A motorcycle (also called a motorbike, bike, moto or cycle) is a two or three wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycles vary considerably depending on the task they are designed for, such as long distance travel, navigating congested urban traffic, cruising, sport and racing, or off-road conditions.
Motorcycles are one of the most affordable forms of motorised transport in many parts of the world and, for most of the world's population, they are also the most common type of motor vehicle. There are around 200 million motorcycles (including mopeds, motor scooters, motorised bicycles, and other powered two and three-wheelers) in use worldwide, or about 33 motorcycles per 1000 people. This compares to around 590 million cars, or about 91 per 1000 people.
Most of the motorcycles, 58%, are in the developing countries of Asia – Southern and Eastern Asia, and the Asia Pacific countries, excluding Japan – while 33% of the cars (195 million) are concentrated in the United States and Japan. In 2006, China had 54 million motorcycles in use and an annual production of 22 million units. As of 2002[update], India, with an estimated 37 million motorcycles/mopeds, was home to the largest number of motorised two wheelers in the world. China came a close second with 34 million motorcycles/mopeds.
19th century: the first motorcycles 
Experimentation and invention 
The first internal combustion, petroleum fueled motorcycle was the Petroleum Reitwagen. It was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt, Germany in 1885. This vehicle was unlike either the safety bicycles or the boneshaker bicycles of the era in that it had zero degrees of steering axis angle and no fork offset, and thus did not use the principles of bicycle and motorcycle dynamics developed nearly 70 years earlier. Instead, it relied on two outrigger wheels to remain upright while turning. The inventors called their invention the Reitwagen ("riding car"). It was designed as an expedient testbed for their new engine, rather than a true prototype vehicle. Many authorities who exclude steam powered, electric or diesel two-wheelers from the definition of a motorcycle, credit the Daimler Reitwagen as the world's first motorcycle.
If a two-wheeled vehicle with steam propulsion is considered a motorcycle, then the first was the French Michaux-Perreaux steam velocipede of 1868. This was followed by the American Roper steam velocipede of 1869, built by Sylvester H. Roper Roxbury, Massachusetts. Roper demonstrated his machine at fairs and circuses in the eastern U.S. in 1867, and built a total of 10 examples.
Beginnings of mass production 
In the early period of motorcycle history, many producers of bicycles adapted their designs to accommodate the new internal combustion engine. As the engines became more powerful and designs outgrew the bicycle origins, the number of motorcycle producers increased. Many of the nineteenth century inventors who worked on early motorcycles often moved on to other inventions. Daimler and Roper, for example, both went on to develop automobiles.
20th century 
Until World War I, the largest motorcycle manufacturer in the world was Indian, producing over 20,000 bikes per year. By 1920, this honour went to Harley-Davidson, with their motorcycles being sold by dealers in 67 countries. By the late 1920s or early 1930s, DKW took over as the largest manufacturer.
After World War II, the BSA Group became the largest producer of motorcycles in the world, producing up to 75,000 bikes per year in the 1950s. The German company NSU held the position of largest manufacturer from 1955 until the 1970s.
In the 1950s, streamlining began to play an increasing part in the development of racing motorcycles and the "dustbin fairing" held out the possibility of radical changes to motorcycle design. NSU and Moto Guzzi were in the vanguard of this development, both producing very radical designs well ahead of their time. NSU produced the most advanced design, but after the deaths of four NSU riders in the 1954–1956 seasons, they abandoned further development and quit Grand Prix motorcycle racing.
Moto Guzzi produced competitive race machines, and by 1957 nearly all the Grand Prix races were being won by streamlined machines. The following year, 1958, full enclosure fairings were banned from racing by the FIM in the light of the safety concerns.
21st century 
In the 21st century, the motorcycle industry is mainly dominated by Japanese companies. In addition to the large capacity motorcycles, there is a large market in smaller capacity (less than 300 cc) motorcycles, mostly concentrated in Asian and African countries. An example is the 1958 Honda Super Cub, which went on to become the biggest selling vehicle of all time, with its 60 millionth unit produced in April 2008. Today, this area is dominated by mostly Indian companies with Hero MotoCorp emerging as the world's largest manufacturer of two wheelers. Its Splendor model has sold more than 8.5 million to date. Other major producers are Bajaj and TVS Motors.
