Mount Kilimanjaro

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"Kilimanjaro" redirects here. For other uses, see Kilimanjaro (disambiguation).
Mount Kilimanjaro.jpg
Kibo summit of Kilimanjaro
Elevation 5,895 m (19,341 ft)[1][2]
Prominence 5,885 m (19,308 ft)[3]
Ranked 4th
Kilimanjaro is located in Tanzania
Mount Kilimanjaro's location in Tanzania
Location Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania
Coordinates 03°04′33″S 37°21′12″E / 3.07583°S 37.35333°E / -3.07583; 37.35333Coordinates: 03°04′33″S 37°21′12″E / 3.07583°S 37.35333°E / -3.07583; 37.35333
Topo map Kilimanjaro map and guide by Wielochowski[4]
Type Stratovolcano
Last eruption Between 150,000 and 200,000 years ago
First ascent 1889
Hans Meyer
Ludwig Purtscheller
Easiest route Hike
Aerial view of Mount Kilimanjaro in December 2009
Historical map with "Kilima-Ndscharo" in German East Africa, 1888

Mount Kilimanjaro /ˌkɪlɪmənˈɑːr/,[5] with its three volcanic cones, Kibo, Mawenzi and Shira, is a dormant volcanic mountain in Tanzania. It is the highest mountain in Africa and the highest free-standing mountain (i.e., not part of a mountain range) in the world at 5,895 metres (19,341 ft) above sea level.


Kilimanjaro is a large stratovolcano and is composed of three distinct volcanic cones: Kibo, the highest; Mawenzi at 5,149 metres (16,893 ft);[6] and Shira, the shortest at 4,005 metres (13,140 ft).[7] Uhuru Peak is the highest summit on Kibo's crater rim. Tanzania National Parks, a governmental agency,[1] and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization[2] list the height of Uhuru Peak as 5,895 m (19,341 ft). That height is based on a British Ordnance Survey in 1952.[8] Since then, the height has been measured as 5,892 metres (19,331 ft) in 1999, 5,891 metres (19,327 ft) in 2008, and 5,888 metres (19,318 ft) in 2014.[8]

Mawenzi and Shira are extinct, while Kibo is dormant and could erupt again. The last major eruption has been dated to between 150,000 and 200,000 years ago.[9] Kibo has gas-emitting fumaroles in its crater.

Shira is topped by a broad plateau, perhaps a filled caldera, and erosion has cut deeply into a remnant rim

Several collapses and landslides have occurred on Kibo before, one creating the area known as the Western Breach.


According to English geographer Halford Mackinder, in 1848 missionary Johannes Rebmann of Mombasa was the first European to report the existence of Kilimanjaro.[10]


The origin of the name "Kilimanjaro" is not precisely known, but a number of theories exist. European explorers had adopted the name by 1860 and reported that "Kilimanjaro" was the mountain's Kiswahili name.[11] But according to the 1907 edition of The Nuttall Encyclopædia, the name of the mountain was "Kilima-Njaro".[12]

Johann Ludwig Krapf wrote in 1860 that Swahilis along the coast called the mountain "Kilimanjaro". Although he did not support his claim,[13] he claimed that "Kilimanjaro" meant either "mountain of greatness" or "mountain of caravans". Under the latter meaning, "Kilima" meant "mountain" and "Jaro" possibly meant "caravans".[11]

Jim Thompson claimed in 1885, although he also did not support his claim,[13]

The term Kilima-Njaro has generally been understood to mean the Mountain (Kilima) of Greatness (Njaro). This is probably as good a derivation as any other, though not improbably it may mean the "White" mountain, as I believe the term "Njaro" has in former times been used to denote whiteness, and though this application of the word is now obsolete on the coast, it is still heard among some of the interior tribes. Either translation is equally applicable.... By the Wa-chaga[,] the mountain is not known under one name, the two masses which form it being respectively named Kibo and Kimawenzi.[14]

"Njaro" is an ancient Kiswahili word for "shining".[15] Similarly, Krapf wrote that a chief of the Wakamba people, whom he visited in 1849, "had been to Jagga and had seen the Kima jaJeu, mountain of whiteness, the name given by the Wakamba to Kilimanjaro...."[16] More correctly in the Kikamba language, this would be Kiima Kyeu, and this possible derivation has been popular with several investigators.[13]

