||This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.
|Reign||661 – 680|
|Full name||Muʻāwīya ibn ʻAbī Sufyān|
|Born||602 CE (21 BH)|
|Died||April 29 or May 1, 680 CE
(20 or 22 Rajab 60 AH)
|Predecessor||Ali ibn Abi Talib|
|Father||Abu Sufyan ibn Harb|
|Mother||Hind bint Utbah|
Muawiyah I (Arabic: معاوية ابن أبي سفيان Muʿāwiyah ibn ʾAbī Sufyān; 602 – April 29 or May 1, 680) established the Umayyad Dynasty of the caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan. Muawiyah became a secretary for Muhammad, and during the first and second caliphates of Abu Bakr and Umar (Umar ibn al-Khattab), fought with the Muslims against the Byzantines in Syria. Muawiyah was politically adept in dealing with the Eastern Roman Empire and was therefore made into a secretary by Muhammad.
As caliph, to stop the Byzantine harassment from the sea, Muawiyah developed a navy in the Levant and used it to confront the Byzantine Empire in the Aegean Sea and the Sea of Marmara. The Caliphate conquered several territories including Cyzicus which were subsequently used as naval bases.
Muawiyah bin Abi-Sufyan was born in Mecca (601 CE) into the Banu Umayya sub-clan of the Banu Abd-Shams clan of the Quraysh tribe. The Quraysh controlled the city of Mecca (in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia) and the Banu Abd-Shams were among the most influential of its citizens.
Muawiyah, Muhammad and Ali shared the same great-great grandfather Abdu Manaf bin Qusay, who had four sons: Hashim, Muttalib, Nawfal, and Abdu Shams. Hashim was the great grandfather of Ali and Muhammad. Umayyah bin Abdu Shams was the great grandfather of Muawiyah.
Muawiyah and the rest of his family were staunch opponents of the Muslims before the ascendancy of Muhammad. Along with his two older brothers Yazid and Utbah, Muawiyah was one of the members of the hunting party of his maternal uncle Waleed bin Utbah that pursued Muhammad during the hijra (migration), when Muhammad and Abu Bakr were hiding in Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull).
In 630, Muhammad and his followers conquered Mecca, and most of the Meccans, including the Abd-Shams clan, formally submitted to Muhammad and accepted Islam. Muawiyah, along with his father Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, became Muslims at the conquest of Mecca.
After the conquest of Mecca by the Muslims, Muawiyah's family converted to Islam. Muawiyah and the Islamic prophet Muhammad were brothers-in-law after Muhammad married Muawiyah's sister, Ramla bint Abi Sufyan.
Governor of Syria
In 639, Caliph Umar had appointed Muawiyah Ibn Abu Sufyan as the governor of Syria after the previous governors Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah and his brother died in a plague along with 25,000 other people.
Muawiyah was motivated by Muhammad's statement:
To stop the Byzantine harassment from the sea during the Arab-Byzantine Wars, in 649 Muawiyah set up a navy manned by Monophysitise Christian, Coptic, and Jacobite Syrian Christian sailors, and Muslim troops. This resulted in the defeat of the Byzantine navy at the Battle of the Masts in 655, opening up the Mediterranean. 500 Byzantine ships were destroyed in the battle, and Emperor Constans II was almost killed.
Before the battle of the Mast, chronicler Theophanes the Confessor says, the Emperor dreamed of being at Thessalonika; this dream predicted his defeat against the Arabs because the word Thessalonika is similar to the sentence "thes allo niken", which means "gave victory to another (the enemy)".
Then caliph Uthman ibn al-Affan was killed and Ali was appointed the fourth and final Rashidun Caliph and moved the capital to Kufa. Muawiyah wanted justice for the assassinated caliph Uthman ibn Affan.
Muawiyah refused to obey Ali, and had some level of support from the Syrians in his rebelliousness, amongst whom he was a popular leader. Ali called for military action against Muawiyah, but the reaction in Medina was not encouraging, and thus Ali deferred. Eventually Ali marched on Damascus and fought Muawiyah's supporters at the inconclusive Battle of Siffin (657 CE). This depleted Muawiyah's force and gave the Eastern Roman Empire time to prepare the defences. After making a peace agreement with Ali he applied the siege of Constantinople. With depleted forces the war ended in an unsuccessful siege of Constantinople.
