Mount Sinai Hospital, New York
|Mount Sinai Hospital|
|Location||One Gustave L. Levy Place, 1190 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York, United States|
|Hospital type||University, Teaching|
|Affiliated university||Mount Sinai School of Medicine|
|Lists||Hospitals in the United States|
Mount Sinai Hospital, founded in 1852, is one of the oldest and largest teaching hospitals in the United States. In 2011-2012, Mount Sinai Hospital was ranked as one of America's best hospitals by U.S. News & World Report in 12 specialties.
Located on the eastern border of Central Park, at 100th Street and Fifth Avenue, on New York City's Manhattan Island, Mount Sinai has a number of hospital affiliates in the New York metropolitan area, and an additional campus, the Mount Sinai Hospital of Queens.
The hospital is also affiliated with one of the foremost centers of medical education and biomedical research, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, which opened in September 1968. Together, the two comprise the Mount Sinai Medical Center.
- Mount Sinai Medical Center was named to U.S. News & World Report America's Best Hospitals Honor Roll, ranking 14th out of nearly 5,000 hospitals nationwide. Mount Sinai was nationally ranked in 12 of 16 specialties, including #2 in geriatrics, #7 in gastroenterology, and #10 in heart & heart surgery. Other honors included high rankings for cancer (#42), diabetes & endocrinology (#14), ear, nose & throat (#11), gynecology (#25), nephrology (#35), neurology & neurosurgery (#15), rehabilitation (#12), and urology (#29).
- New York Magazine's inaugural "Best Hospitals" list ranked Mount Sinai Medical Center as #2 for overall best hospital, #3 for emergency care, #3 for pediatrics, #4 for ENT, #3 for psychiatry, #3 for cancer, #3 for cardiac care, #1 for digestive disorders, #5 for orthopedics, #2 for OB-GYN, and #3 for neurology/neurosurgery.
- New York Magazine named 129 Mount Sinai physicians to its “Best Doctors” list, more than any individual hospital in New York City.
- In 2012, Mount Sinai Medical Center was awarded the HIMSS Enterprise Davies Award of Excellence for use of health information technology.
- In 2010, the New York State Department of Health named Mount Sinai Hospital the safest place for a patient receiving angioplasty.
- In 2009, The Scientist magazine ranked Mount Sinai School of Medicine 15th overall in their “Best Places to Work in Academia” survey.
- In 2009, the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC)'s Magnet Award for Nursing Excellence was awarded to Mount Sinai – the first full-service hospital in New York City to achieve redesignation. Only six percent of hospitals in the nation have received Magnet designation, and only two percent have received redesignation.
- In 2008, Mount Sinai Medical Center received the Public & Community Service Emmy Award presented by the National Academy of Television Arts & Sciences (NATAS).
- In 2008, Mount Sinai was recognized for improved performance in Thomson Reuters' "100 Top Hospitals" list. The Mount Sinai Medical Center, as a major teaching hospital, was the only hospital in Manhattan, New York to be awarded this high honor.
- In 2006, the American Society for Bariatric Surgery named Mount Sinai a "Surgery Center of Excellence."
- In 2006, Mount Sinai and its advertising agency, DeVito/Verdi, took home the highest honors at the 23rd Annual Healthcare Advertising Awards. The campaign was awarded top prize in the Large Hospitals Group for three different categories: Magazine, Billboard and Radio.
As U.S. cities grew more crowded in the mid-19th Century, philanthropist Sampson Simson (b 1780, d 1857) founded a hospital to address the needs of New York's rapidly growing Jewish immigrant community. It was the second Jewish hospital in the United States.
The Jews' Hospital in the City of New York, as it was then called, was built on 28th Street in Manhattan, between 7th & 8th Avenues, on land donated by Simson; it opened two years before Simson's death. Four years later, it would be unexpectedly filled to capacity with soldiers from the Civil War.