In numerous cultures, motorcycles are the primary means of motorised transport. According to the Taiwanese government, for example, "the number of automobiles per ten thousand population is around 2,500, and the number of motorcycles is about 5,000." In places such as Vietnam, motorised traffic consist of mostly motorbikes due to a lack of public transport and low income levels that put automobiles out of reach for many.
The four largest motorcycle markets in the world are all in Asia: China, India, Indonesia, and Vietnam. The motorcycle is also popular in Brazil's frontier towns. Amid the global economic downturn of 2008, the motorcycle market grew by 6.5%.
Recent years have seen an increase in the popularity of motorcycles elsewhere. In the USA, registrations increased by 51% between 2000 and 2005. This is mainly attributed to increasing fuel prices and urban congestion. A Consumer Reports subscribers' survey of mainly United States motorcycle and scooter owners reported that they rode an average of only 1,000 miles (1,600 km) per year, 82% for recreation and 38% for commuting. Americans put 10,000–12,000 miles (16,000–19,000 km) per year on their cars and light trucks.
As motorcyclists age, there is a tendency for riders to choose touring bikes over sports bikes.
While people choose to ride motorcycles for various reasons, those reasons are increasingly practical, with riders opting for a powered two-wheeler as a cost-efficient alternative to infrequent and expensive public transport systems, or as a means of avoiding or reducing the effects of urban congestion. In places where it is permitted, lane splitting, also known as filtering, allows motorcycles to use the space between vehicles to move through stationary or slow traffic.
In the UK, motorcycles are exempt from the £10 per day London congestion charge other vehicles must pay to enter the city during the day. Motorcycles are also exempt from toll charges at some river crossings, such as the Severn Bridge, Dartford Crossing, and Mersey Tunnels. Some cities, such as Bristol, allow motorcycles to use bus lanes and provide dedicated free parking. In the United States, those states that have high-occupancy vehicle lanes also allow for motorcycle travel in them in accordance with federal law, in addition to a reduced fee on certain toll roads. Other countries have similar policies.
In New Zealand, motorcycle riders are not required to pay for parking that is controlled by a barrier arm; the arm does not occupy the entire width of the lane, and the motorcyclist simply rides around it. Many car parks controlled in this way supply special areas for motorcycles to park, so as not to unnecessarily consume spaces.
In many cities that have serious parking challenges for cars, such as Melbourne, Australia, motorcycles are generally permitted to park on the sidewalk, rather than occupy a space on the street which might otherwise be used by a car.
Technical aspects 
Motorcycle construction is the engineering, manufacturing, and assembly of components and systems for a motorcycle which results in the performance, cost, and aesthetics desired by the designer. With some exceptions, construction of modern mass-produced motorcycles has standardised on a steel or aluminium frame, telescopic forks holding the front wheel, and disc brakes. Some other body parts, designed for either aesthetic or performance reasons may be added. A petrol powered engine typically consisting of between one and four cylinders (and less commonly, up to eight cylinders) coupled to a manual five- or six-speed sequential transmission drives the swingarm-mounted rear wheel by a chain, driveshaft or belt.
Fuel economy 
Motorcycle fuel economy varies greatly with engine displacement and riding style ranging from a low of 29 mpg-US (8.1 L/100 km; 35 mpg-imp) reported by a Honda VTR1000F rider, to 107 mpg-US (2.20 L/100 km; 129 mpg-imp) reported for the Verucci Nitro 50 cc scooter. A specially designed Matzu Matsuzawa Honda XL125 achieved 470 mpg-US (0.50 L/100 km; 560 mpg-imp) "on real highways – in real conditions." Due to low engine displacements (100 cc–200 cc), and high power-to-mass ratios, motorcycles offer good fuel economy. Under conditions of fuel scarcity like 1950s Britain and modern developing nations, motorcycles claim large shares of the vehicle market.
Electric motorcycles 
Very high fuel economy equivalents are often derived by electric motorcycles. Electric motorcycles are nearly silent, zero-emission electric motor-driven vehicles. Operating range and top speed are limited by battery technology. Fuel cells and petroleum-electric hybrids are also under development to extend the range and improve performance of the electric drive system.
