|português moçambicano, português do Moçambique|
Second language of 39.5% of the population
Official language in
Mozambican Portuguese (português moçambicano in Portuguese) refers to the varieties of Portuguese spoken in Mozambique. Portuguese is the official language of the country and, according to the 2007 census, is spoken by over 60% of the population, mostly as a lingua franca, with 40% speaking it as a first language, a large increase on the 25% of the previous census, conducted in 1997, while the local languages decreased slightly. In the country's capital Maputo, it is the most widely spoken language and the native language for over 60% of the population. As Mozambican Portuguese is an emerging variety of the language, there is not nearly as much data on its use as there is for Brazilian Portuguese and European Portuguese.
Several variables factor into the emergence of Mozambican Portuguese. The linguistic norm is based on that of Portugal. Brazil's linguistic influence in Mozambique takes two forms: people who are there for work or tourism, and a media presence. Mozambique's own linguistic diversity also enriches the Portuguese language with new words and expressions.
According to the 2007 census:
- 50.4% of the total population speak Portuguese
- Geographically, this breaks down to 80.8% in urban areas and 36.3% in rural areas
- 40% Mozambicans identified Portuguese as their mother tongue (from 20% in 1997)
- 40% reported using Portuguese as the primary home language (from 20% in 1997)
- In Maputo, 60% have it as a mother tongue and 60% use it as their primary home language
Portuguese is a post-colonial language. Imposed during the colonial era, Portuguese was selected as the official language of the new state as it was ethnically neutral. It was also the common language of the elites who received their post-secondary education in Portugal. Portuguese played an important role in the rhetoric of the independence movement, being seen as a potential vehicle for the articulation of a national identity.
Mozambique has extraordinary enthnolinguistic diversity, with no one language dominating demographically. Portuguese serves as a lingua franca allowing communication of Mozambicans with fellow citizens of other ethnicities, including especially white Mozambicans. Of those Mozambicans who speak Portuguese, the majority are non-native speakers, thus spoken with accents of African languages. The lack of native speakers is due, in part, to the exodus of massive number of white Mozambicans to places such as Portugal, South Africa, and Brazil and to the fact that the country is far from the rest of the Lusosphere. This left very few native speakers of Portuguese in Mozambique.
The growth of Portuguese as Mozambique's national language is happening in tandem with the increasing importance and appeal of English. English is an official language of every nation that borders Mozambique, creating incentive for English instruction, and the government has increased provision of English in schools.
Standard European Portuguese is the norm of reference in Mozambique. In terms of pronunciation, however, Mozambican Portuguese shows several departures, which are due to the influence of other languages of Mozambique and Brazilian Portuguese:
- The suppression of unstressed vowels is not as strong as in Portugal.
- The elision of word-final 'r' (for example, estar as [eʃˈta] instead of [eʃˈtaɾ])
- Occasional pronunciation of the initial and final 'e' as [i] (for example, felicidade as [felisiˈdadi] instead of [felisiˈdadə] or [fəlisiˈðaðə]).
- Pronunciation of 'b', 'd', and 'g' are pronounced as they are in all positions.
These tendencies lead to a sound reminiscent of Brazilian Portuguese. The above tendencies are stronger in vernacular speech and less marked in cultivated speech. The pronunciation of first-language speakers sound more European Portuguese and the enumerated conditions listed above except latter.
There are many words and expressions borrowed from indigenous languages of Mozambique into Portuguese. Examples include:
- chima from the Emakhuwa, Cisena and Cinyungwe languages, is a type of porridge
- xituculumucumba from Xirona is a type of bogeyman
- machamba from Swahili refers to agricultural land
- dumba-nengue from Xirona is a term used for informal trade or commerce
- madala from Xichangana is a person of high status or esteem
- nhamussoro from Cindau is a person who can mediate between the living and the dead
Mozambican Portuguese also borrowed words of Arabic origin, because of national Islamic presence.
One also finds neologisms in Mozambican Portuguese such as
- machimbombo the word for bus also shared with other lusophone African countries.
- cronicar, the word crónica turned into a verb
- desconseguir meaning 'to fail' a negation of the verb conseguir using the prefix 'des-' rather than não.
- despressar instead of ir depressa
- agorinha instead of agora mesmo
- tirar dinheiro meaning financiar, 'to finance'
- tirar lágrimas meaning chorar, 'to cry'
- assistir televisão instead of ver a televisão
- comer dinheiro ('eat money') meaning 'to embezzle'
- mata-bicho ('kill the beast') meaning 'breakfast'
There are also words which, as a result of semantic expansion, have acquired additional meanings:
- estrutura which in addition to 'structure' also means 'authority'
- situação which is used to mean 'conflict' or 'war'.
- calamidade can mean clothes donated to victims of natural disasters or conflict. It also refers to divorcées and widows who have begun a new relationship.
- nascer, 'to be born' has the additional meaning of 'to give birth to'
Many of these words came to Portugal, which was settled by returning Portuguese refugees after Mozambican independence. These words were also brought to Brazil again by Portuguese refugees after independence.
The regional dialects exist among the first-language speakers of Portuguese. The variations of the dialects (particularly intonation and rhythm) are a result of the contacts of various dialects of Portugal and native Mozambican languages. Modern mestiços (those born to a parent of Portuguese descent and a black parent in modern time) speak Portuguese with African accents.
- Bibliography on Mozambican Portuguese (1964-2014)
- O Português na África – Moçambique
- The Language Situation in Mozambique
- Pronominal Syntax in Maputo Portuguese from a comparative Bantu and Creole perspective
- Em direcção ao primeiro léxico de usos do português moçambicano
- Dados Para a História da Língua Portuguesa em Moçambique
- Africa’s Latin Quarter