The Jews' Hospital felt the effects of the escalating Civil War in other ways, as staff doctors and board members were called into service: Dr. Israel Moses served four years as Lieutenant Colonel in the 72nd; Joseph Seligman had to resign as a member of the Board of Directors as he was increasingly called upon by President Lincoln for advice on the country's growing financial crisis.
The Draft Riots of 1863 again strained the resources of the new hospital, as draft inequities and a shortage of qualified men increased racial tensions in New York City. As the Jews' Hospital struggled to tend to the many wounded, outside its walls over one hundred men, women and children were killed in the riots.
More and more, the Jews' hospital was finding itself an integral part of the general community. In 1866, to reflect this new-found role, it changed its name. In 1872, the Hospital moved uptown to the east side of Lexington Avenue, between 66th and 67th Streets.
Now called The Mount Sinai Hospital, the institution forged relationships with many physicians who made contributions to medicine, including Henry N. Heineman, Frederick S. Mandelbaum, Charles A. Elsberg, Emanuel Libman, and, most significantly, Abraham Jacobi, known as the Father of American Pediatrics and a champion of construction at the hospital's new site on Manhattan's Upper East Side in 1904.
The Hospital established a school of nursing in 1881. Created by Alma deLeon Hendricks and a small group of women, The Mount Sinai Hospital Training School for Nurses was taken over by the Hospital in 1895. In 1923 the name was changed to The Mount Sinai Hospital School of Nursing. This school closed in 1971 after graduating 4,700 nurses - all women except one man in the last class. An active alumnae association continues.
The early 20th century saw the population of New York City explode. That, coupled with many new discoveries at Mount Sinai (including significant advances in blood transfusions and the first endotracheal anesthesia apparatus), meant that Mount Sinai's pool of doctors and experts was in increasing demand. A $1.35 million expansion of the 1904 hospital site (equivalent to over 30 million in 2008 based on historical consumer price indexes) raced to keep pace with demand. The opening of the new buildings was delayed by the advent of World War I. Mount Sinai responded to a request from the United States Army Medical Corps with the creation of Base Hospital No.3. This unit went to France in early 1918 and treated 9,127 patients with 172 deaths: 54 surgical and 118 medical, the latter due mainly to influenzal pneumonia.
Two decades later, with tensions in Europe escalating, a committee dedicated to finding placements for doctors fleeing Nazi Germany was founded in 1933. With the help of the National Committee for the Resettlement of Foreign Physicians, Mount Sinai Hospital became a new home for a large number of émigrés.
When war broke out, Mount Sinai was the first hospital to throw open its doors to Red Cross nurses' aides; the hospital trained thousands in its effort to reduce the nursing shortage in the States. Meanwhile, the President of the Medical Board, George Baehr, M.D. was called by President Roosevelt to serve as the nation's Chief Medical Director of the Office of Civilian Defense.
These wartime roles would be eclipsed, however, when the men and women of Mount Sinai's 3rd General Hospital set sail for Casablanca, eventually setting up a 1,000-bed hospital in war-torn Tunisia. Before moving to tend to the needs of soldiers in Italy and France, the 3rd General Hospital had treated more than 5,000 wounded soldiers.
Since the relative peace following World War II, Mount Sinai has welcomed the first graduating class of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine (in 1970); the 1980s saw a $500 million hospital expansion, including the construction of the Guggenheim Pavilion, the first medical facility designed by I.M. Pei; and it has made significant contributions to gene therapy, cardiology, immunotherapy, organ transplants, cancer treatments and minimally invasive surgery.
"Firsts" at The Mount Sinai Hospital 
A significant number of diseases were first described at Mount Sinai Hospital in the last 150+ years including Brill's disease, Buerger's disease, Churg-Strauss disease, collagen disease, Crohn's disease, eosinophilic granuloma of bone, Glomus Jugulare Tumor, Libman-Sacks disease, Moschcowitz disease, and Tay-Sachs disease.