Others have assumed that "Kilima" is Kiswahili for "mountain". The problem with this assumption is that "Kilima" actually means "hill" and is, therefore, the diminutive of "Mlima", the proper Kiswahili word for mountain. However, "[i]t is ... possible ... that an early European visitor, whose knowledge of [Kiswahili] was not extensive, changed mlima to kilima by analogy with the two Chagga names; Kibo and Kimawenzi."[13]

A different approach is to assume that the "Kileman" part of Kilimanjaro comes from the Kichagga "kileme", which means "which defeats", or "kilelema", which means "which has become difficult or impossible". The "Jaro" part would "then be derived from njaare, a bird, or, according to other informants, a leopard, or, possibly from jyaro a caravan."

According to one [Wachagga] informant, the old men tell the story that long ago the Wachagga, having seen the snowy dome, decided to go up to investigate; naturally, they did not get very far. Hence the name: kilemanjaare, or kilemanyaro, or possibly kilelemanjaare etc.- "which defeats," or which is impossible for, the bird, the leopard, or the caravan. This is attractive as being entirely made up of [Wachagga] elements based on an imaginable situation, but the fact remains that the name Kilimanjaro is not, and apparently never has been, current among the Wachagga as the name of the mountain. Is this then only, as other Wachagga suggest, a latter-day attempt to find a [Wachagga] explanation when pressed to do so by a foreign enquirer? Is it perhaps arguable that the early porters from the coast hearing the Wachagga say kilemanjaare or kilemajyaro, meaning simply that it was impossible to climb the mountain, imagined this to be the name of the mountain, and associated it with their own kilima? Did they then report to the European leaders of the expedition that the name of the mountain was, their version of the Kichagga, which, further assimilated by the European hearer, finally became standardised as Kilimanjaro?[13]

In the 1880s, the mountain became a part of German East Africa and was called "Kilima-Ndscharo" in German following the Kiswahili name components.[17]

On 6 October 1889, Hans Meyer reached the highest summit on the crater ridge of Kibo. He named it "Kaiser-Wilhelm-Spitze" ("Kaiser Wilhelm peak").[18] That name apparently was used until Tanzania was formed in 1964,[19] when the summit was renamed "Uhuru", meaning "Freedom Peak" in Kiswahili.[20]


Climbing history[edit]

From the UK National Archives

In 1861, the Prussian officer Baron Karl Klaus von der Decken made a first attempt to climb Kibo but "got no farther than 8,200 feet (2,500 m) owing to the inclemency of the weather."[21] In 1862, von der Decken tried a second time together with Otto Kersten. They reached a height of 14,000 feet (4,300 m).[22][23]

In June 1887, the Hungarian Count Sámuel Teleki and Austrian Lieutenant Ludwig von Höhnel made an attempt to climb the mountain. Approaching from the saddle between Mawenzi and Kibo, Höhnel stopped at 4,950 meters (16,240 ft), but Teleki pushed through until he reached the snow at 5,300 meters (17,400 ft).[24]

Later in 1887 during his first attempt to climb Kilimanjaro, the German geology professor Hans Meyer reached the lower edge of the ice cap on Kibo, where he was forced to turn back because he lacked the equipment needed to handle the ice.[25]:page 81 The following year, Meyer planned another attempt with Oscar Baumann, a cartographer, but the mission was aborted after the pair were held hostage and ransomed during the Abushiri Revolt.[25]:page 82

In the autumn of 1888, the American naturalist Dr. Abbott and the German explorer Otto Ehrenfried Ehlers approached the summit from the northwest. While Abbott turned back earlier, Ehlers at first claimed to have reach the summit rim but, after severe criticism of that claim, later withdrew it.[26]:pp 17–19