Ali later wrote in a letter "I did not approach the people to get their oath of allegiance but they came to me with their desire to make me their Amir (ruler). I did not extend my hands towards them so that they might swear the oath of allegiance to me but they themselves extended their hands towards me".
Following the Roman-Persian Wars and the Byzantine-Sassanid Wars there were deep rooted differences between Iraq, formally under the Persian Sassanid Empire and Syria formally under the Byzantine Empire. The Iraqis wanted the capital of the newly established Islamic State to be in Kufa so as to bring revenues into their area and oppose Syria. They convinced Ali to come to Kufa and establish the capital in Kufa. Ali listened to them and moved the capital to Kufa.
Ali felt that as a Caliph, it was his responsibility to account for every penny and on the day of judgement he will be answerable to God and therefore money should be spent on the poor. Since the majority of Ali's subjects were nomads and peasants, he was concerned with agriculture. He instructed his governors (e.g., Malik bin Harith al-Ashtar) to give more attention to development of the land than to the collection of the tax, because tax can only be obtained by the development of the land and whoever demands tax without developing the land ruins the country and destroys the people.
When Ali moved his forces north against Muawiyah during the outbreak of the Muslim Civil War in 656, it bought a precious breathing pause for Byzantium, which Emperor Constans II (r. 641–668) used to shore up his defences, extend and consolidate his control over Armenia and most importantly, initiate a major army reform with lasting effect: the establishment of the themata, the large territorial commands into which Anatolia, the major contiguous territory remaining to the Empire, was divided. The remains of the old field armies were settled in each of them, and soldiers were allocated land there in payment of their service. The themata would form the backbone of the Byzantine defensive system for centuries to come. After his pre-occupation with the civil war, Muawiyah launched a series of attacks against Byzantine holdings in Africa, Sicily and the East. By 670, the Muslim fleet had penetrated into the Sea of Marmara and stayed at Cyzicus during the winter.
While dealing with the Iraqis, Ali was unable to build a disciplined army and effective state institutions to exert control over his areas and as a result later spent a lot of time fighting elements of his own army in the form of the Kharijites. As a result on the Eastern front, Ali was unable to expand the state.
Conflict with Ali
When Uthman saw what happened to him and how many people had been sent against him, he wrote to Mu'awiyah bin Abi Sufyan in Syria: "In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate. To proceed: The Medinese (i.e., the people of Madina) have become unbelievers, they have abandoned obedience and renounced their oath of allegiance. Therefore send to me the Syrian soldiers who are at your disposal, on every camel you have, whether docile or stubborn". When Mu'awiya got the letter, he delayed action on it, for he did not wish to differ openly with the Companions of the Messenger of God, since he knew that they concurred [on this matter]. When Uthman became aware of the delay, he then wrote to seek from Yazid bin Asad bin Kurz and the Syrians, he stressed his rightful claims upon them, and mentioned Almighty God's commandment to obey the Caliphs.
Muawiyah did not go to Basra with Aisha, Talhah and Al-Zubayr. He was in Damascus at the time.
Zubair was Ali's and Muhammad's cousin and did not want fellow Muslims to fight. He said to Ali "What a tragedy that the Muslims who had acquired the strength of a rock are going to be smashed by colliding with one another". After talking with Ali before the Battle of the Camel, Zubair did not want to fight and left the battlefield; he was later killed in an adjoining valley. A man named Amr ibn Jarmouz had followed Zubair and murdered him while he performed Salat. Talhah also left. On seeing this Marwan shot Talhah with a poisoned arrow.
The heated exchange and protests turned from words to blows. One night some of Ali's more extreme supporters who later became the Khawarij attacked. Aisha's brother Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr who was Ali's commander approached Aisha. Ali pardoned Aisha and her brother Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr escorted her back to Medina.
Ali then turned towards Syria. He marched to the Euphrates and engaged Muawiyah's troops at the Battle of Siffin (657). Accounts of the clash vary – however, it would seem that neither side had won a victory, since the Syrians called for arbitration to settle the matter, arguing that continuing the civil war would embolden the Byzantines. Muawiyah bin Abu Sufyan, being the governor of Sham (the Levant) and the cousin of Uthman, refused Ali's demands for allegiance. Ali opened negotiations hoping to regain his allegiance, but Muawiyah insisted on Levantine autonomy under his rule. Gibbon wrote of this: "Moawiyah, son of Abu Sophian, who had assumed the title of caliph, and whose claim was supported by the forces of Syria, and the interest of the house of the Ommiyah." Consequently, Muawiyah replied by mobilizing his Levantine supporters and refused to pay homage to Ali on the pretext that his contingent had not participated in his election.
Ali then moved his armies North and the two armies encamped themselves at Siffin for more than one hundred days, most of the time being spent in negotiations. Although, Ali exchanged several letters with Muawiyah, he was unable to dismiss the latter, nor persuade him to pledge allegiance. Even at this stage, Ali sent three men, Bashir bin Amr bin Mahz Ansari, Saeed bin Qais Hamdani, and Shis bin Rabiee Tamini to Muawiya to induce him to settle for union, accord and coming together. Muawiyah replied: "Go away from here, only the sword will decide between us." Skirmishes between the parties led to the Battle of Siffin in 657. The estimated casualties were that Ali's forces lost 25,000, while Muawiyah's forces lost 45,000. Appalled by the carnage, Ali sent a message to Muawiyah and challenged him to single combat, saying that whoever won should be the Caliph. English historian Edward Gibbon wrote: "Ali generously proposed to save the blood of the Muslims by a single combat; but his trembling rival declined the challenge as a sentence of inevitable death."
After a week of combat was followed by a violent battle known as laylat al-harir (the night of clamor), Muawiyah's army was on the point of being routed when Amr ibn al-Aas advised Muawiyah to have his soldiers hoist mus'haf (either parchments inscribed with verses of the Quran, or complete copies of it) on their spearheads in order to cause disagreement and confusion in Ali's army. Ali saw through the stratagem, but only a minority wanted to pursue the fight.
After the battle Amr ibn al-As was appointed by Muawiyah as an arbitrator and Ali appointed Abu Musa Ashaari. Seven months later the two arbitrators met at Adhruh about 10 miles north west of Maan in Jordon in February 658. Amr ibn al-As convinced Abu Musa Ashaari that both Ali and Muawiyah should step down and new Caliph be elected. Ali and his supporters were stunned by the decision which had lowered the Caliph to the status of the rebellious Muawiyah. Ali was therefore outwitted by Muawiyah and Amr ibn al-As. Ali refused to accept the verdict and found him self technically in breach of his pledge to abide by the arbitration. This put Ali in a weak position even amongst his own supporters. The most vociferous opponents in Ali's camp were the very same people who had forced Ali into the ceasefire the Kharijites. They broke away from Ali's force, rallying under the slogan, "arbitration belongs to God alone." This group came to be known as the Kharijites ("those who leave"). In 659 Ali's forces and the Kharijites met in the Battle of Nahrawan.
Now with a much depleted force, after making peace with Ali, Muawiyah shifted his focus back towards Constantinople. A massive Muslim fleet reappeared in the Marmara and re-established a base at Cyzicus, from there they raided the Byzantine coasts almost at will. Finally in 676, Muawiyah sent an army to Constantinople from land as well, beginning the First Arab Siege of the city. Constantine IV (r. 661–685) however used a devastating new weapon that came to be known as "Greek fire", invented by a Christian refugee from Syria named Kallinikos of Heliopolis, to decisively defeat the attacking Umayyad navy in the Sea of Marmara, resulting in the lifting of the siege in 678. The returning Muslim fleet suffered further losses due to storms, while the army lost many men to the thematic armies who attacked them on their route back. Eyup was killed in the siege was, the standard bearer of Muhammed and the last of his companions; His tomb is in Istanbul.
