Mount Eden

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Mt Eden)
Jump to: navigation, search
For other places with the same name, see Mount Eden (disambiguation).
Mount Eden
Mt-Eden.JPG
Mount Eden looming high above suburban Epsom viewed from One Tree Hill
NZ-Mt Eden.png
Location in Auckland
Basic information
Local authority Auckland Council
Date established 1870s
Population 10,833 (2006)
Facilities
Train station(s) Mount Eden Train Station
Surrounds
North Eden Terrace, Grafton
Northeast Newmarket
Southeast Epsom, Greenwoods Corner
South Three Kings
Southwest Mount Albert
West Sandringham
Northwest Eden Valley, Kingsland

Mount Eden (Maungawhau, the 'Mountain of the Whau tree' in Māori) is the name of a scoria cone and surrounding suburb in Auckland, New Zealand. The English name honours George Eden, 1st Earl of Auckland.

Mt Eden, the suburb, is 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) south of the Central Business District (CBD). Mt Eden Road winds its way around the side of Mount Eden Domain and continues to weave back and forth as it descends into the valley; it runs south from Eden Terrace to Three Kings. Mt Eden village centre is located roughly between Valley Road and Grange Road. The domain is accessible on foot from many of the surrounding streets, and by vehicle from Mt Eden Road.

Volcano[edit]

Geography[edit]

The central focus of the suburb is the dormant eponymous volcano whose summit, at 196 metres (643 ft) above sea level, is the highest natural point on the Auckland isthmus. The majestic bowl-like crater is 50 metres (160 ft) deep. The volcano erupted from two craters 28,000 years ago, with the last eruptions from the southern crater filling the northern crater.[1][2]

Tourism[edit]

Terraces on the southern slopes of Mount Eden

Mt Eden sees strong tourism use, as it is the highest non-manmade point in Auckland, and provides good views in all directions over the city. The large numbers of coach buses, which previously could go all the way to a parking lot on the top of the hill, has been considered to have degraded the top of the cone. In August 2006, a ban on tour buses was announced. They will have to park halfway up the mountain in the future. However, this has in the meantime been partly qualified, with the vehicle ban only to be enforced when a "sustainable, low-impact transport system" (not further specified) is in place.[3]

Visitors to Maungawhau can explore the amazing features on foot with a heritage walk. A heritage walk guide has been prepared by the Albert-Eden Local Board and can be viewed online at ACC Heritage walks

Other uses[edit]

From the 1950s the peak was used by the New Zealand Post Office for VHF radio communications in two buildings, several hundred metres apart, each with their own antenna farm. One building housed transmitting equipment, while the other housed receiving equipment. In the 1960s the site was staffed during the five-day working week due to the large number of valves that wore out under the stress of high power and needed frequent servicing. Typical use of the facility was for businesses e.g. taxi or delivery firms needing mobile communications to vehicles.

An underground water reservoir has been located on the northern side of Mount Eden since the 1870s. The original reservoir was replaced in 1912, and a second, complementary, reservoir added in 1930. The reservoirs, recently upgraded to meet growing demand, work together to supply the Mt Eden, Epsom, One Tree Hill and Khyber Pass areas.

Looking into and over the Mount Eden crater.

Suburb[edit]

History[edit]

Pre-European[edit]

In pre-European times Mount Eden was utilised as a fortified hill pa by various Māori tribes. The pa is thought to have been abandoned around 1700 AD after conflict between the resident Waiohua people and the Hauraki tribes[4] The earth ramparts and terraces from this period contribute to the distinctive outline of the hill today.

Mount Eden as seen through the city buildings, from Northcote.

Later settlement[edit]

The area directly around the hill consists of very fertile free-draining soil mixed with a great deal of volcanic debris in the form of scoria rocks. When Europeans came to the area, they found a landscape devoid of large trees, as anything of any size had been cut down by the Maori for various uses, such as the timber palisades of the pa. The land was covered with bracken, flax and Manuka trees, with whau shrubs growing on the hill. The Europeans cleared the land of the scoria rocks and made fences with them to define property boundaries. This resulted in a landscape reminiscent of Ireland or the Scottish lowlands. These scoria walls are still a feature of the suburb today.

Initially the land was utilised for farms, but from quite early on the area hosted country residences of professionals and business people from Auckland. Most of the farm land was subdivided into large suburban plots between 1870 and 1875, and the principal roads were formed by the Crown. Mt Eden's first school opened in 1877 on the corner of Mt Eden and Valley roads. In 1879 the mountain was officially protected as a public reserve. The tea kiosk on the slope of Mt Eden was built in 1927.

