In recent years the district has stagnated in isolation as the Second Sudanese Civil War raged to the north and the insurgency of the Lord's Resistance Army made the direct road south to the national capital of Kampala perilous. The district has hosted a large number of South Sudanese refugees who fled the fighting in their country. The 2005 Sudanese peace agreement and reduced activities of the LRA have raised hopes that Moyo District will again become the prosperous transit area for cross-border trade that it once was.
In 1991, the national population census estimated the population of the district at about 79,400. The population of Moyo District according to the 2002 national census was about 194,800, of whom 48.8% were females and 51.2% were males. In the first decade of the 2000s, Moyo District experienced rapid population growth, primarily from refugees fleeing war in South Sudan. It is estimated that the annual population growth rate in the district has averaged 7.9%, between 2002 and 2012. It is estimated that the population of the district in 2012, was approximately 412,500. The table below illustrates the population growth trajectory in the district during the first decade of the 21st century. All figures are estimates.
Like in most other Ugandan districts, agriculture forms the backbone of the district economy. Over 90% of the district population are involved in agricultural activities, with 86.6% of the population involved in some form of subsistence production. Most agricultural production is for household consumption. Some of the agricultural produce is sold, particularly maize, cassava and simsim.The main crops grown in the district include: