often dubbed theory of mind mechanism). Some authors have suggested that the shared representations network that stems from the perception-action matching mechanism may support mental state attribution via covert (i.e., non conscious) mental simulation.[18] In contrast, some other scholars have argued that the mirror system and the theory of mind system are two distinct processes and it’s likely that the former cannot account for mental state understanding.[19][20]

Reasoning[edit]

A series of experiments demonstrated the interrelation between motor experience and high-level reasoning. For example, although most individuals recruit visual processes when presented with spatial problems such as mental rotation tasks [21] motor experts favor motor processes to perform the same tasks, with higher overall performance. [22] A related study showed that motor experts use similar processes for the mental rotation of body parts and polygons, whereas non-experts treated these stimuli differently.[23] These results were not due to underlying confounds, as demonstrated by a training study which showed mental rotation improvements after a one-year motor training, compared with controls.[24] Similar patterns were also found in working memory tasks, with the ability to remember movements being greatly disrupted by a secondary verbal task in controls and by a motor task in motor experts, suggesting the involvement of different processes to store movements depending on motor experience, namely verbal for controls and motor for experts.[25]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sommerville, JA.; Decety, J. (Apr 2006). "Weaving the fabric of social interaction: articulating developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience in the domain of motor cognition.". Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 13 (2): 179–200. doi:10.3758/BF03193831. PMID 16892982. 
  2. ^ Sperry, R.W. (1952). Neurology and the mind-brain problem. American Scientist, 40, 291-312.
  3. ^ Prinz, W. (1997). Perception and action planning. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 9, 129-154.
  4. ^ Hommel, B.; Müsseler, J.; Aschersleben, G.; Prinz, W. (Oct 2001). "The Theory of Event Coding (TEC): a framework for perception and action planning.". Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (5): 849–78; discussion 878–937. PMID 12239891. 
  5. ^ Gallese, V.; Rochat, M.; Cossu, G.; Sinigaglia, C. (Jan 2009). "Motor cognition and its role in the phylogeny and ontogeny of action understanding.". Developmental Psychology 45 (1): 103–13. doi:10.1037/a0014436. PMID 19209994. 
  6. ^ Rizzolatti, G.; Craighero, L. (2004). "The mirror-neuron system.". Annual Review of Neuroscience 27: 169–92. doi:10.1146/annurev.neuro.27.070203.144230. PMID 15217330. 
  7. ^ Marslen-Wilson, W. (Aug 1973). "Linguistic structure and speech shadowing at very short latencies.". Nature 244 (5417): 522–3. PMID 4621131. 
  8. ^ Grèzes J., Armony J. L., Rowe J., & Passingham R. E. (2003). Activations related to "mirror" and "canonical" neuron in the human brain: an fMRI study. NeuroImage, 18, 928-937.
  9. ^ Hamzei, F., Rijntjes, M., Dettmers, C., Glauche, V., Weiller, C. & Büchel, C. (2003). The human action recognition system and its relationship to Broca’s area: an fMRI study. NeuroImage, 19, 637-644.
  10. ^ Sommerville, JA.; Woodward, AL.; Needham, A. (May 2005). "Action experience alters 3-month-old infants' perception of others' actions.". Cognition 96 (1): B1–11. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2004.07.004. PMID 15833301. 
  11. ^ Nystrom, P. (2008). The infant mirror neuron system studied with high density EEG. Social Neuroscience, 3, 334-347.
  12. ^ Knoblich, G. & Flach, R. (2001). Predicting the effects of actions: interactions of perception and action. Psychological Science, 12, 467-472.
  13. ^ Decety, J.; Sommerville, JA. (Dec 2003). "Shared representations between self and other: a social cognitive neuroscience view.". Trends in Cognitive Science 7 (12): 527–33. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2003.10.004. PMID 14643368. 
  14. ^ Blakemore, S.J. & Frith, C.D. (2005). The role of motor contagion in the prediction of action. Neuropsychologia, 43, 260-267.
  15. ^ Kilner, J.M., Paulignan, Y., & Blakemore, S.J. (2003). An interference effect of observed biological movement on action. Current Biology, 13, 522-525.
  16. ^ Chartrand, T.L., & Bargh, J.A. (1999). The chameleon effect: The perception-behavior link and social interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 893-910.
  17. ^ Hatfield, E., Cacioppo, J.T., & Rapson, R.L. (1993). Emotional contagion. Current Direction in Psychological Science 2, 96-99.
  18. ^ Gallese, V.; Goldman, A. (Dec 1998). "Mirror neurons and the simulation theory of mind-reading.". Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2 (12): 493–501. doi:10.1016/S1364-6613(98)01262-5. PMID 21227300. 
  19. ^ Saxe, R. (2005). Against simulation: the argument from error. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 174-179.
  20. ^ Decety, J.; Michalska, KJ.; Akitsuki, Y. (Sep 2008). "Who caused the pain? An fMRI investigation of empathy and intentionality in children.". Neuropsychologia 46 (11): 2607–14. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2008.05.026. PMID 18573266. 
  21. ^ Hyun, J. S., & Luck, S. J. (2007). Visual working memory as the substrate for mental rotation. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14(1), 154-158.
  22. ^ "Moreau, D. (2012). The role of motor processes in three-dimensional mental rotation: Shaping cognitive processing via sensorimotor experience. Learning and Individual Differences, 22(3), 354-359"
  23. ^ "Moreau, D. (2013a). Constraining movement alters the recruitment of motor processes in mental rotation. Experimental Brain Research, 224(3), 447-454."
  24. ^ "*Moreau, D., Clerc, J., Mansy-Dannay, A., & Guerrien, A. (2012). Enhancing spatial ability through sport practice: Evidence for an effect of motor training on mental rotation performance. Journal of Individual Differences, 33(2), 83-88."
  25. ^ "*Moreau, D. (2013b). Motor expertise modulates movement processing in working memory. Acta Psychologica, 142(3), 356-361."

Further reading[edit]

  • Hatfield, E., Cacioppo, J., & Rapson, R. (1994). "Emotional Contagion." New York: Cambridge Press.
  • Jeannerod, M. (1997). "The cognitive neuroscience of action." Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Jeannerod, M. (2006). "Motor Cognition: What Actions Tell the Self." Oxford University Press.
  • Morsella, E., Bargh, J.A., & Gollwitzer, P.M. (Eds.) (2009). Oxford Handbook of Human Action. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Markman, K.D., Klein, W.M.P. & J.A. Suhr (Eds.), (2008). "The Handbook of Imagination and Mental Simulation." New York: Psychology Press.
  • Thelen, E. (1995). "Motor development: A new synthesis." American Psychologist, 50, 79-95.