Mt Eden is now a "leafy suburb" predominantly of large houses from the first half of the 20th century. The gardens are verdant and the trees have grown large. On the eastern slopes of Mt Eden were constructed several large country houses set in extensive grounds. These included "Harewood House" (now the site of the Mater Hospital), Justice Gillies "Rocklands Hall" (now a hostel), Alfred Buckland's "Highwic" (now a museum), the Hellaby family's "Florence Court", Josiah Clifton Firth's "Clifton House" (both still private residences) and Professor A P W Thomas' "Trewithiel" (partially preserved in Withiel Thomas Reserve"). Close by the current Government House (official Auckland residence of the Governor General) is Eden Gardens, a ornamental public garden set up in a disused quarry.

Mount Eden (to the left of the picture, beyond Alexandra Park) from One Tree Hill

In the 1950s and 1960s the inner suburbs became unfashionable and the old houses of the Mt Eden area were comparatively cheap to buy. Mt Eden developed a slightly bohemian image during this time as a community of artists, writers, teachers and university lecturers made it their home. Mt Eden village is still regarded by many as the "Home Of Arts" in Auckland, due to the large amount of creative activity in and around the suburb and the large number of artists who live nearby.

The Presbyterian Boys' Hostel at 22 View Road is a historic building that became the first home for many young men, who moved to Auckland to train in government and industry at low rates of pay.

Transport[edit]

In Mt Eden, the plentiful supply of volcanic stone (a suitable material for building roads), as well as the ready supply of labourers from the Mt Eden Prison, allowed for a progressive development of early roads, many of which still exist today as main arterial routes.[5][6] Toll gates were established on several main roads, including Mt Eden Road and Dominion Road, during the 19th century in order to help pay for their upkeep.[6]

Public transportation extended from the inner city to the surrounding areas in the late 1870s and early 1880s with horse-drawn buses being the first mode of regular public transportation in the late 1870s.[7] In 1881, the long awaited railway came, connecting Newmarket with Helensville with stops in Mt Eden, Kingsland, Morningside and Mt Albert.[6] At the beginning of the 20th century, trams began connecting Mt. Eden, Balmoral, Kingsland, and Mt Albert with the city. The trams ran for the last time in the 1950s.[5]

Local Government[edit]

Mt Eden falls within the Epsom constituencies for the national Parliament.[8] In terms of local government, Mt Eden comes under the Albert-Eden Local Board, of Auckland Council. The Albert-Eden Local Board includes the suburbs of Waterview, Point Chevalier, Sandringham, Mount Albert, Morningside, Owairaka, Balmoral, Kingsland, Mt Eden, Epsom and Greenlane.[9]

During the 19th century, the planning and maintenance of the main arterial roads (Mt Eden Road and Dominion Road) provided the impetus to form local governing bodies in the area. The Mt Eden Highway Board held its first meeting in 1868; it covered the area of Mt Eden, Eden Valley, Sandringham, and Balmoral. At the time it was responsible for building and maintaining the roads, as well as dealing with the pigs, horses, cattle, and sheep that freely roamed the area. In 1882 it became the Mt Eden Road Board. In 1906 Mt Eden gained borough status and the Mt Eden Borough Council was formed. In 1989 the Borough Council amalgamated with Auckland City Council in a nation-wide local government reorganisation. And in November 2010, the City Council was dissolved and was incorporated into the new largerAuckland Council.[6]

Civic institutions[edit]

Eden Park has been home to Auckland Cricket since 1910, and also hosts international test and one-day cricket matches. The ground has also been the home of the Auckland Rugby Union since 1925, hosting major international rugby games.

There are several prestigious secondary schools located in and around Mt Eden including St Peter's College, Epsom Girls Grammar School and Auckland Grammar School, as well as the Epsom Campus of the University of Auckland (previously the Auckland College of Education).