A 2013 survey of 4,424 readers of the US Consumer Reports magazine collected reliability data on 4,680 motorcycles purchased new from 2009 to 2012. The most common problem areas were accessories, brakes, electrical (including starters, charging, ignition), and fuel systems, and the types of motorcycles with the greatest problems were touring, off road/dual sport, sport-touring, and cruisers. There were not enough sport bikes in the survey for a statistically significant conclusion, though the data hinted at reliability as good as cruisers. These results may be partially explained by accessories including such equipment as fairings, luggage, and auxiliary lighting, which are frequently added to touring, adventure touring/dual sport and sport touring bikes. Trouble with fuel systems is often the result of improper winter storage, and brake problems may also be due to poor maintenance. Of the five brands with enough data to draw conclusions, Honda, Kawasaki and Yamaha were statistically tied, with 11 to 14% of those bikes in the survey experiencing major repairs. Harley-Davidsons had a rate of 24%, while BMWs did worst, with 30% of those needing major repairs. There were not enough Triumph and Suzuki motorcycles surveyed for a statistically sound conclusion, though it appeared Suzukis were as reliable as the other three Japanese brands while Triumphs were comparable to Harley-Davidson and BMW. Three fourths of the repairs in the survey cost less than US$ 200 and two thirds of the motorcycles were repaired in less than two days. In spite of their relatively worse reliability in this survey, Harley-Davidson and BMW owners showed the greatest owner satisfaction, and three fourths of them said they would buy the same bike again, followed by 72% of Honda owners and 60 to 63% of Kawasaki and Yamaha owners.
Different types of motorcycles have different dynamics and these play a role in how a motorcycle performs in given conditions. For example, one with a longer wheelbase provides the feeling of more stability by responding less to disturbances. Motorcycle tyres have a large influence over handling.
Motorcycles must be leaned in order to make turns. This lean is induced by the method known as countersteering, in which the rider momentarily steers the handlebars in the direction opposite of the desired turn. Because it is counter-intuitive this practice is often very confusing to novices – and even to many experienced motorcyclists.
Short wheelbase motorcycles, such as sport bikes, can generate enough torque at the rear wheel, and enough stopping force at the front wheel, to lift the opposite wheel off the road. These actions, if performed on purpose, are known as wheelies and stoppies respectively. If carried past the point of recovery the resulting upset is known as an "endo" (short for "end-over-end"), or "looping" the vehicle.
Various features and accessories may be attached to a motorcycle either as OEM (factory-fitted) or after-market. Such accessories are selected by the owner to enhance the motorcycle's appearance, safety, performance, or comfort, and may include anything from mobile electronics to sidecars and trailers.
Motorcycles have a higher rate of fatal accidents than automobiles or trucks and buses. United States Department of Transportation data for 2005 from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System show that for passenger cars, 18.62 fatal crashes occur per 100,000 registered vehicles. For motorcycles this figure is higher at 75.19 per 100,000 registered vehicles – four times higher than for cars. The same data shows that 1.56 fatalities occur per 100 million vehicle miles travelled for passenger cars, whereas for motorcycles the figure is 43.47–28 times higher than for cars (37 times more deaths per mile travelled in 2007). Furthermore for motorcycles the accident rates have increased significantly since the end of the 1990s, while the rates have dropped for passenger cars.
The two major causes of motorcycle accidents in the United States are: motorists pulling out or turning in front of motorcyclists and violating their rights-of-way, and motorcyclists running wide through turns. The former is sometimes called a SMIDSY, an acronym formed from the motorists' common response of "Sorry mate, I didn't see you". The latter is more commonly caused by operating a motorcycle while intoxicated. Motorcyclists can anticipate and avoid some of these crashes with proper training, increasing their conspicuousness to other traffic, and not consuming alcohol or drugs before riding.
The United Kingdom has several organisations which are dedicated to improving motorcycle safety by providing advanced rider training over and above what is necessary to pass the basic motorcycle test. These include the Institute of Advanced Motorists (IAM) and the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (RoSPA). Along with increased personal safety, riders with these advanced qualifications often benefit from reduced insurance costs.
In South Africa, the Think Bike campaign is dedicated to increasing both motorcycle safety and the awareness of motorcycles on the country's roads. The campaign, while strongest in the Gauteng province, has representation in Western Cape, KwaZulu Natal and the Free State. It has dozens of trained marshals available for various events such as cycle races and is deeply involved in numerous other projects such as the annual Motorcycle Toy Run.
Motorcycle Safety Education is offered throughout the United States by organisations ranging from state agencies to non-profit organisations to corporations. Most states use the courses designed by the Motorcycle Safety Foundation (MSF), while Oregon and Idaho developed their own. All of the training programs include a Basic Rider Course, an Intermediate Rider Course and an Advanced Rider Course.
