Mount Salak

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Mount Salak
Gunung Salak
Rainbow at the Slope of Mount Salak.JPG
A view of Mount Salak
Elevation 2,211 m (7,254 ft)[1]
Prominence 1,678 m (5,505 ft)[2]
Listing Ultra
Mount Salak is located in Java
Mount Salak
Mount Salak
Location on the island of Java
Location Java, Indonesia
Coordinates 6°43′S 106°44′E / 6.72°S 106.73°E / -6.72; 106.73Coordinates: 6°43′S 106°44′E / 6.72°S 106.73°E / -6.72; 106.73[1]
Type Stratovolcano
Last eruption January 1938[1]

Mount Salak (Indonesian: Gunung Salak, Sundanese: Gunung Salak) is an eroded volcanic range in West Java, Indonesia. Several satellite cones appeared on the south-east flank and on the northern foot. Two craters were found at the summit. Mount Salak has been the site of geothermal exploration.[1]

According to popular belief, the name "Salak" is derived from salak, a tropical fruit with scaly skin. However, according to Sundanese tradition, the name was derived from the Sanskrit word "Salaka" which means "silver"; thus, Mount Salak means "silver mountain".

Climbing route[edit]

Mount Salak can be climbed via several routes. The most often climbed peaks are Peak I and Peak II. The route most often climbed up is Curug Nangka, which is the northern part of the range. Through this route, people can reach Peak II. Peak I is usually climbed from the east, Cimelati and Cicurug. Peak I also can be reached by Peak II - although it is very difficult - from Sukamantri, Ciapus. The other route is 'the back way', through Cidahu, Sukabumi, and Kawah Ratu near Bunder Mount.

Mount Salak is popular for many mountain climbing clubs, especially Route II, because of its difficulty to reach the peak. Novice climbers will experience trouble due to a scarce amount of water on every route, especially through Post I at Kawah Ratu Route. At height 2211 mdpl can be found a water source from rain. Mount Salak is a low mountain but has its own charm in its woods and route.

Cimelati can be reached from Cibuntu Village. Water is scarce in some parts of this region, so prudent travelers include water considerations in their travel plans. An irrigation system ensures water is plentiful until Post/Shelter III. Beyond this point, travelers are recommended to carry water. The route itself is scenic, with several waterfalls as well as a large villa appearing before reaching Post/Shelter I.


Many animals can be found at Mount Salak, including frogs, toads, reptiles, birds and mammals. During research, D.M. Nasir (2003) from KSH forest faculty IPB found 11 frog and toad species in Lingkungan S (Environment S) at Ciapus Leutik, Desa Taman Sari, Bogor Residenncy. They are Bufo asper, B. melanostictus, Leptobrachium hasseltii, Fejervarya limnocharis, Huia masonii, Limnonectes kuhlii, L. macrodon, L. microdiscus, Rana chalconota, R. erythraea and R. hosii. The result does not include tree toads and other mountain toads which might also be found there. At Cidahu, bangkong bertanduk (Megophrys montana) and katak terbang (Rhacophorus reinwardtii) the latter were found.

Many reptiles including lizards and snakes, live in Mount Salak. These include Charmelleon Bronchocela jubata, B. cristatella, Kadal Kebun (Mabuya multifasciata) and Biawak Sungai (Varanus salvator). Some snakes living in Mount Salak are Ular Tangkai (Calamaria sp.), Ular Siput (Pareas carinatus), Ular Sanca Kembang (Phyton reticulatus) and many more. Mount Salak has become famous due to its habitat for birds, about which has been written by Vorderman (1885)and Hoogerwerf (1948), which has at least 232 birds species in total. The most notable birds are Elang Jawa (Spizaetus bartelsi), Ayam Hutan Merah (Gallus gallus), Cuculus micropterus, Phaenicophaeus javanicus, P. curvirostris, Sasia abnormis, Dicrurus remifer, Cissa thalassina, Crypsirina temia, Burung Kuda (Garrulax rufifrons), Hypothymis azurea, Aethopyga eximia, A. mystacalis and Lophozosterops javanica. The notes about mammals indicate that there are not many living on Mount Salak, besides Macan Tutul (Panthera pardus), Owa Jawa (Hylobates moloch), Surili (Presbytis comata) and Trenggiling (Manis Javanica).

Aircraft accidents[edit]

In 2012 The Jakarta Post dubbed Mount Salak an "airplane graveyard".[3] High turbulence and fast-changing weather conditions of the mountainous terrain are cited as contributing factors to multiple aviation crashes in the area.[3] There were seven aviation crashes around Mount Salak between 2002 and 2012.

One person was killed in the crash of a small aircraft in October 2002; seven in October 2003; two in April 2004; five people in June 2004; 18 people were killed in a crash of an Indonesian Air Force military plane in 2008.[3][4] In 2012, three people were killed in a crash of a training aircraft not long before the SSJ-100 accident, which occurred on May 9, 2012, when a Sukhoi Superjet 100 crashed into the mountain during a demonstration flight, killing all 45 people on board.[5]

See also[edit]

Media related to Mount Salak at Wikimedia Commons