House of Mowbray

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"Mowbray" redirects here. For other uses, see Mowbray (disambiguation).
Arms granted by Richard II to Thomas de Mowbray. 1st Duke of Norfolk.
Mowbray Duke of Norfolk (1397-1398). Surrey Roll.)
Thomas Mowbray. Surrey Roll
Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel; Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester; Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham; Henry, Earl of Derby (later Henry IV); and Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, demand that Richard II let them prove by arms the justice of their rebellion

Mowbray /ˈmbri/ is an Anglo-Norman baronial house, derived from Montbray in Normandy. From this village came Geoffrey de Montbray who came to be Bishop of Coutances and accompanied Duke William of Normandy at the Conquest of England in 1066.[1]

For his support he was granted some 280 English manors (each about the size of a village). His nephew Robert de Montbrai became Earl of Northumberland in 1080, but he rebelled against William II (Rufus) and was captured and imprisoned in Windsor Castle for thirty years. His divorced wife, Matilda, married Nigel d'Aubigny (sometimes spelt d'Albini) whose family came from Saint Martin d'Aubigny, 16 km. west of Saint-Lô and 15 km. north of Coutances. However, Robert was the maternal uncle of Nigel and although Nigel inherited Robert's vast landholdings, the marriage was annulled for consanguinity before any issue. By his second wife, Gundred, he had a son and heir Roger whose name was changed by royal command from d'Aubigny to de Montbray. The family flourished (Baronial Pedigree) and the name spelling evolved to Mowbray.[citation needed]

The baronial line died out in England with a young heiress ca. 1475, although a son of an earlier generation had founded a dynasty in Scotland where issue has survived. The family was active up and down the east side of the country and settled predominantly in the counties of Durham, Lincolnshire and Leicestershire in historic times. Since then there has been the usual migration into other areas and overseas.[citation needed]

As with any name, there are numerous spelling variations over time, but the major ones are Moubray, the Scottish version, and Mowberry which stemmed from a Leicestershire migration into Glinton, Northamptonshire, where the variant became established and eventually spread into a Lincolnshire branch. One of the many heraldic badges of the house was a mulberry tree.[citation needed]

Baronial house[edit]

The baronial house was founded at the Conquest by Geoffrey de Montbray, bishop of Coutances. His brother's son Robert de Montbray, who rebelled with him against William Rufus on the Conqueror's death, was made, after their reconciliation, earl of Northumbria, as his uncle's heir but was forfeited and imprisoned for life on rebelling again in 1095.[1]

Roger d'Aubigny (of Aubigny in the Cotentin) had two sons, Nigel and William, who were ardent supporters of Henry I. They were rewarded by him with great estates in England. William was made king's butler, and was father of William d'Aubigny, 1st Earl of Arundel; Nigel was rewarded with the escheated fief of Robert de Montbray in Normandy and a number of lands in England. Nigel married, by dispensation, the wife of Robert de Montbray, the imprisoned earl, but afterwards divorced her, and by another wife was father of a son Roger, who took the name of Mowbray.[1]

Roger, a great lord with a hundred knight's fees, was captured with King Stephen at the battle of Lincoln, joined the rebellion against Henry II (1173), founded abbeys, and went on crusade. His grandson William, a leader in the rising against King John, was one of the 25 barons of the Great Charter, as was his brother Roger, and was captured fighting against Henry III at the rout of Lincoln (1217). William's grandson Roger (1266–1298), who was summoned to parliament by Edward I, was father of John (1286–1322), a warrior and warden of the Scottish March, who, joining in Thomas of Lancaster's revolt, was captured at Boroughbridge and hanged.[1]

His wife, a Braose heiress, added Gower in South Wales and the Bramber lordship in Sussex to the great possessions of his house. Their son John de Mowbray, 3rd Baron Mowbray (d. 1361) was father, by Joan of Lancaster, a daughter of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, of John, Lord Mowbray (c. 1328–1368), whose fortunate alliance with the heiress of John de Segrave, 4th Baron Segrave, by the heiress of Edward I's son Thomas, earl of Norfolk and marshal of England, crowned the fortunes of his race. In addition to a vast accession to their lands, the earldom of Nottingham and the marshalship of England were bestowed on them by Richard II, and the dukedom of Norfolk followed.[1]