At about the same time, unrest was brewing in Egypt. The governor of Egypt, Qais, was recalled, and Ali had him replaced with Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr (the brother of Aisha and the son of Islam's first caliph Abu Bakr). Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr's rule resulted in widespread rebellion in Egypt. Muawiyah ordered 'Amr ibn al-'As to invade Egypt and 'Amr did so successfully.
When Alī was assassinated in 661, Muawiyah, as commander of the largest force in the Muslim Empire, had the strongest claim to the Caliphate. Ali's son Hasan ibn Ali signed a truce and retired to private life in Medina.
According to Sharif Razi, Muawiyah claimed that he only fought about Uthman's death, not against Ali:
- In the war... When we met people of Al-Sham, it seemed that our God is one, our prophet is the same, our calling is the same, and no one is more of a believer than the other about believing in Allah, or the prophet. The misunderstandings were about Uthman's blood, and we have nothing to do with it. --Al-Sharif al-Radi Nahj al-Balagha
However, the late Rashidun caliph, Ali ibn Abu Talib, did not appear to share the same sentiments toward Caliph Muawiyah I:
- By Allah, Mu`awiyah is not more cunning than I am, but he deceives and commits evil deeds. Had I not been hateful of deceit I would have been the most cunning of all men. But (the fact is that) every deceit is a sin and every sin is disobedience (of Allah), and every deceitful person will have a banner by which he will be recognised on the Day of Judgement.
Treaty with Hasan ibn Ali
Ali's son Hasan ibn Ali signed a truce and retired to private life in Medina. Muawiyah thus established the Umayyad Caliphate, which was to be a hereditary dynasty, and governed from Damascus in Syria instead of Medina in Arabia.
Narrated by Al-Hasan Al-Basri
By Allah, Al-Hasan bin Ali led large battalions like mountains against Muawiya. Amr bin Al-As said (to Muawiya), "I surely see battalions which will not turn back before killing their opponents." Muawiya who was really the best of the two men said to him, "O 'Amr! If these killed those and those killed these, who would be left with me for the jobs of the public, who would be left with me for their women, who would be left with me for their children?" Then Muawiya sent two Quraishi men from the tribe of 'Abd-i-Shams called 'Abdur Rahman bin Sumura and Abdullah bin 'Amir bin Kuraiz to Al-Hasan saying to them, "Go to this man (i.e. Al-Hasan) and negotiate peace with him and talk and appeal to him." So, they went to Al-Hasan and talked and appealed to him to accept peace. Al-Hasan said, "We, the offspring of 'Abdul Muttalib, have got wealth and people have indulged in killing and corruption (and money only will appease them)." They said to Al-Hasan, "Muawiya offers you so and so, and appeals to you and entreats you to accept peace." Al-Hasan said to them, "But who will be responsible for what you have said?" They said, "We will be responsible for it." So, what-ever Al-Hasan asked they said, "We will be responsible for it for you." So, Al-Hasan concluded a peace treaty with Muawiya. Al-Hasan (Al-Basri) said: I heard Abu Bakr saying, "I saw Allah's Apostle on the pulpit and Al-Hasan bin 'Ali was by his side. The Prophet was looking once at the people and once at Al-Hasan bin 'Ali saying, 'This son of mine is a Saiyid (i.e. a noble) and may Allah make peace between two big groups of Muslims through him."
In the year 661, Muawiyah was crowned as caliph at a ceremony in Jerusalem. Muawiyah governed the geographically and politically disparate Caliphate, which now spread from Egypt in the west to Iran in the east, by strengthening the power of his allies in the newly conquered territories. Prominent positions in the emerging governmental structures were held by Christians, some of whom belonged to families that had served in Byzantine governments. The employment of Christians was part of a broader policy of religious tolerance that was necessitated by the presence of large Christian populations in the conquered provinces, especially in Syria itself. This policy also boosted his popularity and solidified Syria as his power base.