In 1889, Meyer returned to Kilimanjaro with the Austrian mountaineer Ludwig Purtscheller for a third attempt.[25]:page 82 The success of this attempt was based on the establishment of several campsites with food supplies so that multiple attempts at the top could be made without having to descend too far.[25]:page 82 Meyer and Purtscheller pushed to near the crater rim on October 3 but turned around exhausted from hacking footsteps in the icy slope.[25]:page 82 Three days later, on Purtscheller's fortieth birthday, they reached the highest summit on the southern rim of the crater.[25]:page 82 They were the first to confirm that Kibo has a crater.[25]:page 82 After descending to the saddle between Kibo and Mawenzi, Meyer and Purtscheller attempted to climb the more technically challenging Mawenzi but could reach only the top of Klute Peak, a subsidiary peak, before retreating due to illness.[25]:page 84 On October 18, they reascended Kibo to enter and study the crater, cresting the rim at Hans Meyers Notch.[25]:page 84 In total, Meyer and Purtscheller spent 16 days above 15,000 feet (4,600 m) during their expedition.[25]:page 84 They were accompanied in their high camps by Mwini Amani of Pangani, who cooked and supplied the sites with water and firewood.[26]:pp 135–186

The first ascent of the highest summit of Mawenzi was made on 29 July 1912, by the German climbers Edward Oehler and Fritz Klute, who christened it Hans Meyer Peak. Oehler and Klute went on to make the third-ever ascent of Kibo, via the Drygalski Glacier, and descended via the Western Breach.[25]:page 85

In 1989, the organizing committee of the 100-year celebration of the first ascent decided to award posthumous certificates to the African porter-guides who had accompanied Meyer and Purtscheller.[27] One person in pictures or documents of the 1889 expedition was thought to match a living inhabitant of Marangu, Yohani Kinyala Lauwo.[27] Lauwo did not know his own age.[27] Nor did he remember Meyer or Purtscheller, but he remembered joining a Kilimanjaro expedition involving a Dutch doctor who lived near the mountain and that he did not get to wear shoes during the climb.[27] Lauwo claimed that he had climbed the mountain three times before the beginning of World War I.[27] The committee concluded that he had been a member of Meyer's team and therefore must have been born around 1871.[27] Lauwo died on 10 May 1996, 107 years after the first ascent, but now is sometimes even suggested as co-first-ascendant of Kilimanjaro.[28]

Notable other ascents[edit]

Fastest ascent and descent[edit]

The fastest ascent-descent has been recorded by the Swiss-Ecuadorian mountain guide Karl Egloff (*16 March 1981, Quito), who ran to the top and back in 6 hours and 42 minutes on August 13, 2014. Egloff also holds the record for the fastest ascent/descent of Aconcagua.[29] Previous records were held by Spanish mountain runner Kílian Jornet (7 hrs 14 min on 29 September 2010) and by Tanzanian guide Simon Mtuy (9 hrs 21 min on 22 February 2006).[30]

Fastest female ascent[edit]

The female ascent record is held by Britain's Becky Shuttleworth, who, in September 2014, climbed to the summit in 11 hours and 34 minutes, breaking a 3-year old record by Zimbabwean Debbie Bachmann by just 8 minutes.[30]

Youngest and oldest people to summit[edit]

Despite an age-limit of 10 years for a permit, Keats Boyd of Los Angeles was only 7 years old when he summited Kilimanjaro on January 21, 2008. The oldest person to reach Uhuru Peak was either the American Robert Wheeler, who was 85 years and 201 day when he summited on 2 October 2014, or the Frenchman Valtee Daniel, who reportedly was 87 at his ascent. The latter climb is not recognized by the Guinness Book of Records for a lack of documentation. In October 2010 the Canadian-Swiss couple of Martin and Ether Kafer became the oldest summitters, aged 85 and 84 respectively. Ether still holds the record for oldest woman.[30]

Ascents by people with disabilities[edit]

Wheelchair-bound Bernard Goosen scaled Mount Kilimanjaro in six days in 2007, while in 2012 Kyle Maynard, who has no forearms or lower legs, crawled unassisted to the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro.[30]


A map of the Kibo cone on Mount Kilimanjaro was published by the British government's Directorate of Overseas Surveys in 1964 based on aerial photography conducted in 1962 (Subset of Kilimanjaro, East Africa (Tanganyika) Series Y742, Sheet 56/2, D.O.S. 422 1964, Edition 1, Scale 1:50,000).[31]

