Mountain Province

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Mountain Province
Lalawigang Bulubundukin
Province
Flag of Mountain Province
Flag
Official seal of Mountain Province
Seal
Location in the Philippines
Location in the Philippines
Coordinates: 17°05′N 121°10′E / 17.083°N 121.167°E / 17.083; 121.167Coordinates: 17°05′N 121°10′E / 17.083°N 121.167°E / 17.083; 121.167
Country Philippines
Region Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)
Founded 1908
Capital Bontoc
Government
 • Governor Leonard Mayaen (Independent)
 • Vice Governor Boni Lacwasan (Independent)
Area[1]
 • Total 2,157.38 km2 (832.97 sq mi)
Area rank 58th out of 81
Population (2010)[2]
 • Total 154,187
 • Rank 76th out of 81
 • Density 71/km2 (190/sq mi)
 • Density rank 75th out of 81
Divisions
 • Independent cities 0
 • Component cities 0
 • Municipalities 10
 • Barangays 144
 • Districts Lone district of Mountain Province
Time zone PHT (UTC+8)
ZIP code 2616 to 2625
Dialing code 74
ISO 3166 code PH-MOU
Spoken languages Ilocano, Bontoc, Kankana-ey, Pangasinan, Tagalog, English
Website mountainprovince.gov.ph

Mountain Province (Filipino: Lalawigang Bulubundukin), is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital is Bontoc.

Mountain Province is sometimes incorrectly named Mountain in some foreign references. The name is also incorrectly shortened by locals to Mt. Province, which in turn is read by native Anglophones as "Mount Province". The province was named so for being in the Cordillera Central mountain range found in the upper realms of Luzon island.

Mountain Province was also the name of the historical province that included most of the current Cordillera provinces. This old province was established by the Americans in 1908 and was later split in 1966 into Mountain Province, Benguet, Kalinga, Apayao and Ifugao.

Mountain province is known for its mummy caves which contain naturally mummified bodies which probably became so due to the humid atmosphere. The hanging Coffins are also found in the province, these are literally coffins hanging on to the branches of trees, many tourists claim there is no foul odor[citation needed], the bodies were probably mummified by the atmosphere according to theory.

Geography[edit]

Mountain Province is bounded in the east by Isabela, in the north by the provinces of Kalinga, Apayao, and Abra, in the south of Benguet and Ifugao, and in the west by the province of Ilocos Sur.

It has an area of 215,738 hectares (533,100 acres),[1] with 83% mountainous while 17% make up hills and levels. The province has many rivers, waterfalls, mountains, and caves. The central and western areas of the province are characterized by rugged mountains and steep cliffs, while the eastern portion has generally sloping terrain.[3]

Subdivisions[edit]

Mountain Province is subdivided into ten municipalities.

  †  Provincial capital

Municipality Population
(2010)[4]
No. of
barangays
Area
(km2)[5]
Density
(per km2)
Barlig 5,838 11 228.64 25.5
Bauko 30,172 22 153.00 197.2
Besao 7,818 14 173.62 45
Bontoc 23,980 16 396.10 60.5
Natonin 10,048 11 252.00 39.9
Paracelis 26,476 9 570.16 46.4
Sabangan 8,741 15 72.04 121.3
Sadanga 9,181 8 83.30 110.2
Sagada 11,244 19 83.32 134.9
Tadian 20,689 19 145.20 142.5
Mountain Province Total 154,187 144 2157.38 71.5

History[edit]

Spanish Period[edit]

The area of the Cordillera mountains proved difficult to control by the Spaniards. From 1566 to 1665, they sent expeditions to conquer the land but the rugged terrain and hostile indigenous population at the time were major obstacles to complete subjugation.[6]

Formerly called La Montañosa by the Spanish colonizers due to its mountainous terrain,[3] the area was subdivided into 6 comandancias politico-militar.[7]

The 6 former Comandancias Politico-Militar of La Montañosa [7]
Comandancia Year established Comandancia Year established
Benguet 1846 Amburayan 1889
Lepanto 1852 Kayapa 1891
Bontoc 1859 Cabugaoan 1891

American Period[edit]

In August 19, 1908, during the American rule, the Philippine Commission enacted Act No. 1876, which organized the entire area of the Cordilleras into one large province, named Mountain Province.[8][9] The first governor was Samuel Cane, and the town of Bontoc was made the capital. It was originally composed of the sub-provinces of Amburayan, Apayao, Benguet, Lepanto-Bontoc, Ifugao and Kalinga.[3][8] Amburayan was later abolished in 1920 and its corresponding territories were transferred to the provinces of Ilocos Sur and La Union. Lepanto was also reduced in size and its towns were integrated into the sub-provinces of Bontoc and Benguet, and to the province of Ilocos Sur.[6][10] [11]