Other "firsts" include:
- First textbook in Geriatrics (1914), and first Department of Geriatrics in a U.S. Medical School
- First American textbook on thoracic surgery (1925)
- First to describe concept behind TB skin testing (Shwartzman phenomenon)
- First liver transplant (New York State) (1988)
- First to develop concept of subcellular pathology
- First to link cigarettes and asbestos to cancer
- First in U.S. to use platinum to treat ovarian cancer
- First to develop particular in vitro fertilization technique to assist sperm in egg cell penetration
- First to identify marker now used to identify risk for preterm birth
- First to combine radiation and chemotherapy to treat ovarian and breast cancer
- First to create a genetically engineered vaccine (for influenza) (1969)
- First to identify the gene for Marfan Syndrome, an often fatal connective tissue disorder.
- First to chemically induce cancer cells to return to normal patterns of development
- First to pioneer the use of stapes mobilization operation to treat particular kinds of deafness
- First to establish an artificial kidney center in New York City
- First successful use of a cardiac stress test
- First to perform a blood transfusion in a fetus
- First to establish a diabetic prenatal clinic in New York City
- First to perform a jaw transplant in New York State and first jaw transplant ever to combine donor jaw with bone marrow from the patient
- First to receive a cardiogram transmitted across the country via telephone wire
Significant events 
|1855||“The Jews’ Hospital” opens for patients on June 5.|
|1866||To free itself of racial or religious distinction, The Jews' Hospital changes it name to “The Mount Sinai Hospital.”|
|1872||First women appointed to professional positions.|
|1886||The Eye and Ear Service is created; Dr. Josephine Walter, the first American woman to serve a formal internship, is granted a diploma.|
|1908||Dr. Rueben Ottenberg is the first to perform blood transfusions with routine compatibility test and to point out that blood groups are hereditary.|
|1919||Dr. I.C. Rubin introduces the use of peruterine insufflation of the fallopian tubes for the diagnosis and treatment of sterility in women.|
|1928||Dr. Moses Swick develops a method for introducing radio-opaque media into the blood stream for visualization of the urinary tract.|
|1932||Crohn's Disease, a chronic inflammatory disease of the intestine, is identified by Drs. Burrill Crohn, Leon Ginzburg and Gordon D. Oppenheimer.|
|1938||The nation’s second blood bank is created.|
|1955||The Jack Martin Respirator Center admits its first polio patients.|
|1962||Dr. Arthur Grishman receives the first medical data, a cardiogram, transmitted successfully via the telephone lines.|
|1963||The New York State Board of Regents grants a charter for the establishment of a school of medicine.|
|1968||The Graduate School of Biological Sciences admits its first students.|
|1974||The Adolescent Health Center is established – the first primary care program in New York designed specifically for the needs of adolescents.|
|1982||The Department of Geriatrics and Adult Development is created – the first such department in an American medical school.|
|1989||The Center for Excellence in Youth Education is established.|
|1992||The Department of Human Genetics is established.|
|2011||The first center for chronic fatigue syndrome in a major medical center and medical school in the United States is established.|
Areas of concentration 
Noteworthy individuals 
Famous patients 
- Freddy Beras-Goico, comedian (died on 18th Nov, 2010 of gastric ulcer)
- Fidel Castro, politician (Prime Minister of Cuba 1961 – 2011)
- Anne Bancroft, actress (uterine cancer)
- José Raúl Capablanca, world chess champion (stroke)
- Plácido Domingo, opera singer (malignant polyp in colon)
- Bill Evans, jazz pianist (died there in 1980)
- Rudy Giuliani, mayor of New York City (prostate cancer)
- Lionel Hampton, jazz musician (heart attack)
- Emanuel Lasker, world chess champion
- Frank Lautenberg, senator (stomach cancer)
- Jørgen Leth, poet (prostate cancer)
- Al Lewis, actor (angioplasty)
- Peter Maas, author
- Gustav Mahler, composer and conductor (infective endocarditis)
- Sang Lan, artistic gymnast (treated and rehabilitated at Mount Sinai for about a year after becoming paralyzed at the 1998 Goodwill Games)
- Norman Mailer, novelist (kidney disease)
- Harpo Marx, actor (heart complications)
- Gwyneth Paltrow, actress (gave birth there; to Moses Bruce Anthony Martin)
- David Paterson, governor of New York (eye surgery for glaucoma)
- Javier Pérez de Cuéllar, United Nations Secretary-General (quadruple-bypass heart surgery)
- Ben Stiller, actor (hand fracture)
- Liv Tyler, actress and model (born there on July 1, 1977)
Famous benefactors 
- Leon Black donated $10 million to create the Black Family Stem Cell Institute.
