Mu of Baekje

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Mu of Baekje
Hangul 무왕
Hanja 武王
Revised Romanization Mu-wang
McCune–Reischauer Mu-wang
Birth name
Hangul 장, also 무강 or 헌병
Hanja 璋, also 武康 or 獻丙
Revised Romanization Jang, also Mugang or Heonbyeong
McCune–Reischauer Chang, also Mugang or Hŏnbyŏng
Childhood name
Hangul 서동
Hanja 暑童
Revised Romanization Seodong
McCune–Reischauer Sŏdong
Monarchs of Korea
Baekje
  1. Onjo 18 BCE–29 CE
  2. Daru 29–77
  3. Giru 77–128
  4. Gaeru 128–166
  5. Chogo 166–214
  6. Gusu 214–234
  7. Saban 234
  8. Goi 234–286
  9. Chaekgye 286–298
  10. Bunseo 298–304
  11. Biryu 304–344
  12. Gye 344–346
  13. Geunchogo 346–375
  14. Geungusu 375–384
  15. Chimnyu 384–385
  16. Jinsa 385–392
  17. Asin 392–405
  18. Jeonji 405–420
  19. Guisin 420–427
  20. Biyu 427–455
  21. Gaero 455–475
  22. Munju 475–477
  23. Samgeun 477–479
  24. Dongseong 479–501
  25. Muryeong 501–523
  26. Seong 523–554
  27. Wideok 554–598
  28. Hye 598–599
  29. Beop 599–600
  30. Mu 600–641
  31. Uija 641–660

King Mu of Baekje (580 - 641) (r. 600 - 641) was the 30th king of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. He was the son of King Wideok.[1][2]

Background[edit]

During his reign, the Three Kingdoms (Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla) were at war with each other, as alliances shifted and the neighboring China also experienced a change of dynasties.

Because reliable historical sources are hard to find for the Three Kingdoms period, the specifics of Mu's policies are not known.

Reign[edit]

Early in his reign, Mu attacked Silla several times. He also requested assistance from Sui Dynasty of China to attack Goguryeo. Following the Goguryeo-Sui War, the Sui was replaced by the Tang Dynasty in China in 618.

In 627, he attempted to recover land lost to Silla, but stopped when Tang intervened diplomatically. The same year, he sent the Buddhist monk Gwalleuk to Japan with texts on Buddhism, astronomy, history, and geography.

He formally established the Mireuksa temple in 602. He is also said to have ordered the repair of Baekje's Sabi Palace in 630, and the construction near his palace of the earliest known artificial lake in Korea.[3] His policies in the latter half of his reign, which emphasized construction projects at the expense of national defence, are often thought to have contributed to the fall of Baekje which took place twenty years after his death.

There is reason to believe that he moved the capital of Baekje from Sabi in Buyeo County to Iksan, at least briefly. Archaeological evidence in Iksan, including tombs attributed to Mu and his wife Queen Seonhwa, appears to confirm this.[4]

Mu retained close ties with Tang China, but Tang later allied with Silla in the wars that ultimately unified the Korean Peninsula under Silla's rule by 668.

Seodong-yo[edit]

The Samguk Yusa relates a legend regarding Mu's marriage to a princess of Silla, although historians consider it unlikely to be true, given the hostilities between the rival kingdoms. In this story, the young Seodong (Mu's childhood name) falls in love with Silla princess Seonhwa, and intentionally spreads a song about the princess and himself among the people.[5] Thanks to this song ("Seodong-yo," or "Seodong's Song"), King Jinpyeong of Silla banishes the princess, and Mu marries her and becomes the king of Baekje.

Mu is one of the main characters of the South Korean television drama Ballad of Seo Dong (서동요). In the drama, Mu appears as the hidden fourth son of King Wideok of Baekje. After his mother's death, Mu meets his future wife, Princess Seonhwa of Silla, and falls in love with her.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Baekje Bon-gi 5, Samguk Yusa.
  2. ^ as written in the Samguk Sagi say the translators of Il-yeon's: Samguk Yusa: Legends and History of the Three Kingdoms of Ancient Korea, translated by Tae-Hung Ha and Grafton K. Mintz. Book Two, page 124. Silk Pagoda (2006). ISBN 1-59654-348-5
  3. ^ 네이버 백과사전
  4. ^ http://www.ocp.go.kr:8091/visit/english/theme/theme06_3.html
  5. ^ Il-yeon: Samguk Yusa: Legends and History of the Three Kingdoms of Ancient Korea, translated by Tae-Hung Ha and Grafton K. Mintz. Book Two, page 122f. Silk Pagoda (2006). ISBN 1-59654-348-5
Mu of Baekje
Cadet branch of the House of Go
Born: 580 Died: 641
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Beop
King of Baekje
600–641
Succeeded by
Uija
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
Beop
— TITULAR —
King of Korea
600–641
Reason for succession failure:
Three Kingdoms of Korea
Succeeded by
Uija