In a manner similar to Byzantine administrative practices, Muawiyah instituted several bureaucracies, called divans, to aid him in the governance and the centralization of the Caliphate and the empire. Early Arabic sources credit two diwans in particular to Muawiyah: the Diwan al-Khatam (Chancellery) and the Barid (Postal Service), both of which greatly improved communications within the empire.
He came to Madina and spoke to the people, saying, "I desired the way followed by Abu Bakr and 'Umar, but I was unable to follow it, and so I have followed a course with you which contains fortune and benefits for you despite some bias, so be pleased with what comes to you from me even if it is little. When good is continuous, even if it is little, it enriches. Discontent makes life grim."
He also said in as address which he delivered to the people, "O people! By Allah, it is easier to move the firm mountains than to follow Abu Bakr and 'Umar in their behaviour. But I have followed their way of conduct falling short of those before me, but none after me will equal me in it."
This use of pomp does not mean that Mu'awiya indulged himself in luxury. Mu'awiya could be seen speaking to the people on the minbar of Damascus wearing a patched garment. Yunus ibn Maysar al-Himyari said, "I saw Mu'awiya riding in the Damascus market wearing a shirt with a patched pocket, going along in the Damascus markets."
At the height of tension when fighting was about to erupt at Siffin between Imam Ali and Muawiyah, Muawiyah was informed that the Byzantine Emperor raised a very large army and was drawing very close to the borders of the Muslim state. He wrote to him, giving him a very clear warning, 'By God, if you do not stop your designs and go back to your place, I will end my dispute with my cousin and will drive you out of the entire land you rule, until I make the earth too tight for you.' The Byzantine Emperor was scared off and abandoned his plans
However, some scholars contend that he simply placated the Byzantine emperor with offers of land, gold, and slaves and soldiers.
But looking at the Eastern Roman Empire records of the period and the writings of Theophanes the Confessor, Emperor Constans II was still in shock after the Battle of the Masts and was too busy shoring up his defences, initiating major army reform for lasting effect and establishing the themata.
Had Ali listened to Aisha (Aisha bint Abu Bakr) (Muhammad's widow), Talhah (Talha ibn Ubayd-Allah) and Zubayr ibn al-Awam (Abu ‘Abd Allah Zubayr ibn al-Awwam) and not confronted Muawiyah and depleted his forces, and made a peace treaty with him before the Battle of Siffin like Hasan rather that after the battle and joined him in the Siege of Constantinople, it would have been a very dangerous situation for the Byzantine Empire. The battle of Battle of Siffin gave Emperor Constans II time to shore up his defences and depleted Muawiyah forces.
Muawiyah died either on April 29 or May 1, 680, allegedly from a stroke. He was succeeded by his son Yazid I. However Muawiyah's attempt to start a dynasty failed because both Yazid and then his grandson Muawiya II died prematurely. His grandson Muawiya II abdicating and later died. The caliphate eventually went to Marwan I a descendant of another branch of Muawiyah's clan.
By his creation of a fleet, Muawiyah was the driving force of the Muslim effort against Byzantium. His Navy challenged the Byzantine navy and raided the Byzantine islands and coasts at will. The shocking defeat of the imperial fleet by the young Muslim navy at the Battle of the Masts in 655 was of critical turning point. It opened up the Mediterranean, considered a "Roman lake", and began a centuries-long series of naval conflicts over the control of the Mediterranean. This also allowed the expansion of the state into North Africa and Spain. Trade between the Muslim eastern and southern shores and the Christian northern shores almost ceased during this period, isolating Western Europe from developments in the Muslim world: "In antiquity, and again in the high Middle Ages, the voyage from Italy to Alexandria was a commonplace; in early Islamic times the two countries were so remote that even the most basic information was unknown" (Kennedy). Muawiyah also initiated the first large-scale raids into Anatolia from 641 on.
Muawiyah greatly beautified Damascus, and developed a court to rival that of Constantinople. He expanded the frontiers of the empire, reaching the very gates of Constantinople at one point, though the Byzantines drove him back and he was unable to hold any territory in Anatolia. Sunni Muslims credit him with saving the fledgling Muslim nation from post civil war anarchy. However, Shia Muslims charge that if anything, he was the instigator of the civil war, and weakened the Muslim nation and divided the Ummah, fabricating self-aggrandizing heresies and slander against Muhammad's family, even selling his Muslim critics into slavery in the Byzantine empire.
Muawiyah had a personal library collection (bayt al-hikmah) that was enlarged by his successors "throughout the Umayyad period.… This first major library outside of a mosque was known to include works on astrology, medicine, chemistry, military science, and various practical arts and applied sciences in addition to religion."
According to some sources Muawiyah warned his son Yazid against mistreating Hussein. His final warning to Yazid was: "Be careful O my son, that you do not meet God with his blood, lest you be amongst those that will perish"  But Yazid did not listen.
The late (Sunni) theologian Mawdudi (founder of Jamaat-E-Islami) wrote that the establishment of the caliphate as (essentially) a monarchy began with the caliphate of Muawiyah I. It wasn't the kind where Muawiyah was appointed by the Muslims. Mawdudi elaborated that Muawiyah wanted to be caliph and fought in order to attain the caliphate, not really depending upon the acceptance of the Muslim community. The people did not appoint Muawiyah as a caliph, he became one by force, and consequently the people had no choice but to give him their pledge of allegiance (baiah). Had the people not given Muawiyah their allegiance at that time, it wouldn't have meant so much as losing their rank or position, as much as it would have meant bloodshed and conflict. This certainly couldn't have been given preference over peace and order. Following Hasan ibn Ali's abdication of the caliphate, all the Muslims (including the Sahabah and Tabi'een) gave their pledge of allegiance to Muawiyah I, bringing an end to civil war. That year was called the Aam Al Jamaat (Year of Congregation). As Mawdudi pointed out, Muawiyah's own speech during the initial days of his caliphate expressed his own awareness of this:
By Allah, while taking charge of your government I was not unaware of the fact that you are unhappy over my taking over of government and you people don’t like it. I am well aware of whatever is there in your hearts regarding this matter but still I have taken it from you on the basis of my sword… Now if you see that I am not fulfilling your rights, then you should be happy with me with whatever is there.
Muawiyah has a few rare virtues. Muawiyah was politically adept in dealing with the Eastern Roman Empire and was therefore made into a secretary by Muhammad. Once peace was established, Muawiya reconciled many of the people who had been fighting each other by his generosity and fairness. Even the most stubborn of opponents would often melt under his generosity and diplomacy. He also managed through fine diplomacy to balance out the tribal rivalries.
During Mu'awiya's rule he put into practice the advice that Muhammad had given him, "When you rule, do it well." He was scrupulous about justice and was generous and fair to people of all classes. He honoured people who possessed ability and talent and helped them to advance their talents, regardless of their tribe. He displayed great forbearance towards the rashness of ignorant men and great generosity towards the grasping. He made the judgements of the Shari'a binding on everyone with resolution, compassion and diligence. He led them in their prayers and directed them in their gatherings. He led them in their wars. In short, he proved to be a balanced and model ruler. 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas stated that he did not see a man more suited to rule than Mu'awiya.
Despite his endeavours in the expansion of the Caliphate and the establishment of the Umayyad Dynasty, the persona of Caliph Muawiyah I evokes a controversial figure in standard Islamic history whose legacy has never quite been able to shed the taint of his opposition to the Rashidun Caliph, Ali ibn Abi Talib. Some of the classical literature by eminent (Sunni) Islamic figures record:
- I asked my father about Ali and Muawiyah. He (Ahmad Ibn Hanbal)
- answered: "Know that Ali had a lot of enemies who tried hard to find a
- fault in him, but they found it not. As such, they joined a man (i.e.,
- Muawiyah bin Abu Sufyan) who verily fought him, battled
- him, and they praised him (Muawiyah) extravagantly setting a snare for
- themselves for him. -Abdullah bin Ahmad Ibn Hanbal
Muawiyah's opposition to Ali manifested itself in the following practice instituted during his caliphate, which was the verbal abuse and insult of Ali Ibn Abi Talib during the sermons in the mosques. This was even done on the pulpit of the Mosque of Muhammad in Medinah. (This practice lasted for 65 years and was ended by Umayyad caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz.)