Notable Buildings[edit]

  • Mount Eden Prison - 19th century Castle-like structure based on English prisons of the period. Built of local volcanic Basalt rock quarried onsite. Designed by Pierre Finch Martineau Burrows.
  • Quaker Meeting House - 113 Mount Eden Road. Arts & Crafts building designed to harmonize with the houses of the area.
  • Tram-stop - Mt Eden Road. Built at the entrance to the Mount Eden Domain in 1910 as a Tram Stop, this building was altered to include toilets around 1928. Wooden structure with Marseilles Tile roof.
  • Mt Eden Kiosk - 1920s Tearooms built in the Bungalow Stucco style with Marseilles Tile roof.
  • Mt Eden Pools - 30A Bellevue Road. There has been an indoor swimming pool facility here since the early 20th century. The water comes from rain falling on Mt Eden and having been filtered through the scoria rocks wells up here to feed the swimming baths.
  • Former Council Chambers & Fire Station - Valley Road. Former Offices & Fire Station prior to the incorporation of Mt Eden Borough Council into Auckland City in 1989. Designed by Wade & Wade and opened in March 1913. This pair of classical styled buildings were enlarged in 1940. The Fire Station ceased functioning in 1970.
  • Mount Eden Normal Primary School - Valley Road. War Memorial Gates in the classical style.
  • St Barnabas Anglican Church - Mt Eden Road. The older part of this Anglican Church was brought from Mechanics Bay in 1877 where it had stood since the 1860s. the brick portion of this church was constructed in 1886.
  • Louis Aldophus Durrieu House - Mt Eden Road. 19th century wooden house which was the residence of an early settler - A portion of the property was donated by the family to the city as a park.
  • Former Mount Eden Post Office. - Mt Eden Village. Designed by the office of the Government Architect John Campbell. Brick and stucco render building with Marseilles Tile roof.
  • War Memorial Gates - end of Poronui Street. Constructed out of Portland Stone left over from the building of the Auckland War Memorial Museum.
  • Mt Eden Methodist Church - Mt Eden Village. Wooden Gothic Church designed by Arthur White and completed in 1900.
  • Crystal Palace Picture Theatre. 537 Mt Eden Road. Opened on 26 January 1929 by the then Mayor of Mt Eden, E. H. Potter.
  • Rocklands Hall - Gillies Avenue. Grand 19th century Country Residence in the French Second Empire style with distinctive tower. The home of Justice Gillies this building once stood in the middle of a large estate. Now a students hostel for the nearby Teachers College.
  • Brightside Hospital. Modern facility on the site of Colonel Owens residence 'Brightside'. Owens had an extensive garden which was noted for its collection of specimen trees & plants. Many of these still grace the grounds of the hospital and surrounding properties.
  • Lynton House - Owens Road. 19th century wooden Gothic House situated high on the southern side of Mt Eden next to the Pines Apartment Block.
  • The Pines Apartment Block. 1970s highrise apartment block on the site of a 19th-century house of the same name. The building of this tall structure on theside of Mt Deden resulted in new Bylaws to protect the volcanic cones of the isthmus.
  • Florence Court - Omana Avenue. Large Italianate Mansion built by the Hellaby family and extended by the Seabrooks. The walled garden is a memorial constructed by the Seabrooks for their son who was killed in the Second World War.
  • Government House - Mountain Road. Residence of the Governor-General since the early 1960s. This property was donated by Sir Frank and Lady Mappin in the 1950s so the "old" Government House in Waterloo Quadrant could be vacated. This house had been built as the residence of a Mr Rose, a partner in a high class furniture manufacturing company, Rose & Heather, a company which is still active.
  • Whitecliffe - 2 Castle Drive. Originally 45 Mountain Road. A two storied brick mansion built in 1908 for William Elliot, a mining engineer. William Elliot (c.1864-1934) contributed £4000 of the total £9500 cost for the completion of construction of the Wintergardens in the Auckland Domain, as well as £10,000 "for appropriate entrances to the Domain"
  • Firth Castle - Castle Drive. Josiah Firth was quite enthusiastic about cast-concrete and built the tower of this building onto his wooden gothic house (called Clifton House) in the mid 1870s. Of solid concrete [no metal reinforcing] this tower was surmounted by a water tank to provide good water pressure for his state of the art bath rooms as well as a private study cum geological & botany museum room for Mr Firth. He also built a similar gothic concrete tower in Matamata where he owned large areas of land which produced mainly grain crops. His sons went on to found the Firth Concrete Company. The house, which once stood in extensive grounds, now long sold off, was divided into flats in the 1960s.
  • Mercy Hospital - Private Hospital run by the Roman Catholic Church. This occupies the site of Harewood House, a grand 19th century Italianate residence.
  • Rannoch - Almorah Place. Large 1920s house built by a Canadian dentist. The extensive gardens to the north of the house were destroyed when the motorway was constructed in the 1970s.
  • Tibbs House - cnr of Mountain and Clive Roads. Former residence of a headmaster of the nearby boys school this Edwardian mansion is now accommodation for boarders and has several modern additions.
  • Auckland Grammar School. Founded in the 1850s this school relocated here in 1916. A collection of Spanish Mission Style buildings by Arnold & Abbott form the centre of this school.
  • Headmasters House - opposite Auckland Grammar. For most of the 20th century Headmasters of Auckland Grammar resided in this house.
  • Stoneways - Mountain Road. Important 1930s Modernist Art-Deco house by William Gummer, designed as his own home.
  • 40 Mountain Rd. Two storied residence built around 1910 for Mr William McKenzie Commans.
  • Whare ra - Clive Road. "House of the Sun" An experimental concrete house built in 1927 for Trevor Lloyd. Lloyd was the cartoonist for the Dominion Newspaper and seems to be the first person to use a kiwi bird as a representation of a New Zealander. The house is an experiment in the modernist Bauhaus style but is built into the hillside like the works of Frank Lloyd Wright. The building has a number of sculptural details using maori motifs.
  • Prison Officers Houses - North side of Clive Road. A group of house built for the staff of the nearby prison. Substantial residences incorporating local volcanic stone quarried by prison labour in the adjacent quarry.