The 1st duke left two sons, of whom Thomas the elder was only recognized as earl marshal. Beheaded for joining in Scrope's conspiracy against Henry IV (1405), he was succeeded by his brother John, who was restored to the dukedom of Norfolk in 1424. His son John, the third duke, was father of John, 4th and last duke, who was created earl of Warrenne and Surrey in his father's lifetime (1451). At his death (1481) his vast inheritance devolved on his only child Anne, who was married as an infant to Edward IV's younger son Richard (created duke of Norfolk and earl of Nottingham and Warrenne), but died in 1481.[1]

The next heirs of the Mowbrays were then the Howards and the Berkeleys, representing the two daughters of the first duke. Between them were divided the estates of the house, the Mowbray dukedom of Norfolk and earldom of Surrey being also revived for the Howards (1483), and the earldom of Nottingham (1483) and earl marshalship (1485) for the Berkeleys. Both families assumed the baronies of Mowbray and Segrave, but Henry Howard was summoned in his father's lifetime (1640) as Lord Mowbray, which was deemed a recognition of the Howards' right; their co-heirs, from 1777, were the Lords Stourton and the Lords Petre, and in 1878 Lord Stourton was summoned as Lord Mowbray and Segrave. The former dignity is claimed as the premier barony, though De Ros ranks before it. Lord Stourton's son claimed, but unsuccessfully, in 1901–1906 the earldom of Norfolk (1312), also through the Mowbrays. Of the Mowbray estates the castle and lordship of Bramber is still vested in the dukes of Norfolk.[1]

Notable Mowbray families[edit]

