|- Town -|
The new Mozhaysk Cathedral, constructed in 1802–1814
Location of Moscow Oblast in Russia
|Federal subject||Moscow Oblast|
|Administrative district||Mozhaysky District|
|Administrative center of||Mozhaysky District|
|Municipal district||Mozhaysky Municipal District|
|Urban settlement||Mozhaysk Urban Settlement|
|Mayor||Igor Sungurov|
|Population (2010 Census)||31,363 inhabitants|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+04:00)|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 49638|
|Mozhaysk on WikiCommons|
Mozhaysk (Russian: Можайск, IPA: [məˈʐajsk]) is a town and the administrative center of Mozhaysky District of Moscow Oblast, Russia, located 110 kilometers (68 mi) to the west of the Russian capital, on the historic road leading to Smolensk and then to Poland. Population: 31,363 (2010 Census); 31,459 (2002 Census); 30,735 (1989 Census).
The town was first mentioned in 1231 as an appanage of Chernigov; it was named after the river Mozhai or Mozhaya, whose name is of Baltic origin (cf. Lithuanian mažoja 'small'). Later it was an important stronghold of the Smolensk dynasty, one time owned by Feodor the Black. The Muscovites seized it in 1303, but in the course of the following century had serious troubles defending it against Algirdas of Lithuania (Lith. Lietuva). The principality was usually held by a younger brother of the ruling Grand Duke of Moscow, until the practice was dropped in 1493. In 1562, the Treaty of Mozhaysk was signed there. Mozhaysk continued to defend the Western approaches to Moscow during Napoleon's invasion of Russia and World War II (during which it was captured by the Germans on October 16, 1941 and recaptured by the Red Army on January 20, 1942). The great Battle of Borodino took place 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) from the city. Town status was granted to it in 1708.
The first stone cathedral was built in the kremlin in the early 14th century; in 1849, it was demolished stone by stone and then reconstructed exactly as it used to be. A larger blood-red cathedral in the Gothic Revival style was completed in 1814. The church of St. Joachim and Anna preserves some parts from the early 15th century. Another important landmark is the Luzhetsky monastery, founded in 1408 by Saint Ferapont and rebuilt in brick in the 16th century. The monastery cathedral, erected during the reign of Basil III, was formerly known for its frescoes, ascribed to Dionisy's circle.
In popular culture
The fact that Mozhaysk was frequently the last major stop on the way to the capital, led to the "push beyond Mozhay" expression (загнать за Можай, zagnat' za Mozhay), which literally means "push (people, enemy) away (from Moscow) further than Mozhaysk." Mozhaysk was Lithuania's city from the ancient times and Lithuania had the border with Muscovia (many times remarked with many piece treaties) or closer to Moscow or farther from Moscow than Mozhaisk. The borders were chosen along Lithuanian rivers: Mozhaya, Lakhovnya, Nara (same root like in other Lithuanian rivers Narev and Neris), Ruza, Sezha or Vazuza (all Lithuanian rivers like Mozhaya). North of Mozhaisk still there are rivers like Palna (Lith. pilna means full) or Litonka (Lithuanian name is derived from such words lietauka or lytava or lietuva means a flow) or Vandovo (Lith. vanduva means water) village. On the same road to Lithuanian city Smolensk east to Vyazma city there are two more Lithuanian rivers Zhizhula (Lith. zhiezhula is very angry and nasty women usually to describe a witch) and Menka (Lith. menka is small and weak).
Twin towns and sister cities
Mozhaysk is twinned with:
- Château-du-Loir, France
- Drochtersen, Germany
- Etropole, Bulgaria
- Lohja, Finland
- Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine
- Ujazd, Poland
- Vileyka, Belarus
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- Alternative transliterations include Mozhaisk, Mozhajsk, Mozhaĭsk, and Možajsk.
- "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Е. М. Поспелов. "Географические названия мира". Москва, 1998. Стр. 272
- Загнать за Можай (in Russian).