Möxämmädämin of Kazan

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Möxämmät Ämin or Möxammädämin (Tatar Cyrillic: Мөхәммәдәмин, Мөхәммәт Әмин, Latin: Möxämmät Ämin, Möxammädämin, Arabic: محمدامین, [mœxæmˌmædæˈmin]; also spelled Muhammad Amin or Emin via Russian: Мухаммед-Амин) (c. 1469 – 1518) was the khan of Kazan Khanate in 1484-1485, 1487–1495, and 1502-1518. Möxammädämin was the son of İbrahim and Nur Soltan, older brother of Abd al Latif, and younger half-brother of İlham (Ghali).

The death of Ibrahim left Kazan with two rival factions. The "eastern" faction wanted Ghali, Ibrahim's son from Nogay's wife, Fatima, to occupy the throne. The "western" faction wanted the 10 year old Möxammädämin to become khan. With the help of the Nogay Horde, Ghali took the throne, while Möxammädämin fled to Moscow. Möxammädämin's mother, Nur Soltan, became wife of Meñli I Giray, khan of the Crimean Khanate. Meñli I Giray was an ally of tsar Ivan III of Russia in his fight against Akhmat Khan of the Big Horde. Ivan III received Möxammädämin warmly, and gave him the town of Kashira. Ivan III also offered him help in his fight against Ghali.

In 1480, Akhmat Khan suffered a fatal defeat during the great standing on the Ugra river. Ghali did not participate in Akhmat's raid, but some Nogays did. In 1482 Ivan III sent an army to Kazan. For the first time in the history of Muscovy the army had cannon. When the army reached Nizhny Novgorod, Ghali asked for peace. Two years later another army was dispatched to Kazan. This time Ghali was deposed, and Möxammädämin became khan. He appeared to be too young for an effective ruler. A year later he was replaced with Ghali again. The internal disaccord between nobility and the khan continued to grow. A group of Kazan nobles sent a letter to Ivan III: We released Mahmet-Amin to you in case if Aleham does us foul, you would let Mahmet-Amin back to us. When Aleham found out of this, he asked as to a feast where tried to slay us, but we ran to the steppe. Ivan III sent another army to Kazan. In April 1487 it besieged the city. On July 9 Kazan fell. Ghali was arrested and exiled to Vologda, where soon died. His wife and children were sent to Beloozero. A number of nobles were executed. Möxammädämin became khan again. Although formally Kazan Khanate remained independent, Ivan III started to use the title Duke of Bulgaria among his other titles.

It was known that during this reign Möxammädämin was closely monitored by Ivan III. Möxammädämin corresponded with Crimean Khanate. All correspondence was sent through Moscow, translated into Russian for Ivan III to read. In 1491, when the Big Horde attempted to invade the Crimean Khanate, Kazan troops participated in a raid against it, together with Muscovy, Qasim Khanate, and the Nogays.

In 1495, the "eastern" (Nogay) faction decided to replace Möxammädämin with Mamuq, khan from the Shaybanid dynasty of Siberian khans. In the spring, Mamuq sent an army to Kazan. When Möxammädämin found out, he asked for help from Moscow. Ivan III dispatched an army. A number of Kazan nobles fled to Mamuq. Mamuq made an appearance of turning back, but when the Muscovy troops left Kazan, Mamuq quickly returned. Möxammädämin escaped to Moscow with his family. Mamuq took Kazan without a fight, and became khan. A year later, when he left Kazan to loot the nearby town of Arsk, the Kazan people did not let him re-enter the city. The throne was open for contest again. This time qarachi and particularly Qol Axmat asked Ivan III not to give throne to Möxammädämin, citing "abuse and dishonor to women" from him. The throne was given to Abd al Latif. Möxammädämin was seriously offended. To amend it, he received Serpukhov and Khotun in addition to Kashira.

Preceded by
İlham
Khan of Kazan
1484–1485
Succeeded by
İlham
Preceded by
İlham
Khan of Kazan
1487–1495
Succeeded by
Mamuq
Preceded by
Ghabdellatif
Khan of Kazan
1502–1518
Succeeded by
Shahgali

Poet[edit]

Möxammädämin was also a prominent Old Tatar language poet. His son Möxämmädyar, born from his wife Şäwliäbikä, also was one of the most prominent Tatar poets.

See also[edit]