Arms of England
Arms of Mowbray
Henry V, while Prince of Wales, presenting Thomas Hoccleve's, Regement of Princes to John de Mowbray, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, 1411-1413, British Library
  • Alexander de Mowbray (b.1288)
Father: Sir Roger de Mowbray, Lord Mowbray, was born 1257 in Pontefract, West Riding, Yorkshire, England. He died in November 1297 in Ghent, Flanders.
Mother: Roger married Roese de Clare in July 1270 in Thirsk, North Riding of Yorkshire. Roese de Clare was born 17 October 1252 in Tunbridge, Kent. She died January 1316.
Children: (1st) Sir John de Mowbray, Lord Mowbray born 4 September 1286, died 23 March 1322. (2nd) Alexander de Mowbray born 1288 in Thirsk, Yorkshire.
  • Anne Baroness Mowbray (born 1472)
  • Blanche de Mowbray (born 1338)
John de Segrave: b. 13 September 1340 in Bretby Castle, Derbyshire. He died March 1353 in Croxton Keyrial, Leics. John married Blanche de Mowbray on 25 March 1349 in Croxton. Blanche b.1338 in Epworth, Lincs. She died 21 July 1409 at Wilton, Wiltshire.
  • Christiana de Mowbray (born 1306)
Sir William de Plumpton, Knight (b. 1294, m. 1344, d. 1362 in Plumpton, West Riding, Yorkshire). William married Christiana de Mowbray (1306-1363) in Hovingham, North Riding. She died in Plumpton. Children: (1st) Alice de Plumpton (1338-1400) (2nd) Sir Robert de Plumpton Kt (1340-1407) Other marriages: John Scot. Richard de Emildon Mayor of Newcastle upon Tyne.
  • Eleanor de Mowbray (b.1342)
Sir Roger la Warre, Baron la Warre (b. 1326, m. 1358 in Warwick, Gloucs). He died on 27 August 1370 in Gascony, France. Roger married Eleanor de Mowbray (1342-1387) at Epworth, Lincolnshire. She died at Bobbing, Kent. Children: Edward la Warre (b.1360) John la Warre (b. 1363) Joan la Warre (1366-1404) Other marriages: Elizabeth de Welles: Lewis de Clifford Kt.
  • Eleanor de Mowbray, Baroness Welles (born 1364)
Sir John de Welles, Lord Welles was born 20 April 1352 at Conisholme, Lincolnshire. He died 26 August 1421 at Welles, Lincs. John married Eleanor de Mowbray on May 1386 at Welles. Eleanor b. 1364 at Epworth, Lincs. d. 1405/08 at Welles. Children: (1st m) Eudo de Welles (1387-1417) (2nd) Eleanor de Welles (1389-1458)
  • Elizabeth de Mowbray (born 1350)
Sir William Gascoigne (b. 1348, m. 1369, d. 1419 Gawthorpe West Riding, Yorkshire) William married Elizabeth de Mowbray (1350-1396) Children: Sir William Gascoigne, Knight, was born 1370 and died 28 March 1422.
  • Elizabeth de Mowbray (born 1392)
De La Pole Coat of Arms.jpg
Michael de la Pole, 3rd Earl of Suffolk b. 1394, died 25 October 1415 at Agincourt, Meurthe-et-Moselle, France. Michael married Elizabeth de Mowbray in 1403 at Cotton, Suffolk. Elizabeth was born in 1392 at Epworth, Lincolnshire, England. She died after 1 December 1423.
  • Isabel de Mowbray (born 1249)
Sir Adam de Newmarch Kt. (b. 1222, m. 1243, d. 1283 at Womersley, West Riding of Yorkshire. Adam married Joan (1226-1304) Children: (1st) Sir Adam de Newmarch, Kt. (1244-1303). (2nd) Maud de Newmarch (1246-1283).
Sir Adam de Newmarch, Kt. (b. 1244, m. 1264, d. 1303 at Womersley) Adam married Isabel de Mowbray (1249-1317) at Pontefract, West Riding of Yorkshire. Children: (1st) Margery de Newmarch (1266-1330). (2nd) John de Newmarch (1268-1310) (3rd) Sir Roger de Newmarch, Kt. (1270-1352).
  • Isabel de Mowbray (born 1396)
Berkeley
Sir James de Berkeley, Lord Berkeley (b. 1394 at Raglan, Monmouthshire, Wales, m. 1424, d. 1463 at Berkeley, Gloucs). James married Isabel de Mowbray (1396-1452), born at Epworth, Lincolnshire. She died September 1452 at Gloucester Castle. Children: (1st) Elizabeth Berkeley (b. 1425). (2nd) Sir William Berkeley, Earl of Nottingham (1427-1492). (3rd) James Berkeley, Esquire (b. 1429) (4th) Alice Berkeley (b. 1432). (5th) Sir Maurice Berkeley, Lord Berkeley (1435-1506). (6th) Thomas Berkeley, Esquire (1435-1484). (7th) Isabel Berkeley (1438-1482). Berkeley, Gloucs. Other marriages: at St. John's, Stafford, Joan Talbot. Henry Ferrers[disambiguation needed] Kt.
  • Joan de Mowbray (born 1247)
