Mount Salak

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Mount Salak
Gunung Salak
Rainbow at the Slope of Mount Salak.JPG
A view of Mount Salak
Elevation 2,211 m (7,254 ft)[1]
Prominence 1,678 m (5,505 ft)[2]
Listing Ultra
Ribu
Location
Mount SalakGunung Salak is located in Java
Mount SalakGunung Salak
Mount Salak
Gunung Salak
Java, Indonesia
Coordinates 6°43′S 106°44′E / 6.72°S 106.73°E / -6.72; 106.73Coordinates: 6°43′S 106°44′E / 6.72°S 106.73°E / -6.72; 106.73[1]
Geology
Type Stratovolcano
Last eruption January 1938[1]

Mount Salak (Indonesian: Gunung Salak, Sundanese: Gunung Salak) is an eroded volcanic range in West Java, Indonesia. Several satellite cones appear on the southeast flank and on the northern foot. Two craters are found at the summit. Mount Salak has been the site of a geothermal exploration.[1]

According to popular belief, the name "Salak" comes from salak, a tropical fruit with scaly skin. However, according to Sundanese tradition, the name was derived from the Sanskrit word "Salaka" which means "silver"; thus, Mount Salak means "silver mountain".

Climbing Route[edit]

Mount Salak can be climbed through several routes. The two peaks often climbed are peak I and II. The most used route usually climbed is Curug Nangka, which is north of the range. Through this route, people can reach peak II. Peak I is usually climbed from east, Cimelati and Cicurug. Peak I also can be reached by Peak II, though it is very difficult, from Sukamantri, Ciapus. The other route is 'back way', through Cidahu, Sukabumi, and Kawah Ratu near Bunder Mount.

Mount Salak is popular for many mountain climber clubs, especially route II, because of its difficulty to reach the peak. Beginner climber will find a lot of troubles because in every route water is scarce, especially through Pos I at Kawah Ratu Route, in the height 2211 mdpl can be found a water source from rain. Mount Salak is a low mountain but has its own characteristic in its woods and route.

Cimelati can be reached from Cibuntu Village, if using this route we can find a big villa before reaching pos/shelter I and also we can find several waterfalls, in this route water are much and the last place we can find water is pos/Shelter III because there are water irrigation of villager which it called Pos/ Water shelter. After passing this pos, water cannot be found anymore, so bring water in bottles are suggested. After that post/shelter VII is ahead and its the last post placed at peak I.

Forest[edit]

Forests at Mount Salak are submountain forests and montane forests. At the submontane forest, there is a timber production forest belongs to Perum Perhutani. Some species of trees can be found here are Tusam (Pinus Merkusii) and Rasamala (Altingia excelsa). And like most of forest in Java, also exist Puspa (Schima wallchii), Saninten (Castanopsis Sp.), Pasang (Lichocarpus Sp.) and many kin of Huru (Lauraceae).

In some areas, especially at Cidahu, Sukabumi, rare plants can be found such as Rafflesia rochussennii which also can be found in Mount Gede and Mount Pangrango In the forest borders, or near river, people planted Red Kaliandra (Calliandra calothrsus), Dadap Cangkring (Erythrina variegata), Kayu Afrika (Maesopsis eminii), Jeunjing (Paraserianthes falcataria) and many bamboos.

Animals[edit]

Many animals can be found at Mount Salak from frogs and toads, reptiles, birds and mammals. From the research of D.M. Nasir (2003) from KSH forest faculty IPB, he found 11 frog and toads species at Lingkungan S (Environment S) at Ciapus Leutik, Desa Taman Sari, Bogor Residenncy. They are Bufo asper, B. melanostictus, Leptobrachium hasseltii, Fejervarya limnocharis, Huia masonii, Limnonectes kuhlii, L. macrodon, L. microdiscus, Rana chalconota, R. erythraea and R. hosii. The result not include tree toads and many mountain toads which maybe also be found there. At Cidahu, bangkong bertanduk (Megophrys montana) and katak terbang (Rhacophorus reinwardtii) were found.

Many reptiles, especially lizards and snakes live in Mount Salak. Like Charmelleon Bronchocela jubata and B. cristatella, Kadal Kebun (Mabuya multifasciata) and Biawak Sungai (Varanus salvator). The snakes are Ular Tangkai (Calamaria sp.), Ular Siput (Pareas carinatus) and Ular Sanca Kembang (Phyton reticulatus) and many more. Mount Salak famous because it is habitat for birds which also wrote by Vorderman (1885), Hoogerwerf (1948) got at least 232 birds species in total. The most important bird is Elang Jawa (Spizaetus bartelsi) and some eagles, Ayam Hutan Merah (Gallus gallus), Cuculus micropterus, Phaenicophaeus javanicus and P. curvirostris, Sasia abnormis, Dicrurus remifer, Cissa thalassina, Crypsirina temia, Burung Kuda (Garrulax rufifrons), Hypothymis azurea, Aethopyga eximia, A. mystacalis and Lophozosterops javanica. The notes about mammals are not much. But Macan Tutul (Panthera pardus), Owa Jawa (Hylobates moloch), Surili (Presbytis comata) and Trenggiling (Manis Javanica) are living there.

Aircraft accidents[edit]

In 2012 The Jakarta Post dubbed Mount Salak an "airplane graveyard".[3] High turbulence and fast-changing weather conditions of the mountainous terrain are cited as contributing factors to multiple aviation crashes in the area.[3] There were seven aviation crashes around Mount Salak between 2002 and 2012.

One person was killed in the crash of a small aircraft in October 2002; seven in October 2003; two in April 2004; five people in June 2004; 18 people were killed in a crash of an Indonesian Air Force military plane in 2008.[3][4] In 2012, three people were killed in a crash of a training aircraft not long before the SSJ-100 accident, which occurred on May 9, 2012, when a Sukhoi Superjet 100 crashed into the mountain during a demonstration flight, killing all 45 people on board.[5]

See also[edit]

Media related to Mount Salak at Wikimedia Commons

References[edit]