Mount Elgon (left) and Great Rift Valley (right)
|Elevation||4,321 m (14,177 ft)|
|Prominence||2,458 m (8,064 ft)|
|Topo map||Mount Elgon Map and Guide|
|Age of rock||Miocene origin|
|First ascent||1911 by Kmunke and Stigler|
- See also Mount Elgon District
Mount Elgon is an extinct shield volcano on the border of Uganda and Kenya, north of Kisumu and west of Kitale. The mountain's highest point, named "Wagagai", is located entirely within the country of Uganda. At 4,321 metres (14,177 ft), Elgon is the 17th highest mountain of Africa.
It is the oldest and largest solitary volcano in East Africa, covering an area of around 3500 km².
Other features of note are:
- The caldera — Elgon's is one of the largest intact calderas in the world
- The warm springs by the Suam River
- Endebess Bluff (2563m or 8408 ft)
- Ngwarisha, Makingeny, Chepnyalil and Kitum caves. Kitum Cave is over 60 metres wide and penetrates 200 metres. It is frequented by wild elephants who lick the salt exposed by gouging the walls with their tusks. It became notorious following the publication of Richard Preston's book The Hot Zone in 1994 for its association with the Marburg virus after two people who had visited the cave (one in 1980 and another in 1987) contracted the disease and died.
The mountain soils are red laterite. The mountain is the catchment area for the several rivers such as the Suam River which becomes the Turkwel downstream and which drains into Lake Turkana, the Nzoia River and the Lwakhakha which flow to Lake Victoria. The town of Kitale is in the foothills of the mountain. The area around the mountain is protected by two Mount Elgon National Parks one on each side of the international border.
In 1896, C. W. Hobley became the first European to circumnavigate the mountain. Kmunke and Stigler made the first recorded ascent of Wagagai and Koitobos in 1911. F. Jackson, E. Gedge, and J. Martin made the first recorded ascent of Sudek in 1890. The main peak is an easy scramble and does not require any special mountaineering skills.
It was known as "Ol Doinyo Ilgoon" (Breast Mountain) by the Maasai and as "Masaba" on the Ugandan side by the Bamasaba.
Mt. Elgon consists of five major peaks:
- Wagagai (4,321m), in Uganda.
- Sudek (4,302m or 14,140;ft) on the Kenya/Uganda border
- Koitobos (4,222m or 13,851;ft), a flat topped basalt column in Kenya
- Mubiyi (4,211m or 13,816;ft) in Uganda
- Masaba (4,161m or 13,650;ft) in Uganda
Mount Elgon is a massive solitary volcanic mountain on the border of eastern Uganda and western Kenya. Its vast form, eighty kilometers in diameter, rises 3070m above the surrounding plains, providing welcome relief in more than one sense of the word. Its mountainous terrain introduces variety to an otherwise monotonous regional landscape. Its cool heights offer respite for humans from the hot plains below and its higher altitudes provide a refuge for flora and fauna.
Mount Elgon and its tributaries is home to four tribes, the Bagisu, the Sapiiny the Shana[disambiguation needed] and the Ogiek, better known in the region under the derogatory umbrella term Ndorobo. The Bagisu, Sapiiny and Shana are subsistence farmers and conduct circumcision ceremonies every even year to initiate young men (and in the Sapiiny's case, girls) into adulthood. Traditionally, the Bagisu, also known as the Bamasaba, consider Mount Elgon to be the embodiment of their founding father Masaba, and sometimes call the mountain by this name. The Sapiiny also consider it the home of their forefather Musobo. All life and livelihood really depends on the mountain forest. Local people have long depended on forest produce but in recent years, the locals and park officials have been on running battles as they are completely prohibited from entering the park to harvest resources such as bamboo poles and bamboo shoots (a local delicacy). The Ogiek, and Ndorobos used to be hunters and honey gatherers, but have become more sedentary in recent decades, and have partially been moved downward by the government as complete conservation takes root.
- List of Ultras of Africa
- 2010 Uganda landslide
- List of volcanoes in Kenya
- Elgon languages
- Mount Elgon insurgency
- Breast shaped hills
- Scott, Penny (1998). From Conflict to Collaboration: People and Forests at Mount Elgon, Uganda. IUCN. ISBN 2-8317-0385-9.
- Preston, Richard, The Hot Zone : The Terrifying True-Life Thriller, Bantam Books, 1994.
- Africa Ultra-Prominences Peaklist.org. Retrieved 2012-01-11.
- EWP (1989). Mount Elgon Map and Guide (Map). 1:50,000 with mountaineering information (1st ed.). ISBN 0-906227-46-1. http://www.ewpnet.com/elgonmap.htm.
- "Uganda Wildlife Authority". www.uwa.or.ug. Retrieved 2008-03-16.
- "Mount Elgon, Uganda" Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 2012-01-11.
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