In the UK and some Australian jurisdictions, such as Victoria, New South Wales, the Australian Capital Territory, Tasmania and the Northern Territory, it is compulsory to undertake a rider training course before being issued a Learners Licence.
In Canada, motorcycle rider training is compulsory in Quebec and Manitoba only, but all provinces and territories have Graduated Licensing programs which place restrictions on new drivers until they have gained experience. Eligibility for a full motorcycle licence or endorsement for completing a Motorcycle Safety course varies by province. The Canada Safety Council, a non-profit safety organisation, offers the Gearing Up program across Canada and is endorsed by the Motorcycle and Moped Industry Council. Training course graduates may qualify for reduced insurance premiums.
There are three major types of motorcycle: street, off-road, and dual purpose. Within these types, there are many different sub-types of motorcycles for many different purposes.
Street bikes include cruisers, sportbikes, scooters and mopeds, and many other types. Off-road motorcycles include many types designed for dirt-oriented racing classes such as motocross and are not street legal in most areas. Dual purpose machines like the dual-sport style are made to go off-road but include features to make them legal and comfortable on the street as well.
Each configuration offers either specialised advantage or broad capability, and each design creates a different riding posture.
Motorcycle rider postures 
- Sport – the rider leans forwards into the wind and the weight of the upper torso is supported by the rider's core at low speed and air pressure at high speed (e.g., above 50 mph (80 km/h)). The footpegs are below the rider or to the rear. The reduced frontal area cuts wind resistance and allows higher speeds. At low-speed this position throws the weight of the rider onto the arms, and this can be tiring to the rider's wrists.
- Standard – the rider sits upright or leans forwards slightly. The feet are below the rider. These are motorcycles that are not specialised to one task, so they do not excel in any particular area. The standard posture is used with touring and commuting as well as dirt and dual-sport bikes, and may offer advantages for beginners.
- Cruiser – the rider sits at a lower seat height with the upper torso upright or leaning slightly rearwards. Legs are extended forwards, sometimes out of reach of the regular controls on cruiser pegs. The low seat heights can be a consideration for new or short riders. Handlebars tend to be high and wide. Harley-Davidsons are exemplars of this style. The emphasis is on comfort, while compromising cornering ability because of low ground clearance and the greater likelihood of scraping foot pegs, floor boards, or other parts if turns are taken at the speeds other types of motorcycles can do.
Factors of a motorcycle's ergonomic geometry that determine the seating posture include the height, angle and location of footpegs, seat and handlebars. Factors in a rider's physical geometry that contribute to seating posture include torso, arm, thigh and leg length, and overall rider height.
Legal definitions and restrictions 
A motorcycle is broadly defined by law in most countries for the purposes of registration, taxation and rider licensing as a powered two-wheel motor vehicle. Most countries distinguish between mopeds of 49 cc and the more powerful, larger vehicles (scooters do not count as a separate category). Many jurisdictions include some forms of three-wheeled cars as motorcycles.
Environmental impact 
|This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards, as the dispute in the Europe section over LA Times citation up in the intro section is disjointed and confusing. See talk. (September 2009)|
In 2007 and 2008, motorcycles and scooters, due to good fuel efficiency, attracted interest in the United States from environmentalists and those affected by increased fuel prices. Piaggio Group Americas supported this interest with the launch of a "Vespanomics" website and platform, citing lower per-mile carbon emissions of 0.4 lb/mile (113 g/km) less than the average car, a 65% reduction, and better fuel economy.
Other sources, however, claim that while motorcycles produce much less pollution in terms of greenhouse gases, a motorcycle can in some cases emit 10–20 times the quantity of nitrogen oxides (NOx) when compared to the NOx emissions of a car. This is because many motorcycles lack a catalytic converter to reduce NOx emissions, and while catalytic converters have been used in cars long enough that they are now commonplace, they are a relatively new technology in motorcycles. Many newer motorcycles (such as later models of the Yamaha R1 and Suzuki GSXR1000, as well as most BMWs which have included catalytic converters since the 1990s) now have factory fitted catalytic converters. Along with other technologies that have taken longer to appear in motorcycles (e.g. fuel injection, anti-lock brake systems), catalytic converters are becoming increasingly commonplace.
