Nam quốc sơn hà
|Nam quốc sơn hà|
|Vietnamese||Nam quốc sơn hà|
Nam quốc sơn hà (mountains and rivers of the Southern country) is a famous Vietnamese poem which was written in 1077 by the Vietnamese general Lý Thường Kiệt, asserting the sovereignty of Vietnam's rulers over its land.
It is written in the form of an oracle. This poem is one of the best known Lý Dynasty poems, and is considered the first Vietnamese Declaration of independence. It became an emblematic poem for study in the early independence movement alongside the plea of Trần Hưng Ðạo to fight against the Mongols, Hịch tướng sĩ.
||Nam quốc sơn hà nam đế cư
Tiệt nhiên định phận tại thiên thư
|Sông núi nước Nam vua Nam ở,
Rành rành định phận tại sách trời.
|The Southern country's mountain and river the Southern Emperor inhabits.
The separation is natural and allotted in Heaven's Book.
The South nation resides the Southern Emperor
Nam country’s rivers and mountains, Nam Emperor ruled
- Essays on Literature and Society in Southeast Asia 1981 Page 305 "The "Nam-quốc sơn-hà" poem had the form of an oracle"
- Nguyễn Đức Sự Some Features on Vietnamese Buddhism in the Lý Dynasty Religious Studies Review, No. 02-2010 Institute of Religious Studies, Vietnamese Academy of Social Sciences 2011 "Besides the well-known works of celebrities and of the Lý court as Chiếu dời đô (Royal edict on the transfer of the capital), Nam quốc sơn hà (Mountains and Rivers of the empire of the South), Văn lộ bố khi đánh trống, Di chiếu lúc lâm chung (King's last will at point of death), etc. There were many Zen poems in the literature of the Lý dynasty. Almost poets and writers in the Lý dynasty were Zen masters."
- Hán Nôm Review Issues 74-79 Viện khoa học xã hội Việt Nam 2006 page 3 article "The Poem Nam Quốc sơn hà is the first Declaration of Vietnam"
- V Tạo Ten great reforms and renewals in Vietnam's history Social Sciences Information Review, 2008 "Thường Kiệt's poem, “The Country of Vietnam” (Nam Quốc Sơn Hà), was regarded as Đại Việt's first declaration of independence."
- An Introduction to Vietology anviettoancau.net "For example, in the Lý dynasty (1010-1225), the leader Lý Thường Kiệt (1076) wrote to his followers: Nam quốc sơn hà Nam đế cư, Tiệt nhiên phận .."
- Patricia M. Pelley Postcolonial Vietnam: New Histories of the National Past 2002 Page 268 "The relevant works are Nam quốc sơn ha, Lý Thường Kiệt's famous affirmation of Vietnamese identity; Hịch tướng sĩ, the plea from Trần Hưng Ðạo to fight against the Mongols; Quốc ngữ thi tập, Chu Văn An's collection of poems in the national language..."
- James Anderson The Rebel Den of Nùng Trí Cao: Loyalty and Identity 2007 Page 214 "The Vietnamese text reads: "Nam quốc sơn hà nam đế cư, Tiệt nhiên định phận tại thiên thư..."
- Vuving, Alexander L. (June 2000). "The References of Vietnamese States and the Mechanisms of World Formation". Asienkunde.de.
- (Vietnamese)Lý Thường Kiệt với bài thơ "Nam quốc sơn hà"
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