Sir Robert de Mohaut Kt (b.1230 m.1261 d.1275 in Arden, Cheshire). Robert married Joan de Mowbray (1247-1284), born at Pontefract, West Riding of Yorkshire. Children: (1st) Roger de Mohaut, Lord Mohaut (1263-1296). (2nd) Isabel de Mohaut (1270-1294). (3rd) Sir Robert de Mohaut, Lord Mohaut (1274-1329).
  • Joan de Mowbray (born 1361)
Father: John de Mowbray, 4th Baron Mowbray
Mother: Elizabeth de Segrave, 5th Baroness Segrave
Husband: Sir Thomas Grey Knight was christened 26 November 1359 at Wark upon Tweed, Northumberland, England. He died 26 November 1400 at Heaton, Newcastle upon Tyne.
Wife: Thomas married Joan de Mowbray in 1380 at Heaton. Joan de Mowbray was born 1361 at Epworth, Lincolnshire. She died 8 September 1410 at Heaton.
Children: (1st) Maud Grey was born 1382 and died after 22 August 1451.
(2nd) Sir Thomas Grey Sheriff of Northumberland was born 30 November 1384 and died 3 August 1415. (Born at Alnwick Castle, seat of Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland. Thomas married Alice, daughter of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmoreland.
(3rd) Sir John Grey, 1st Earl of Tankerville was born 1386 and died 22 Mar 1421.
(4th) Henry Grey, 2nd Earl of Tankerville, married Antigone, daughter of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester Henry was born 1388 at Heaton, Newcastle upon Tyne, Northumberland.
(5th) William Grey, Bishop of London and Lincoln, was born 1390 at Heaton. He died 1435 in Lincoln, Lincolnshire.
  • Margaret Mowbray (born 1402)
Sir John Grey K.G. (b. 1386, m. 1438, d. 1439 at Ruthin, Denbighshire, Wales). John married Margaret Mowbray in June 1438 at Ruthin, Denbighshire. Margaret (1402-1459) was born at Epworth, Lincs. She died at Stoke by Nayland, Suffolk. Other marriages: Constance de Holland; Robert Howard[disambiguation needed] Kt.
  • Margaret de Mowbray (born 1359)
Sir Geoffrey de Lucy Kt. (b. 1320, m. 1355, d. 1400 at Cublington, Buckinghamshire.) Geoffrey married Margery (b. 1335) Children: Sir Reginald de Lucy, Kt. (1359-1437) born at Cublington, Bucks. died in Darlington, Northamptonshire. Reginald married Margaret de Mowbray in 1369 at Bretby Castle, Derbyshire. Margaret (1159-1401) was born at Epworth, Lincolnshire. She died at Darlington. Children: Sir Walter Lucy Kt. (1388-1444).
  • Maud de Mowbray (born 1255)
Sir John Deiville Kt (b. 1250, m. 1275, d.1291 at Egmanton, Notts) John married Maud de Mowbray (1255-1312) was born at Pontefract, West Riding of Yorkshire. Children (1st) Sir John Deiville, Kt. (1276-1325). (2nd) Thomas Deiville (b. 1279) Other marriages: James de Audley Kt
  • Nigel de Mowbray (born 1216)
  • Nigel de Mowbray (born 1146)
Nigel de Mowbray (1146-1191) was born at Axholme, Lincolnshire, died at Acre, Palestine. Nigel married Mabel de Braose (1170) at Axholme. Mabel (1151-1203) was born in Bramber, Sussex. Children: (1st) William de Mowbray, Baron of Axholme (1172-1223)
  • Robert de Mowbray (born 1149)
Robert de Mowbray, Earl of Northumbria, was born 1075 at Mowbray, Northumbria. He died 1125 at Windsor Castle, Berkshire. Robert married Mathilde de l'Aigle in 1095 at Mowbray, Northumbria. Mathilde (1078-1130) from Aigle, Valais, Switzerland. Other marriages: Nigel d'Aubigny.
  • Roger de Mowbray (born 1119)
  • Roger de Mowbray Knight (b. 1218)
  • William de Mowbray Baron of Axholme (b. 1172)

Royal ancestries[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Round 1911, p. 948.

References[edit]

Attribution
  • Hugh M. Thomas, “Mowbray, Sir Roger (I) de (d. 1188)”, 2004
  • James Tait, revised by Hugh M. Thomas, “Mowbray, William de (c.1173–c.1224)”, online version, October 2005
  • Rowena E. Archer, “Mowbray, John (I), second Lord Mowbray (1286–1322)”, online version, January 2008
  • Rowena E. Archer, “Mowbray, John (II), third Lord Mowbray (1310–1361)”, 2004
  • Rowena E. Archer, “Mowbray, John (III), fourth Lord Mowbray (1340–1368)”, online version, January 2008
  • Rowena E. Archer, “Mowbray, John (V), second duke of Norfolk (1392–1432)”, online version, January 2008
  • Rowena E. Archer, “Mowbray, Thomas (II), second earl of Nottingham (1385–1405)”, online version, January 2008

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]