United States Environmental Protection Agency 2007 certification result reports for all vehicles versus on highway motorcycles (which also includes scooters), the average certified emissions level for 12,327 vehicles tested was 0.734. The average "Nox+Co End-Of-Useful-Life-Emissions" for 3,863 motorcycles tested was 0.8531, for a difference of about 16%, not the claimed 10X factor. Likewise, if one looks at how many of the 2007 motorcycles tested were also catalytic equipped, 54% of them, 2,092, were equipped with a catalytic converter.
United States emissions limits 
The following table shows maximum acceptable legal emissions of the combination of hydrocarbon and nitrous oxides, as well as carbon monoxide, for new Class III motorcycles (280 cc or larger displacement) sold in the United States.
|Tier||Model year||HC+NOx (g/km)||CO (g/km)|
|Tier 2||2010 and later||0.8||12.0|
The maximum acceptable legal emissions of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide for new Class I and II motorcycles (50 cc–169 cc and 170 cc–279 cc respectively) sold in the United States are as follows:
|Model year||HC (g/km)||CO (g/km)|
|2006 and later||1.0||12.0|
European emission standards for motorcycles are similar to those for cars. New motorcycles must meet Euro III standards, while cars must meet Euro V standards. Therefore, the difference in total pollution between motorcycles and cars that pass European emission standards would be small, certainly much smaller than the 10X factor claimed by the referenced LA Times article. Motorcycle emissions controls are being updated and it has been proposed to update to Euro IV in 2012 and Euro V in 2015.
See also 
- List of motorcycle manufacturers
- Outline of motorcycles and motorcycling
- Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme (FIM) – the governing body for international motorcycle sport, which also lobbies for the rights and interests of motorcyclists.
- Foale, Tony (2006). Motorcycle Handling and Chassis Design. Tony Foale Designs. pp. 4–1. ISBN 978-84-933286-3-4.
- Cossalter, Vittore (2006). Motorcycle Dynamics. Lulu. ISBN 978-1-4303-0861-4.
- Hiroko Nakata (8 October 2008). "Motorcycle makers battle it out in Vietnam". Japan Times. Retrieved 11 March 2009.
- Patti McCracken (1 October 2008). "Vietnam eats, sleeps, and dreams on motorbikes". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 11 March 2009.
- Alexei Barrionuevo (3 November 2008). "That Roar in the Jungle Is 15,000 Motorbikes". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 March 2009.
- Shuhei(Yamaha Motor Co., Ltd., JPN), Adachi (2006). "Fuel Cell Powered Motorcycles". Journal of the Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan 60 (1): 90–93. ISSN 0385-7298.
- "Passenger Cars; Map No. 31". Worldmapper: The world as you've never seen it before. 2002. See Technical notes for this data
- "Mopeds And Motorcycles Map No. 32". Worldmapper: The world as you've never seen it before. 2002. See data files for the statistics
- "The Past – 1800s: First motorcycle". The History and Future of Motorcycles and motorcycling – From 1885 to the Future, Total Motorcycle Website. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
- Lienhard, John H. (2005). Inventing Modern: Growing Up with X-Rays, Skyscrapers, and Tailfins. Oxford University Press US. pp. 120–121. ISBN 0-19-518951-5.
- Setright, L.J.K. (1979). The Guinness book of motorcycling facts and feats. Guinness Superlatives. pp. 8–18. ISBN 978-0-85112-200-7.
- Falco, Charles M.; Guggenheim Museum Staff (1998). "Issues in the Evolution of the Motorcycle". In Krens, Thomas; Drutt, Matthew. The Art of the Motorcycle. Harry N. Abrams. pp. 24–31. ISBN 0-89207-207-5.
- "motorcycle, n.". Oxford English Dictionary Online. Oxford University Press. March 2009. "1. A two-wheeled motor-driven road vehicle, resembling a bicycle but powered by an internal-combustion engine; (now) spec. one with an engine capacity, top speed, or weight greater than that of a moped."
- Long, Tony (30 August 2007). "Aug. 30, 1885: Daimler Gives World First 'True' Motorcycle". Wired (magazine). ISSN 1059-1028.
- Kresnak, Bill (2008). Motorcycling for Dummies. Hoboken, New Jersey: For Dummies, Wiley Publishing. ISBN 0-470-24587-5
- "Brief History of the Marque: Hildebrand & Wolfmuller". Hildebrand & Wolfmuller Motorad, European Motorcycle Universe. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
- Walker, Mick (2006). Motorcycle: Evolution, Design, Passion. JHU Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8530-3.