The 6 former sub-provinces of Mountain Province under Act No. 1876 [7][8][11]
Sub-province Abolished? Notes Sub-province Abolished? Notes
Amburayan Yes, in 1920 Territories annexed to Ilocos Sur and La Union [8][11] Ifugao No
Apayao No Kalinga No
Benguet No Eastern towns annexed to Ilocos Sur and La Union in 1920[11] Lepanto-Bontoc Yes, in 1920 Territories annexed to Ilocos Sur, Bontoc and Benguet[8][11]

Post-World War 2[edit]

Effective on April 7, 1967, Republic Act No. 4695 abolished the old Mountain Province, converting its sub-provinces into 4 independent provinces: Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga-Apayao and Mountain Province (corresponding to the former Bontoc sub-province).[3][12] On June 15, 1987, the Cordillera Administrative Region was established upon the issuance of Executive Order 220 by then-President Corazon Aquino, and Mountain Province was made one of its provinces.[6] [13][14]

Demographics[edit]

Population census of Mountain Province
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1990 116,535 —    
1995 130,755 +2.18%
2000 140,631 +1.57%
2007 148,661 +0.77%
2010 154,187 +1.34%
Source: National Statistics Office[2][15]

Based on the 2000 census survey, 52% of the population are Kankana-ey. Other ethnic groups living in the province are the Balangao 13.6%, Ibontoc 12%, and other ethnicity comprise about 21.6% of the province's population.[16]

See also: Igorot people

Tourism[edit]

Sagada rice terraces

The province has several rice terraces in its different towns:[3]

  • Kapayawan Rice Terraces - Bauko
  • Bangen Rice Terraces - Bauko
  • Besao Rice Terraces - Besao
  • Bucas Rice Terraces - Besao
  • Maligcong Rice Terraces - Bontoc
  • Bayyo Rice Terraces - Bontoc
  • Bontoc Poblacion Rice Terraces - Bontoc
  • Dalican Rice Terraces - Bontoc
  • Kiltepan Rice Terraces - Sagada
  • Tanulong Rice Terraces - Sagada
  • Suyo Rice Terraces - Sagada
  • Bulongan Rice Terraces - Sagada
  • Bangaan Rice Terraces - Sagada
  • Ambasing Rice Terraces - Sagada
  • Fidelisan Rice Terraces - Sagada
  • Sadanga Rice Terraces - Sadanga
  • Focong Rice Terraces - Sadanga
  • Natonin Rice Terraces - Natonin
  • Barlig Rice Terraces - Barlig

Opposite the rice terraces, the eastern side of low mountains and hills of Paracelis, boasts of rolling terrains of cornfields with good viewing decks on roadside.

Government[edit]

List of former governors:

  • 2001–2004 Sario M. Malinias
  • 2004–2010 Maximo B. Dalog
  • 2010–2016 Leonard G. Mayaen

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 23 December 2013. 
  2. ^ a b "Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay: as of May 1, 2010". 2010 Census of Population and Housing. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 23 December 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d e "Facts & Figures: Mountain Province". Philippine Statistics Authority - National Statistical Coordination Board - Cordillera Administrative Region. Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  4. ^ "2010 Census of Population and Housing: Population Counts - Cordillera Administrative Region" (PDF). National Statistics Office (Philippines), April 4, 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2014. 
  5. ^ "Province: Mountain Province". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  6. ^ a b c "Mt. Province". VisitMyPhilippines.com The Ultimate Travel Guide for Tourists. Department of Tourism. Retrieved 23 December 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c "Benguet History". Province of Benguet (official website). Retrieved 22 October 2014. "Benguet was once part of Mountain Province." 
  8. ^ a b c d e Ingles, Raul Rafael (2008). 1908 :The Way it Really was : Historical Journal for the UP Centennial, 1908-2008. Diliman, Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. p. 339. ISBN 9789715425803. Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  9. ^ "Act No. 1876". PhilippineLaw.info. 18 August 1908. Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  10. ^ Philippines. Census Office; Buencamino, Felipe; Villamor, Ignacio (1920). Census of the Philippine Islands Taken Under the Direction of the Philippine Legislature in the Year 1918, Volume 1. Bureau of printing. p. 68. 
  11. ^ a b c d e "Cordillera Administrative Region History". Cordillera Connection (Blogspot). 14 August 2009. Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  12. ^ "Republic Act No. 4695: An Act Creating the Provinces of Benguet, Mountain Province, Ifugao and Kalinga-Apayao". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  13. ^ "Regional Profile: Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)". CountrySTAT Philippines. Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  14. ^ "The Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)". Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  15. ^ "Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities". 2010 Census and Housing Population. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 26 August 2013. 
  16. ^ http://www.census.gov.ph/data/pressrelease/2002/pr0212tx.html

External links[edit]