Tourist mapping was first published by the Ordnance Survey in England in 1989 based on the original DOS mapping (1:100,000, 100 ft intervals, DOS 522).[citation needed] EWP[who?] produced a map with tourist information in 1990 (1:75,000, 100 meter contour intervals, inset maps of Kibo and Mawenzi on 1:20,000 and 1:30,000 scales respectively and 50 meter contour interval).[citation needed] In the last few years, numerous other maps have become available of various qualities.[4] 3D route maps are also available online.[32]

Trekking Kilimanjaro[edit]

A 3D model of Kibo

There are seven official trekking routes by which to ascend and descend Mount Kilimanjaro: Lemosho, Machame, Marangu, Mweka, Rongai, Shira, and Umbwe.[33] Of all the routes, Machame is considered the most scenic, albeit steeper, route.[34] It can be done in six or seven days.[34] The Rongai is the easiest and least scenic of all camping routes.[35] The Marangu is also relatively easy, but this route tends to be very busy, the ascent and descent routes are the same, and accommodation is in shared huts with all other climbers.[36]

People who wish to trek to the summit of Kilimanjaro are advised to undertake appropriate research[37] and ensure that they are both properly equipped and physically capable. Though the climb is technically not as challenging as when climbing the high peaks of the Himalayas or Andes, the high elevation, low temperature, and occasional high winds make this a difficult and dangerous trek. Acclimatisation is essential, and even the most experienced trekkers suffer some degree of altitude sickness.[38] Kilimanjaro summit is well above the altitude at which high altitude pulmonary edema or high altitude cerebral edema can occur.[39] Many trekkers will suffer considerable discomfort, typically shortage of breath, hypothermia, and headaches.

Trekkers fall on steep portions of the mountain, and rock slides have killed trekkers. For this reason, the route via the Arrow Glacier was closed for several years, reopening in December 2007.[40]

Annual deaths[edit]

Of about 20,000 people who attempt to climb Kilimanjaro each year, one third do not reach the summit, usually due to altitude sickness (a.k.a. acute mountain sickness (AMS)). Most suffer mild symptoms, but in its most severe forms, high-altitude cerebral edema or high-altitude pulmonary edema, it is life-threatening. Officially there are, on average, two or three deaths annually as a result of AMS on Kilimanjaro, although the total number of annual fatalities (due to a variety of causes), is put at between 10 and 15.[41]

Unique vegetation[edit]

Being an Afromontane sky island, Kilimanjaro has an enormous biodiversity while low in endemic species. However endemics include the giant groundsels in the bunchgrass tussock grasslands, and other flora adapted to living in alpine plant conditions.

Physical features[edit]

Mount Kilimanjaro as seen from Moshi town, Kilimanjaro region

Kilimanjaro rises approximately 4,877 metres (16,001 ft) from its base in the plains near Moshi.[2] Kibo is capped by an almost symmetrical cone with scarps rising 180 meters (590 ft) to 200 meters (660 ft) on the south side. These scarps define a 2.5-kilometre-wide (1.6 mi) caldera.[42] Within this caldera is the Reusch Crater, which the Tanganyika government in 1954 named after Gustav Otto Richard Reusch upon his climbing the mountain for the 25th time (out of 65 attempts during his lifetime).[43][44] The Ash Pit, 350 metres (1,150 ft) deep, lies within the crater.[45]


A continuous ice cap covering approximately 400 square kilometres (150 sq mi) down to an elevation of 3,200 metres (10,500 ft) covered Kilimanjaro during the maximum of the last period of glaciation in the Pleistocene, extending across the summits of Kibo and Mawenzi.[7][42]

In the late 1880s, the summit of Kibo was completely covered by an ice cap covering about 20 square kilometres (7.7 sq mi) with outlet glaciers cascading down the western and southern slopes, and except for the inner cone, the entire caldera was buried. Glacier ice also flowed through the Western Breach.[7][42]

Aerial view of the Kibo summit of Mount Kilimanjaro in 1938.

