National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development

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National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development (French: Mouvement républicain national pour la démocratie et le dévelopement, MRND) was the ruling political party of Rwanda from 1975 to 1994 under President Juvénal Habyarimana. It was dominated by Hutus, particularly from President Habyarimana's home region of Northern Rwanda. The party was founded in 1975 as the National Revolutionary Movement for Development (Mouvement Révolutionaire National pour le Développement). The elite group of MRND party members who were known to have influence on the President and his wife - as well as to be responsible for the planning of the Rwandan Genocide - are known as the akazu.

From 1975 until 1991, the MRND was the only legal political party in the country. Habyarimana has been described as a moderate[1][2] though the party is said to have used right-wing propaganda methods,[3] advanced a conservative political agenda[4] and was anti-communist.[5][6][7][8] The party had institutional structures that paralleled the government structures at each level, down to the sector and cell. Habyarimana was the president of the party, and as such was the only candidate for president of the republic. However, in a minor concession to democracy, voters were presented with two MRND candidates at Legislative Assembly elections. The party's name was changed after the legalization of opposition political parties in 1991.

After the RPF invasion in 1990, members of the MRND created the magazine Kangura. The youth wing of the party, the interahamwe, was later developed into a militia group that played a key role in the 1994 genocide. After Habyarimana's death in April 1994, hardline elements of the party were among the chief architects of the Rwandan Genocide. After Rwanda was conquered by the rival Tutsi-dominated Rwandese Patriotic Front led by Paul Kagame, the MRND was driven from power and outlawed.

The Coalition for the Defence of the Republic, which played a large role in the Rwandan genocide, was a hard-line faction of the MRND that became a separate party.


  1. ^ Murphy, Sean D. 'Humanitarian intervention: Volume 21 of Procedural aspects of international law series'. University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996. ISBN 0812233824, 9780812233827 Length 427 pages. Page 243.
  2. ^ Feher. 'Powerless by Design: The Age of the International Community Public Planet Series'. Duke University Press, 2000 ISBN 0822326132, 9780822326137. Length 167 pages. Page 50-60
  3. ^ Gridmheden, Jonas. Ring, Rolf. 'Essays in Honour of Göran Melander Volume 26 of The @Raoul Wallenberg Institute human rights library: Raoul Wallenberg Institutet för Mänskliga Rättigheter och Humanitär Rätt Volume 26 of The Raoul Wallenberg Institute Human Rights Library'. ISSN 1388-3208. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2006. ISBN 9004151818, 9789004151819. Length 394 pages. Page 173
  4. ^ Bauer, Gretchen. Trmblay, Manon. 'Women in Executive Power: A Global Overview'. Taylor & Francis, 2011. ISBN 1136819150, 9781136819155. Length 240 pages. Page 93
  5. ^ Butare-Kiyovu. 'International Development from a Kingdom Perspective William Carey International University international development series'. WCIU Press, 2010. ISBN 0865850283, 9780865850286. Page 159
  6. ^ Association of Adventist Forums. 'Spectrum: Journal of the Association of Adventist Forums, Volume 27'. The Association, 1999. The University of Wisconsin - Madison. Page 71
  7. ^ West Africa, Issues 3814-3825. West Africa Publishing Company Limited, 1990. Page 2757
  8. ^ Brown Jr., Thomas J. Guillot, Philippe. Minear, Larry. 'Soldiers to the Rescue: Humanitarian Lessons from Rwanda'. Institute for International Studies (Brown University). OECD Publishing, 1996. ISBN 9264149171, 9789264149175. Length 200 pages. Page 22

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