Motor neuron disease
|Motor neuron disease|
|Classification and external resources|
Motor neuron disease (MND) are a small group of neurological disorders that selectively affect motor neurons, the cells that control voluntary muscle activity including speaking, walking, swallowing, and general movement of the body. They are generally progressive in nature, and cause increasing disability and, eventually, death.
The term motor neuron disease is used inconsistently. Some use it to refer to a group of diseases which includes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and others use it to specifically mean ALS. The other four motor neuron diseases are: primary lateral sclerosis, progressive muscular atrophy, progressive bulbar palsy and pseudobulbar palsy. To avoid confusion, the annual scientific research conference dedicated to the study of MND is called the "International ALS/MND Symposium".
While MND refers to a specific subset of similar diseases, there are numerous other diseases of motor neurons that as a group are referred to as motor neuron disorders. Example include spinal muscular atrophy, spinobulbar muscular atrophy, Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, Guillain–Barré syndrome, and many others.
|Type||UMN degeneration||LMN degeneration|
|Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)||yes||yes|
|Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS)||yes||no|
|Progressive muscular atrophy (PMA)||no||yes|
|Progressive bulbar palsy (PBP)||no||yes – bulbar region|
|Pseudobulbar palsy||yes – bulbar region||no|
Even though diseases known as spinal muscular atrophies, including the most common spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), affect motor neurons and are classified as MND by the disease terminology classification system Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), they are not classified as such by the tenth International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) published in 1992 and thus are not discussed in this article.
- Ellison, edited by Seth Love, David N. Louis, David W. (2008). Greenfield's neuropathology (8th ed. ed.). London: Hodder Arnold. p. 947. ISBN 9780340906811.
- "Motor Neuron Diseases Fact Sheet: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)". www.ninds.nih.gov. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
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