An examination of ice cores taken from Kilimanjaro's northern ice field indicates that the glaciers there have a basal age of 11,700 years.[46][47] Those glaciers survived a widespread drought during a three century period beginning around 2,200 BC.[48]

The slope glaciers retreated rapidly between 1912 and 1953, in response to a sudden shift in climate at the end of the 19th century that made them "drastically out of equilibrium", and more slowly thereafter. Their continuing demise indicates they are still out of equilibrium in response to a constant change in climate over the last 100 years.[7]

In contrast to the persistent slope glaciers, the glaciers on Kilimanjaro's crater plateau have appeared and disappeared repeatedly during the Holocene, with each cycle lasting a few hundred years.[49] It appears that decreasing specific humidity instead of temperature changes has caused the shrinkage of the plateau glaciers since the late 19th century. No statistically significant warming at the elevation of those glaciers occurred between 1948 and 2005. Although air temperatures at that elevation are always below freezing, solar radiation causes melting on their vertical faces. "There is no pathway for the plateau glaciers other than to continuously retreat once their vertical margins are exposed to solar radiation."[7]

Almost 85 percent of the ice cover on Kilimanjaro disappeared from October 1912 to June 2011, with coverage decreasing from 11.40 square kilometres (4.40 sq mi) to 1.76 square kilometres (0.68 sq mi).[50] From 1912 to 1953, there was about a 1.1 percent average annual loss.[48] The average annual loss for 1953 to 1989 was 1.4 percent while the loss rate for 1989 to 2007 was 2.5 percent.[48] Of the ice cover still present in 2000, almost 40 percent had disappeared by 2011.[50] The glaciers are thinning in addition to losing areal coverage.[48] While the current shrinking and thinning of Kilimanjaro's ice fields appears to be unique within its almost twelve millennium history, it is contemporaneous with widespread glacier retreat in mid-to-low latitudes across the globe.[48] At the current rate, most of the ice on Kilimanjaro will disappear by 2040 and "it is highly unlikely that any ice body will remain after 2060".[50]

A complete disappearance of the ice would be of only "negligible importance" to the water budget of the area around the mountain. The forests of Kilimanjaro, far below the ice fields, "are [the] essential water reservoirs for the local and regional populations".[51]

In popular culture[edit]