- Carl Icahn donated $25 million to Mount Sinai Medical Center for advanced medical research; a large building primarily devoted to research was renamed from the "East Building" to the "Icahn Medical Institute." In 2012, Icahn pledged $200 million to the institution. In exchange, the medical school was renamed the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and the genomics institute led by Eric Schadt was renamed the Icahn Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology.
- Frederick Klingenstein and wife Sharon Klingenstein donated $75 million, the largest single gift in the history of Mount Sinai, to establish an institute for scientific research and create a scholarship fund.
- Henry Kravis and wife Marie-Josée Kravis donated $15 million to establish the "Center for Cardiovascular Health" as well as funding a professorship.
- Samuel A. Lewis, politician and philanthropist in the late 19th century
- Hermann Merkin gave $2 million in dedication of the kosher kitchen at the hospital.
- Derald Ruttenberg donated $7 million to establish the Ruttenberg Cancer Center at Mount Sinai and later contributed $8 million more.
- Martha Stewart donated $5 million to start the Martha Stewart Center for Living at Mount Sinai Hospital. The center promotes access to medical care and offers support to caregivers needing referrals or education.
- James Tisch and wife Merryl Tisch donated $40 million to establish The Tisch Cancer Institute, a state-of-the-art, patient-oriented comprehensive cancer care and research facility.
Famous staff 
- Jacob M. Appel, bioethicist and liberal commentator
- Burrill Bernard Crohn, an American gastroenterologist and one of the first to describe the disease of which he is the namesake, Crohn's disease
- Valentin Fuster, Director of Mount Sinai Heart, The Zena and Michael A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute, The Marie-Josée and Henry R. Kravis Center for Cardiovascular Health, The Richard Gorlin, MD/Heart Research Foundation Professor, Mount Sinai School of Medicine
- Irving B. Goldman, first president of the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 1964
- Jonathan L. Halperin, Director of Clinical Cardiology in the Zena and Michael A. Wierner Cardiovascular Institute
- Michael Heidelberger, American immunologist who is regarded as the father of modern immunology
- Abraham Jacobi, pediatrician and president of the American Medical Association
- Blair Lewis, an American gastroenterologist who helped develop the American Gastroenterological Association's position statement on occult and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding
- Isidor Clinton Rubin, a gynecologist and infertility specialist
- Jonas Salk, inventor of the polio vaccine, worked as a staff physician at Mount Sinai after medical school
Further reading 
- This House of Noble Deeds: The Mount Sinai Hospital, 1852-2002 by Arthur H. Aufses, Jr. and Barbara Niss
- The Sinai Nurse: A History of Nursing at the Mount Sinai Hospital, 1852-2000 by Marjorie Gulla Lewis and Sylvia M. Barker
- The Social Work-Medicine Relationship: 100 Years at Mount Sinai by Helen Rehr
- U.S. News & World Report: America's Best Hospitals 2011-12 retrieved on July 19, 2011.
- Mount Sinai School of Medicine: History retrieved on April 28, 2010.