- George Hendee. The AMA Motorcycle Hall of Fame Museum. Retrieved 8 August 2009.
- Youngblood, Ed (June 2001). "The Rise and Fall". American Motorcyclist 55 (6) (American Motorcyclist Assoc).
- Prashad, Sharda (16 April 2006). "HOG WILD; U of T professor Brendan Calder is one of the legions of baby boomers who have helped to ensure the success of the Harley-Davidson brand name, not to mention its bottom line.". Toronto Star (Toronto, Ont.). p. A.16.
- Cato, Jeremy (8 August 2003). "Harley-Davidson at 100". The Vancouver Sun (Vancouver, B.C.). p. E.1.Fro.
- Vance, Bill (24 April 2009). "Motoring Memories: DKW/Auto Union, 1928–1966". Canadian Driver.
- de Cet, Mirco (2002). The illustrated directory of motorcycles. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-7603-1417-3.
- Walker, Mick (1999). Mick Walker's German Racing Motorcycles. Redline Books. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-9531311-2-9.
- Willoughby, Vic (1982). Exotic Motorcycles. London: Osprey Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 0-85045-322-4.
- "Rupert Hollaus". Motorsport Memorial. Retrieved 3 April 2008.
- Ed Youngblood. "Motocross goes International, 1947 through 1965". The History of Motocross, Part Two, Motorcycle Hall of Fame Museum. Retrieved 29 June 2007.
- Squatriglia, Chuck (23 May 2008). "Honda Sells Its 60 Millionth – Yes, Millionth – Super Cub". Autopia. Wired. Retrieved 28 January 2010.
- "Hero Honda splendor sells more than 8.5 million units". indiacar.net. Retrieved 10 August 2008.
- O'Malley Greenburg, Zack (13 August 2007). "World's Cheapest Car". Forbes. Retrieved 28 January 2010.
- Chung-Li. "Sustainable Development Indicators for Taiwan". Workshop on Sustainable Development Indicators. Retrieved 14 August 2006.[dead link]
- Makiko Kitamura and Tetsuya Komatsu (3 March 2009). "Honda's $140-a-Month Motorbikes Ease Pain of 'Grim' Car Market". Bloomberg. Retrieved 11 March 2009.
- "Popularity of high-performance motorcycles helps push rider deaths to near-record high". Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. 11 September 2007. Retrieved 22 October 2008.
- PRNewswire (19 May 2008). "Soaring Gas Prices Shine Money-Saving Spotlight on Motorcycles". Reuters. Retrieved 28 January 2010.
- Travers, Jim (1 June 2010). "Survey: Motorcycle and scooter owners are very satisfied with their bikes". Consumer Reports. Retrieved 2 August 2010
- Emission Facts: Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Typical Passenger Vehicle. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Transportation and Air Quality. February 2005. Retrieved 2 August 2010
- Broughton, Paul; Walker, Linda (6 May 2009). Motorcycling and Leisure: Understanding the Recreational Ptw Rider. Farnham, UK: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 74. ISBN 0754675017.
- Bob Tomlins (September 1997). "Rider training in Europe The Views and the Needs of the Rider" (PDF). The Federation of European Motorcyclists. Retrieved 30 June 2007.
- "All the info you need on lanesharing (lanesplitting)". www.WhyBike.com. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
- "Federal-Aid Highway Program Guidance on High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lanes". US Department of Transportation. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- "Drivers guide to Auckland City parking". City of Auckland. 2007. Archived from Parking the original on 1 July 2008. Retrieved 8 August 2008.
- "Motorcycle parking in Wellington CBD". Kiwibiker.co.nz. Retrieved 28 January 2010.
- "Motorcycle Fuel Consumption & Real World Performance Guide". MFC Website. Retrieved 13 June 2008.
- "Total Motorcycle Fuel Economy Guide". Total Motorcycle Website. Retrieved 14 August 2006.
- "Verucci Gas Scooters". Gekgo Worldwide, www.gekgo.com. Retrieved 15 August 2006.
- "Doing More with Less Energy". The Craig Vetter Fuel Economy Contests – 1980 through 1985. Retrieved 15 August 2006.