  • According to the Tanzania National Parks Authority, the first wedding performed on the mountain below the summit took place on 21 September 2014, when an American couple exchanged vows at Shira 2 Camp.[52][53] In 2011, a couple had exchanged their vows at the summit.[54]
  • On 26 September 2014, a new world record for the highest-ever cricket match was set when a group of international cricketers played on a flat crater on the mountain at an elevation of 5,730 metres (18,800 ft).[55]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Mount Kilimanjaro National Park", Tanzania National Parks, accessed 7 October 2014
  2. ^ a b c Kilimanjaro National Park, World Heritage Centre, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
  3. ^ "Kilimanjaro". Retrieved 2012-08-16. 
  4. ^ a b Kilimanjaro Map and tourist Guide (Map) (4th ed.). 1:75,000 with 1:20,000 and 1:30,000 insets. EWP Map Guides. Cartography by EWP. EWP. 2009. ISBN 0-906227-66-6. 
  5. ^ Oxford dictionary: definition of Kilimanjaro, Mount (British & World English)
  6. ^ Mawenzi, World Mountain Encyclopedia, Peakware, accessed 12 November 2014
  7. ^ a b c d e "Kilimanjaro Glaciers: Recent areal extent from satellite data and new interpretation of observed 20th century retreat rates", Geophysical Research Letters, authored by Nicolas J. Cullen, Thomas Mölg, Georg Kaser, Khalid Hussein, Konrad Steffen, and Douglas R. Hardy, 2006, accessed 12 November 2014
  8. ^ a b "The New Digital Orthometric Elevation Model of Kilimanjaro", CEUR Workshop Proceedings, authored by Pascal Sirguey, National School of Surveying, University of Otago, Dunedin, NewZealand; Nicolas J. Cullen, Geography Department, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; Jorge Filipe Dos Santos, Vale Technological Institute, Brazil, volume 1142, paper 12, April 2014, pages 114-5, accessed 7 October 2014
  9. ^ Nonnotte, Philippe; Hervé Guillou; Bernard Le Gall; Mathieu Benoit; Joseph Cotten; Stéphane Scaillet (2008). "New K-Ar age determinations of Kilimanjaro volcano in the North Tanzanian diverging rift, East Africa" (PDF). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 173 (1-2): 99–112. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2007.12.042. 
  10. ^ Mackinder, Halford (1900). "A Journey to the Summit of Mount Kenya, British East Africa". The Geographical Journal 15 (5): 453–476. JSTOR 1774261. 
  11. ^ a b Travels, researches, and missionary labours, during an eighteen years' residence in Eastern Africa: Together with journeys to Jagga, Usambara, Ukambani, Shoa, Abessinia and Khartum; and a coasting voyage from Mombaz to Cape Delgado, authored by Johann Ludwig Krapf and Ernest George Ravenstein, Trübner and Company, 1860, page 255
  12. ^ The Nuttall Encyclopædia, 1907,, 2006
  13. ^ a b c d e Hutchinson, J. A. (1965). "The Meaning of Kilimanjaro". Department of Language and Liguistics. Dar Es Salaam: University College. 
  14. ^ Through Masai land: a journey of exploration among the snowclad volcanic mountains and strange tribes of eastern equatorial Africa, authored by Johann Ludwig Krapf and Ernest George Ravenstein, Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington, London, 1887
  15. ^ NASA-Tanzania "SRTM TANZANIA IMAGES", Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 28 August 2005
  16. ^ Travels, researches, and missionary labors, during an eighteen years' residence in Eastern Africa: Together with journeys to Jagga, Usambara, Ukambani, Shoa, Abessinia and Khartum; and a coasting voyage from Mombaz to Cape Delgado, authored by Johann Ludwig Krapf and Ernest George Ravenstein, Trübner and Company, 1860, page 544
  17. ^ Briggs, Philip (1996): "Guide to Tanzania; 2nd edition." Bradt Guides.
  18. ^ "German Contributions to the Cartography of South West and East Africa from Mid 19th Century to World War I", Proceedings of the 21st International Cartographic Conference, Durban, South Africa, authored by I. J. Demhardt, Department of Geography, University of Technology Darmstadt, page 903, 2003
  19. ^ Refer, for example, to "Further Notes on the Kibo Inner Crater and Glaciers of Kilimanjaro and Mount Kenya", authored by P. C. Spink, The Geographical Journal, vol. 106, no. 5/6, November - December 1945, page 213
  20. ^ "Dangar Alpine Notes", The Alpine Journal, authored by D. F. O. Dangar, volume 70, numbers 310 and 311, 1965, page 328
  21. ^ Dundas, Charles (2012) [1924]. Kilimanjaro and its People: A History of the Wachagga, Their Laws, Customs and Legends, Together with Some Account of the Highest Mountain in Africa. Routledge. p. 20. Retrieved 4 November 2014. 
  22. ^ Carl Claus von der Decken, bearbeitet von Otto Kersten: Reisen in Ost-Afrika in den Jahren 1859 bis 1865, Erzählender Teil 1871, Band 2 S. 52
  23. ^ Bernard Verdcourt: Collectors in East Africa – 31. Baron Carl Claus von der Decken 1833–1865 Text extracted from The Conchologists’ Newsletter, No.162, pp. 204–211 published September 2002
