||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Lithuanian Wikipedia. (May 2013)|
The word Mthwakazi was derived from the name of Queen MuThwa, the first ruler of the Mthwakazi territory. The Muthwa pseudodynasty survived up to around the 18 th century. She was the matriarch of the AbaThwa, the San people. With the arrival of Bantu people, the Mthwakazi territory became, increasingly, a center of diverse cultures. These local groups maintained their local autonomy, however, boundaries were fluid and intermarriages were common. The later arrival of the Nguni peoples, in the late 18 th century and early 19 th century, saw the InterCultural Society of Mthwakazi evolving into a sovereign state that was recognised by both neighbouring African states and foreign (European) powers. Mthwakazi has a long history of diverse cultures and arts. Imbongi (poets) began poetically describing the wonderful social structure of Mthwakazi with references like “uMbuthwa okazi” (the great collective union), which when speaking sounds like Mthwakazi. Mzilikazi is said to have marveled at the great diverse and collective union saying “Saze sabasihle isizwe sakoMthwakazi, uMbuthwa okazi!, undlela zimhlophe!, njenginsimu yamaluba”, loosely translated as: “O,how beautiful, great and diverse the union is. It is like a garden of flowers”. Several peace treaties, marking the borders of Mthwakazi, were signed and Mthwakazi existed as a sovereign state. However, the colonial powers, occupying the eastern neighboring state at the time, later disregarded these agreements and invaded Mthwakazi on the 3 rd of November 1893. Mthwakazi faught a bitter defensive battle at Gadade, Mbembesi, but as fate would have it, lost and so began a long period of occupation and rule by conquest.
- Brief History of Mthwakazi (English). Retrieved 2012-08-09.
- Mthwakazi Foundation Inc. Retrieved 2012-08-09.
- Siwela, Paul. "Background of Matabeleland (Mthwakazi)". MLO. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
- Umhlahlo wesizwe, sikaMthwakazi. "The Atlas of Mthwakazi". Mthwakazi.info. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
- Mthwakazi, Mthwakazi. "The Draft Constitution of Mthwakazi". Draft Constitution. Mthwakazi Union. Retrieved 11 March 2014.