AmaMpondo or Mpondo people are an ethnic group whose homeland is in the modern-day Eastern Cape province of South Africa. AmaMpondo are descendants of Mpondo, the grandson of Sibiside who is widely accepted as last prominent leader of the once-powerful Mbo nation (AbaMbo or MaMbo). AmaMpondo speak an ancient mixture of the Mbo languages including isiSwati and the language today known as isiZulu, however since isiXhosa was introduced in schools around Mpondoland and as such a large portion of Mpondo people speak fluent isiXhosa and constantly identify themselves as Xhosa speakers. It is also very common for people to incorrectly refer to amaMpondo as a Xhosa subgroup, a mistake that is now even repeated by modern Mpondo people as well.
The Mpondo Revolt (1960–1962) was the result of the resistance of the Mpondo people against the implementation of the Bantu Authorities Act, part of the Apartheid legislation. Under the Apartheid ideology, separate development of the various ethnic groups of South Africa was proposed and part of that was to segregate black Africans into 'homelands' that were granted independence from South Africa.
Transkei was the homeland that incorporated all of Mpondoland and its people, in addition to other Xhosa tribes such as the Gcaleka, in what used to be the eastern reaches of the then Cape Province.