Motor vehicle emissions
Motor vehicle emissions are composed of the by-products that comes out of the exhaust systems or other emissions such as gasoline evaporation. These emissions contribute to air pollution and are a major ingredient in the creation of smog in some large cities. A 2013 study by MIT indicates that 53,000 early deaths per year occur because of vehicle emissions.
- 1 Cold engines
- 2 Main motor vehicle emissions
- 3 Passenger car emissions summary
- 4 Health Studies
- 5 Localised effects
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
During the first couple of minutes after starting the engine of a car that has not been operated for several hours, the amount of emissions is very high. This occurs for two main reasons:
- Rich Air-Fuel ratio requirement in cold engines: Right after starting the engine the walls as well as the fuel are cold. Fuel does not vaporise and it would be difficult to create enough combustible gaseous mixture. therefore very rich operation is required at the beginning, sometimes even 1:1. The excess of fuel in the chambers is subsequently burned generating great amount of Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen Oxides and Carbon monoxide.
- Inefficient catalytic converter under cold conditions: Catalytic converters are very inefficient when cold. When the cold engine is started, it takes several minutes for the converter to reach operating temperature. Before that, gases are emitted directly into the atmosphere. There are many ways of reducing this effect: Locating the converter closer to the engine, Superinsulation, electric heating, thermal battery, chemical reaction preheating, and Flame heating
Considering that a substantial amount of trips are short, this is a major issue to improve air quality conditions.
Main motor vehicle emissions
Mono-nitrogen oxides NO and NO2 react with ammonia, moisture, and other compounds to form nitric acid vapor and related particles. Small particles can penetrate deeply into sensitive lung tissue and damage it, causing premature death in extreme cases. Inhalation of such particles may cause or worsen respiratory diseases such as emphysema and bronchitis. It may also aggravate existing heart disease. In a 2005 U.S. EPA study the largest emissions of NOx came from on road motor vehicles, with the second largest contributor being non road equipment which is mostly gasoline and diesel stations.
Volatile organic compounds
When oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react in the presence of sunlight, ground level ozone is formed, a primary ingredient in smog. A 2005 U.S. EPA report gives road vehicles as the second largest source of VOCs in the U.S. at 26% and 19% are from non road equipment which is mostly gasoline and diesel stations. 27% of VOC emissions are from solvents which are used in the manufacturer of paints and paint thinners and other uses.
Ozone is beneficial in the upper atmosphere, but at ground level ozone irritates the respiratory system, causing coughing, choking, and reduced lung capacity. In the United States, ozone is responsible for an estimated $500 million in reduced crop production each year.
Carbon monoxide (CO)
Carbon monoxide poisoning is the most common type of fatal air poisoning in many countries. Carbon monoxide is colorless, odorless and tasteless, but highly toxic. It combines with hemoglobin to produce carboxyhemoglobin, which is ineffective for delivering oxygen to bodily tissues. In the U.S. 60% of carbon monoxide is caused by on road vehicles.
Hazardous air pollutants (toxics)
Chronic (long-term) exposure to benzene (C6H6) damages bone marrow. It can also cause excessive bleeding and depress the immune system, increasing the chance of infection. Benzene causes leukemia and is associated with other blood cancers and pre-cancers of the blood.
Particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5)
The health effects of inhaling airborne particulate matter have been widely studied in humans and animals and include asthma, lung cancer, cardiovascular issues, and premature death. Because of the size of the particles, they can penetrate the deepest part of the lungs. A 2011 UK study estimates 90 deaths per year due to passenger vehicle PM. In a 2006 publication, the U.S. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) state that in 2002 about 1 per-cent of all PM10 and 2 per-cent of all PM2.5 emissions came from the exhaust of on-road motor vehicles (mostly from diesel engines).
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas. Motor vehicle CO2 emissions are part of the anthropogenic contribution to the growth of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere which is believed by a majority of scientists to play a significant part in climate change. Motor vehicles are calculated to generate about 20% of the European Union's man-made CO2 emissions, with passenger cars contributing about 12%. The European Union average new car CO2 emissions figure dropped by 5.4% in the year to the first quarter of 2010, down to 145.6 g/km.
Passenger car emissions summary
|Component||Emission Rate||Annual pollution emitted|
|Hydrocarbons||2.80 grams/mile (1.75 g/Km)||77.1 pounds (35.0 kg)|
|Carbon Monoxide||20.9 grams/mile (13.06 g/Km)||575 pounds (261 kg)|
|NOx||1.39 grams/mile (0.87 g/Km)||38.2 pounds (17.3 kg)|
|Carbon Dioxide - Green house gas||0.916 pounds per mile (258 g/km)||11,450 pounds (5,190 kg)|
Comparable with the european emission standards EURO III as it was applied on October 2000
In 2000, the United States Environmental Protection Agency began to implement more stringent emissions standards for light duty vehicles. The requirements were phased in beginning with 2004 vehicles and all new cars and light trucks were required to meet the updated standards by the end of 2007.
|Component||Emission Rate||Annual pollution emitted|
|NMOG (Volatile organic compounds)||0.075 grams/mile (0.046 g/Km)||2.1 pounds (0.95 kg)|
|Carbon Monoxide||3.4 grams/mile (2.1 g/Km)||94 pounds (43 kg)|
|NOX||0.05 grams/mile (0.0305 g/Km)||1.4 pounds (0.64 kg)|
|Formaldehyde||0.015 grams/mile (0.0092 g/Km)||0.41 pounds (0.19 kg)|
A statistical study of children under 6 Cancer victims in California between 1998 and 2007 found that living near smog causes a 5% to 11% increase in cancer. A World Health Organization study found that diesel fumes cause an increase in lung cancer.