- U.S. News and World Report: America's Best Hospitals 2012-2013 Mount Sinai Medical Center retrieved July 17, 2012
- New York Magazine: Best Hospitals 2006
- New York Magazine: Best Doctors 2012
- Mount Sinai in NYC is a HIMSS Davies Award Winner
- The Mount Sinai Hospital Earns Highest Ratings In New York State Report on Coronary Angioplasty
- The Scientist: Best Places to Work 2009
- Mount Sinai Hospital Celebrates Redesignation of American Nurses Credentialing Center's Prestigious Magnet Award
- Academy honors Mount Sinai Medical Center with Humanitarian Award retrieved March 12, 2010
- Thomson Reuters
- Mount Sinai Medical Center Named Bariatric Surgery Center of Excellence
- "Three Award Shows Honor DeVito/Verdi for Its Mount Sinai Hospital Advertising; Ad Agency Picks Up Precious Metals at Industry Creative Competitions" retrieved June 18, 2009
- This House of Noble Deeds, Mount Sinai Hospital, 1852 - 2002, Arthur H. Aufses, Jr. and Barbara J. Niss, New York University Press
- Mount Sinai: Mount Sinai Hospital: History
- The Chattanooga Civil War Round Table
- The Civil War Dictionary
- From Pack Peddler to International Banker: The Life and Times of Joseph Seligman
- Answers.com – New York Draft Riots
- FAQs.org – Abraham Jacobi Biography
- American Journal of Public Health, June 1943
- Veterans' History Project: Interview with Isabelle Cook
- Mount Sinai Firsts retrieved on April 26, 2010
- New York Sun - Martha Stewart Center for Living Does a Mother Proud retrieved on April 24, 2008
- TheScientist.com - Mount Sinai School of Medicine Serving Science and Society retrieved on April 24, 2008
- New York Times - First Liver Transplant in New York Performed retrieved on April 24, 2008
- American Society of Clinical Oncology retrieved on April 24, 2008
- AllBusiness.com - An Interview with Dr. Edwin Kilbourne retrieved on April 24, 2008
- Daily News - Jaw-Droppin' Op a Success Retrieved April 26, 2010
- New York Times "Cardiogram Data Transmitted Here From West Coast"
-  retrieved January 27, 2013.
- Diario Libre Article
- Ann Bancroft and Mel Brooks Marriage Profile
- Chessville.com Retrieved August 11, 2008
- New York Times: Plácido Domingo Is Released After Surgery
- Pettinger, Peter. "How My Heart Sings"
- New York Times: Mayor Undergoes Cancer Treatment
- New York Times: Lionel Hampton is Dead at 94 Retrieved August 11, 2008
- New York Times: Senator Lautenberg Learns He Has Cancer
- Al Lewis Biography at TV.com
- Patient.co.uk: Libman-Sacks Endocarditis Retrieved 2008-08-11
- Pulitzer Prize Winner Norman Mailer Dies - Tributes, Norman Mailer : People.com
- New York Times: Harpo Marx is Dead at 70 Retrieved August 11, 2008
- People.com: Gwyneth Paltrow Has a Boy - Birth, Chris Martin, Gwyneth Paltrow
- New York Times: Paterson Undergoes Eye Surgery for Glaucoma
- New York Times: U.N. Chief Has Heart Surgery
- E! Online: Ben Stiller: The Hand-Break Kid
- Liv Tyler Biography on RottenTomatoes
- Mount Sinai School of Medicine establishes Stem Cell Institute
- New York Times: Mount Sinai Gets $25 Million Gift
- Nussbaum, Alex (2012-11-15). "Carl Icahn to Give $200 Million to Mount Sinai School". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
- New York Times: Financier Gives $75 Million To Mt. Sinai Medical School
- New York Times: Derald H. Ruttenberg, 88, Quiet Deal Maker, Dies
- USA TODAY: Senate panel calls on Martha Stewart
- Mount Sinai: Dean's Quarterly
- "Diversity in Suspense," The American Spectator, July 9, 2009
- Jonas Salk Biography on Answers.com