- "Most reliable motorcycles; Japanese bikes have fewer problems than BMW and Harley models", Consumer Reports, May 2013, retrieved March 26, 2013
- Bartlett, Jeff (March 26, 2013), "Motorcycle reliability survey shows what goes wrong", Consumer Reports, retrieved March 26, 2013
- Gaetano, Cocco (2004). Motorcycle Design and Technology. Minneapolis: MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company. pp. 34–35. ISBN 978-0-7603-1990-1. "So with the same disturbance, the rider with a longer wheelbase will feel less oscilating movement on the handlebars, and therefore, will have a perception of greater stability on the motorcycle."
- Joel Fajans (July 2000). "Steering in bicycles and motorcycles" (PDF). American Journal of Physics, 68 (7): 654–59. doi:10.1119/1.19504. Retrieved 4 August 2006.
- "Vehicles Involved in Fatal Crashes, 1994–2006 – State: USA". Fatality Analysis Reporting System. United States Department of Transportation. Retrieved 12 November 2007.
- "Traffic safety facts, 2008. Report no. DOT HS-811-159" (pdf). NHTSA's National Center for Statistics and Analysis. 2008. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- "The 'sorry mate I didn't see you' campaign". South Gloucestershire Council. Retrieved 21 May 2008.
- Hurt, H.H., Ouellet, J.V. and Thom, D.R. (January 1981). "The Hurt Report". Technical Report, Volume 1, Traffic Safety Center, University of Southern California. Retrieved 16 May 2007.
- Quick Tips: General guidelines for riding a motorcycle safely, Motorcycle Safety Foundation, October 2006, retrieved 13 June 2012
- "About Think Bike". Think Bike. Retrieved 21 March 2010.[dead link]
- "Learner riders licence". Motorcycle Rider Training Scheme, Roads and Traffic Authority, NSW. Retrieved 16 May 2007.
- "Learner Licence". Road Transport Information Management, www.rego.act.gov.au. Retrieved 16 May 2007.
- "TAS Learner Licence". Department of Infrastructure, Energy and Resources, http://www.transport.tas.gov.au. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- "Motorcyclist Education Training And Licencing (METAL)". Northern Territory Department of Planning and Infrastructure, www.ipe.nt.gov.au. Retrieved 16 May 2007.
- "MMIC Information". Motorcycle and Moped Industry Council. Retrieved 16 May 2007.
- "A Three Dimensional Analysis of Riding Posture in Three Different Styles of Motorcycle" (PDF). Motorcycle Safety Foundation. March 2006. Retrieved 31 January 2008.
- Maher, Kevin; Greisler, Ben (1998), Chilton's Motorcycle Handbook, Haynes North America, pp. 2.2–2.18, ISBN 0-8019-9099-8
- Duglin Kennedy, Shirley (2005). The Savvy Guide to Motorcycles. Indy Tech Publishing. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-7906-1316-1.
- Stermer, Bill (2006). Streetbikes: Everything You Need to Know. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-7603-2362-5.
- Seeley, Alan (2004). The Motorcycle Book: Everything You Need to Know about Owning, Enjoying, and Maintaining Your Bike. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company. pp. 18–19. ISBN 978-0-7603-1745-7.
- Stermer, Bill (2006). Streetbikes: Everything You Need to Know. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-7603-2362-5.
- Duglin Kennedy, Shirley (2005). The Savvy Guide to Motorcycles. Indy Tech Publishing. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-7906-1316-1.
- Susan Carpenter (11 June 2008). "Motorcycles and emissions: The surprising facts". LA Times. Retrieved 8 August 2008.
- Judy Dahl (September 2007). "Baby, You Can Drive My Vespa". Madison Magazine. Archived from the original on 28 January 2010. Retrieved 8 August 2008.
- "Vespanomics – Vespa Economics". Piaggio Group USA. Retrieved 8 February 2010.
- Umbra Fisk (28 May 2003). "On motorcycles – Ask Umbra". Grist.
- "Certified Highway Motorcycle Test Result Report Data (2007)". US EPA. 8 January 2008.
- "EPA Emissions Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions". United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved on 1 June 2009.
- Madson, Bart (15 February 2007). "Motorcycle Emissions Regs Examined". Motorcycle-USA.com. Retrieved 28 January 2010.
- "EURO 5 Cycle Emissions Proposed for 2015". Dealernews.com. 8 December 2008. Retrieved 28 January 2010.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Motorcycle|