- Emission standard
- European emission standards
- Australian Design Rules
- Exhaust gas
- United States emission standards
- Vehicle emissions control
- Mobile source air pollution
- Motor vehicle emissions and pregnancy
- "Motor vehicle pollution". Queensland Government. 04 April 2013.
- "EPA Tools Available as Summer Smog Season Starts" (Press release). Boston, Massachusetts: United States Environmental Protection Agency. 30 April 2008.
- "Sprawl Report 2001: Measuring Vehicle Contribution to Smog". Sierra Club. 2001.
- "Smog - Causes". The Environment: A Global Challenge. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- Smog — Who Does It Hurt? What You Need to Know About Ozone and Your Health (EPA-452/K-99-001) (PDF). United States Environmental Protection Agency. July 1999
- Barrett, Fabio; Ashok, Akshay; Waitz, Ian A.; Yim, Steve H.L.; Barrett, Steven R.H. (November 2013). "Air pollution and early deaths in the United States. Part I: Quantifying the impact of major sectors in 2005". Atmospheric Environment (Elsevier). Volume 79: 198–208. Bibcode:2013AtmEn..79..198C. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.05.081. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- Pulkrabek W.W. (2004) Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine. Pearson Prentice Hall, new Jersey.
- Pulkrabek W.W. (2004) Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine. Pearson Prentice Hall, new Jersey
- Bravender, Robin (2009-03-12). "Study links smog exposure to premature death". The New York Times.
- "Health". Nitrogen Dioxide. United States Environmental Protection Agency. 14 February 2013.
- "The Regional Transport of Ozone: New EPA Rulemaking on Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (EPA-456/F-98-006)" (PDF). United States Environmental Protection Agency. September 1998.
- "State and County Emission Summaries: Nitrogen Oxides". Air emission sources. United States Environmental Protection Agency. 25 October 2013.
- "State and County Emission Summaries: Volatile Organic Compounds". Air emission sources. United States Environmental Protection Agency. 25 October 2013.
- "Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)". Toxic Substances Hydrology Program. United States Geological Survey (USGS). 12 April 2013.
- San Jose Mercury News http://www.mercurynews.com/news/ci_14859219?nclick_check=1
|url=missing title (help).[dead link]
- "Basic Information". Ground-level Ozone. United States Environmental Protection Agency. 01 November 2012.
- Omaye ST. (2002). "Metabolic modulation of carbon monoxide toxicity". Toxicology 180 (2): 139–150. doi:10.1016/S0300-483X(02)00387-6. PMID 12324190.
- "State and County Emission Summaries: Carbon Monoxide". Air Emission Sources. United States Environmental Protection Agency. 25 October 2013.
- "Exhaust emissions: What comes out of your car's exhaust?". Automobile Association Developments Limited. 23 February 2012.
- Transportation and Air Quality (United States Environmental Protection Agency) http://www.epa.gov/otaq/f02004.pdf
|url=missing title (help)[dead link]
- Region 4: Laboratory and Field Operations — PM 2.5 (2008).PM 2.5 Objectives and History. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
- Mazzi, Eric A.; Dowlatabadi, Hadi (2007). "Air Quality Impacts of Climate Mitigation: UK Policy and Passenger Vehicle Choice". Environmental Science & Technology 41 (2): 387. doi:10.1021/es060517w.
- "Transportation Air Quality: Selected Facts and Figures". U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Commission. 2006. Retrieved 2010-04-14.
- "Commission plans legislative framework to ensure the EU meets its target for cutting CO2 emissions from cars". European Commission. 2007-02-07.
- "EU Average New Car CO2 Emissions Down 5.4 Percent in Q1". autoevolution. SoftNews NET. 2010-04-19.
- Transportation and Air Quality. United States Environmental Protection Agency http://www.epa.gov/oms/consumer/f00013.htm
|url=missing title (help).[dead link]
- "Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle -- Tier 2 Exhaust Emission Standards". Emission Standards Reference Guide. United States Environmental Protection Agency. 14 November 2012.
- Reinberg, Steven (9 April 2013). "Smog Exposure During Pregnancy Might Raise Child's Cancer Risk: Study". USNews.
- "IARC: DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST CARCINOGENIC" (PDF) (Press release). Lyon, France: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer. 12 June 2012.
- Blanco, Sebastian (20 June 2012). "Diesel fumes cause cancer (and brake dust isn't exactly healthy, either)". AutoblogGreen.
- Note: this Wikipedia page also needs the same reference: Los_Angeles_smog#The_Cause_of_Smog_in_Los_Angeles
- Cone, Tracie (13 November 2008). "California Air Pollution Kills More People Than Car Crashes, Study Shows". Huffington Post.
- "Automotive Exhaust Chemicals: disease causing effects". Alpha Online. Environmed Research Inc.
- "Cars, Trucks, and Air Pollution". Clean Vehicles. Union of Concerned Scientists. 03 September 2013.
- "General Information - Emissions and ADR's". Australian Government, Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development.[dead link]
- "Environment, Health & Transportation: Motor Vehicles and Air Pollution". International Bicycle Fund. Retrieved 25 October 2013.