  24. ^ Discovery of Lakes Rudolf and Stefanie: A Narrative of Count Samuel Teleki's Exploring & Hunting Expedition in Eastern Equatorial Africa in 1887 & 1888, volume 1, authored by Ludwig Ritter von Höhnel, translated by N. D'Anvers, published by Longmans, Green, 1894, page 195, accessed 16 November 2014
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Kilimanjaro: A Complete Trekker's Guide, authored by Alex Stewart, Cicerone Press Limited, 2010 accessed 13 November 2014
  26. ^ a b Across East African Glaciers: An Account of the First Ascent of Kilimanjaro, authored by Hans Meyer, translated by E. H. S. Calder, published by G. Philip & son, 1891, accessed 16 November 2014
  27. ^ a b c d e f "Meyer and Purtschell were not alone", Tanzanian Affairs, 1 January 1990, accessed 13 November 2014
  28. ^ "The Old Man of Mt. Kilimanjaro", The Honeyguide: Summer 2000, published by Another Land, accessed 13 November 2014
  29. ^ Matt Hart, Where in the World Did Karl Egloff Come From?, Outside 5, Mar 2015
  30. ^ a b c d Kilimanjaro records at and Kilimanjaro records at
  31. ^ A Century of Photogrammetry on Kilimanjaro, authored by Pascal Sriguey and Nicolas J. Cullen, New Zealand, 2014, page 5, accessed 14 November 2014
  32. ^ 3D Maps
  33. ^ "Mt. Kilimanjaro Routes: The Advantages and Disadvantage of All Mount Kilimanjaro Climbing Routes", Mount Kilimanjaro Guide
  34. ^ a b "Climbing Mount Kilimanjaro on the Machame Route", Mount Kilimanjaro Guide
  35. ^ "Climbing Mount Kilimanjaro on the Rongai Route", Mount Kilimanjaro Guide
  36. ^ "Marangu Route", Kilimanjaro Routes
  37. ^ R. Stoppelenburg. "Prepare yourself for the Kilimanjaro climb". 
  38. ^ Muza, SR; Fulco, CS; Cymerman, A (2004). "Altitude Acclimatization Guide". US Army Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division Technical Report (USARIEM-TN-04-05). Retrieved 2009-03-05. 
  39. ^ Cymerman, A; Rock, PB. "Medical Problems in High Mountain Environments. A Handbook for Medical Officers". USARIEM-TN94-2. US Army Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division Technical Report. Retrieved 2009-03-05. 
  40. ^ "Lava Tower en route to Barranco Camp". Africa Travel. Retrieved 23 March 2011. 
  41. ^ Liz Hunt, Mount Kilimanjaro: Climb and punishment, The Telegraph 22 Jan 2010
  42. ^ a b c Young, James A. T. "Glaciers of the Middle East and Africa" (PDF). U.S. Geological Professional Survey. U.S. Department of the Interior. pp. G61, G58, G59 G62. Retrieved 16 August 2012. 
  43. ^ "Gustav Otto Richard Reusch", The Center for Volga German Studies, Concordia University (Portland, Oregon), May 2013, accessed 9 November 2014
  44. ^ The Power of Purpose: Find Meaning, Live Longer, Better, authored by Richard J. Leider, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2010, page 12, accessed 9 November 2014
  45. ^ Kilimanjaro, Volcano World, Oregon State University, accessed 12 November 2014
  46. ^ On Thin Ice. Mark Bowen. 2005. ISBN 0-8050-6443-5. page 380.
  47. ^ Thompson, Lonnie G. "Kilimanjaro Ice Core Records: Evidence of Holocene Climate Change in Tropical Africa" (PDF). Science Magazine. Retrieved 16 August 2012. 
  48. ^ a b c d e L. G. Thompson, H. H. Brecher, E. Mosley-Thompson, D. R. Hardy, B. G. Mark (2009). "Glacier loss on Kilimanjaro continues unabated". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (47): 19770–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.0906029106. 
  49. ^ "Is the decline of ice on Kilimanjaro unprecedented in the Holocene?", The Holocene, authored by Georg Kaser, Thomas Mölg, Nicolas J. Cullen, Douglas R. Hardy, and Michael Winkler, November 2010, volume 20, number 7, 1079-91, accessed 8 October 2014
  50. ^ a b c "A century of ice retreat on Kilimanjaro: the mapping reloaded", The Cryosphere, authored by N. J. Cullen, P. Sirguey, T. Ölg, G. Kaser, M. Winkler, and S. J. Fitzsimons, volume 7, pages 419-31, 2013, accessed 8 October 2014
  51. ^ Letter to the Editor, "East African glacier loss and climate change: Corrections to the UNEP article 'Africa without ice and snow'", Environmental Development, authored by Georg Kaser, Thomas Mölg, Nicolas J. Cullen, Douglas R. Hardy, Michael Winkler, Rainer Prinz, and Lindsey Nicholson, volume 6, pages 1-6, 2013, accessed 8 October 2014
  52. ^ "American couple to exchange vows on Mount Kilimanjaro". Daily News. Retrieved 29 September 2014. 
  53. ^ "Couple marries on top of Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest peak". India Today. 22 September 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014. 
  54. ^ "More couples exchange marriage vows on Africa’s roof". The Guardian. 24 September 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014. 
  55. ^ "Cricketers play on Kilimanjaro to set new world record". BBC News. 26 September 2014. Retrieved 29 September 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Freeman, Sue C. 'In My Wildest Dreams, A Woman's Humorous Perspective Of Her Mt. Kilimanjaro Experience'

External links[edit]