There are three War Memorials in the Mount Eden area;

  • The War Memorial Gates at the Mount Eden Normal Primary School in Valley Road (opposite the former Mt Eden Borough Council Chambers)
  • The War Memorial Gates at the entrance to the Former College of Education (end of Poronui street, designed in 1932 by the Auckland Education Board architect Alan Miller, built of Portland stone left over from building the Auckland War Memorial Museum)
  • The 1958 Mount Eden War Memorial Hall located near the intersection of Dominion and Balmoral Roads.

Mount Eden Prison[edit]

Main article: Mount Eden Prisons

To many New Zealanders the name Mount Eden is linked with Mount Eden Prison, which was built in a castle style between 1882 and 1917. It is constructed out of the local basalt rock, one of the very few buildings built in this uncompromising material. Built with prison labour it was designed by P.F.M. Burrows and is similar in appearance to Dartmoor Prison in England.

Transportation[edit]

Mt Eden is well served by trains and buses, and is only 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from Auckland’s CBD.[10] The train station is located at the north side of Mt Eden, between Ngahura Street and Fenton Street. Mount Eden Railway Station is a part of the Western Line; trains run regularly into the city and the western suburbs beyond.

The centre of all the shopping and business activities in Mt Eden village is Mt Eden Road, between Oaklands Road and Grange Road. By vehicle Mt Eden can be accessed from the Southern Motorway (SH1) by taking the Green Lane off-ramp, and continuing onto Balmoral Road or from the City end – via Symonds Street and Mt Eden Road. Mount Eden domain is located just north of the village centre along Mt Eden Road.

Panorama of Mt. Eden Crater

Notable residents[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Richard Smith; David J. Lowe; Ian Wright (5 November 2007). "Volcanoes — Mt Eden". Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 2009-05-16. 
  2. ^ "Chronology of Events" (PDF). Maungawhau-Mt Eden Management Plan (Report). Auckland City Council. February 2007. pp. 70. Archived from the original on 2008-10-16. https://web.archive.org/web/20081016101249/http://www.aucklandcity.govt.nz/council/documents/managementplans/mteden/docs/final.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-16.
  3. ^ Rudman, Brian (18 December 2006). "Brian Rudman: May the new plan to save Mt Eden work better than the last". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  4. ^ [1] From Tamaki-makau-rau to Auckland
  5. ^ a b Lovell-Smith. Mt Albert Historical Report. unpublished. pp. 2–4. 
  6. ^ a b c d Angelo, Faye M (1989). The Changing Face of Mt Eden. Mount Eden Borough Council. pp. 15–21. 
  7. ^ Scott, Dick (1961). In Old Mount Albert: Being a History of the District. Southern Cross Books. p. 41. 
  8. ^ "Electorate Boundaries". Elections New Zealand. 
  9. ^ "Albert-Eden Local Board". About the Albert-Eden local area. Auckland Council. Retrieved 16 October 2012. 
  10. ^ "Public Transport". Auckland Transport. Retrieved 16 October 2012. 
  • The Lively Capital, Auckland 1840-1865. Una Platts. Avon Fine Prints Limited New Zealand 1971.
  • Colonial Architecture In New Zealand. John Stacpoole. A.H & A.W Reed 1976.
  • Volcanoes of Auckland: The Essential guide - Hayward, B.W., Murdoch, G., Maitland, G.; Auckland University Press, 2011.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 36°52′37″S 174°45′50″E / 36.877°S 174.764°E / -36.877; 174.764