Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm
|English: My Fatherland, My Happiness and Joy|
The first poem and eventual Finnish national anthem, Maamme, of which Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm is an adaptation.
National anthem of
|Lyrics||Johann Voldemar Jannsen, 1869|
|Music||Fredrik (Friedrich) Pacius, 1848|
The lyrics were written by Johann Voldemar Jannsen and are set to a melody composed in 1848 by Fredrik (Friedrich) Pacius which is also that of the national anthem of Finland: Maamme ("Vårt Land" in Swedish). It is also considered to be national anthem for Livonian people with text Min izāmō, min sindimō, My Fatherland, my native land.
The song was first presented to the public as a choral work in the Grand Song Festival of Estonia in 1869 and quickly became a symbol of the Estonian National Awakening.
Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm was officially adopted as the national anthem of Estonia in 1920, after the Estonian War of Independence.
During the Soviet occupation since 1944, Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm was banned. Between 1945 and 1990 the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic had a different anthem. Yet, the people of Estonia could often hear the melody, as Finland's state broadcaster Yleisradio, whose radio and television broadcasts were received in Northern Estonia, played an instrumental version of the Finnish national anthem, identical to this song (except for an additional repetition of the last verse in the Finnish version), at closedown every night.
|Estonian||Literal English translation||Poetic English translation||Võro translation|
Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm,
Sa oled mind ju sünnitand
Su üle Jumal valvaku
My fatherland, my joy and happiness,
You have given me birth
May God watch over you,
My native land, my joy and delight,
My little cradle stood on ground soil,
May God in Heaven thee gave birth to me,
Mu esämaa, mu õnn ja rõõm,
Su pääl ma olõ sündünüq
Su perrä Jummal kaegu,
In English language media, the title is often spelt without the diacritical signs, so "Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm" becomes "Mu isamaa, mu onn ja room". Although Estonians can mostly recognize the incorrect form, it is usually considered humorous since it changes the meaning: while "õnn ja rõõm" means "happiness and joy", "onn ja room" can roughly be translated as "(small) hut and crawl".
Notes and references
- "Estonia - Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm". NationalAnthems.me. Retrieved 2011-11-21.
- The website of the President of the Republic of Estonia has a page on National symbols, including the anthem. The Estonian language version of this page also includes an instrumental version.
- The Estonian national anthem - web page of the State Chancellery, played by The Defence Forces Orchestra, vocals by the National Male Choir.
- Streaming audio, lyrics and details of the Estonian anthem.