For example, Tabari recorded:
- When Muawiyah Ibn Abi Sufyan put Mughairah Ibn Shubah in charge of
- Kufah in Jumada 41 AH (Sep. 2 - Oct. 30, 661 CE), he summoned him.
- After praising and glorifying God, he said-
- "I would continue to advise you about a quality of yours-do not refrain from
- abusing Ali and criticizing him, (but) not from asking God's mercy upon
- Uthman and His forgiveness for him. Continue to shame the companions
- of Ali, keep at a distance, and don't listen to them. Praise the
- faction of Uthman, bring them near, and listen to them."
Consequently, both the opposition to Ali and the practice of verbal abuse of him in mosque sermons instituted during Muawiyah's caliphate, has been regarded ever since with particular disdain due to these ahadith of Muhammad:
Abu Huraira narrated-
The Messenger of Allah (Muhammad) said-
Saad Ibn Abi Al-Waqqas narrated-
- Muawiyah, the son of Abu Sufyan, gave order to Saad, and told him:
- "What prevents you that you are refraining from cursing Abu Turab
- (nickname of Ali Ibn Abi Talib)?" Saad replied: "Don't you remember that the Prophet
- said three things about (the virtues of) Ali? So I will never curse Ali."
Also, Sunni imams like Al-Nasa'i and imams like Muhammad al-Bukhari and Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, were of the opinion that Muawiyah was lazy, gluttonous, and obese to the point of not even being able to ride a horse. Nisa'i and Muslim narrate a Sahih hadith, wherein Muhammad summoned Muawiyah who snubbed him and continued eating his meal - Muhammad then cursed Muawiyah with the words: "May Allah never fill his belly!" Nisa'i was not the only Sunni scholar who accepted this hadith - there were many others, the foremost being Bukhari and Muslim who compiled the Sahih Muslim. It has been argued that in the Arabic culture and language the expression is a colloquialism which means a wish that the person's belly be so full of blessings of God (in the form of food) that his belly cannot take anymore, or that he wishes the persons blessings to be without an end. However, the two pre-eminent masters of Sunni hadith, Bukhari and Muslim, have rejected absolutely the latter apology for Muawiyah. Further, Nisa'i was murdered when he recited this hadith in the presence of pro-Muawiya Arab-speaking Syrians as it was perceived as a curse of Muawiyah, which debases the unreferenced suggestion that the term was a form of praise and not condemnation.
As recorded in considerable early Sunni hadith literature, few early Islamic historical figures have evoked such an ambivalent persona. The traditional medieval Sunni perception of Caliph Muawiyah I has a wide spectrum, ranging from being regarded as a pious Sahabi of Muhammad to one who was even denounced by Muhammad. Examples given:
A narration tells that Muhammad prayed to God in favor of Muawiyah: "Allahumma (O Allah) guide him and guide people by him." This narration is in many hadith (narration) books. Al-Dhahabi says that this narration has a strong predication (reference), and Al-Dhahabi also explained how some scholars erred in saying that the narration is weak. Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani (a modern narrations critic) also said: all the men of the predication (reference) are trustworthy. and then he explained how the predication is strong.
To the following narration (reported by two different Sahabah):
Abdullah ibne Umar narrates that he heard Rasulallah (Muhammad) say:
“Mu’awiyah shall not die on the path of Islam.” 
Narrated by Jabir bin Abdullah who testified that he heard Rasulallah (Muhammad) say:
“At the time of his death, Mu’awiyah shall not be counted as member of my Muslim Ummah.”
Muawiyah I is a reviled figure in Shia Islam for several reasons. Firstly, because of his involvement in the Battle of Siffin against Ali, whom the Shia Muslims believe was Muhammad's true successor); secondly, for the breaking of the treaty he made with Hasan ibn Ali, after the death of Hasan ibn Ali, one of broken terms being appointing his son Yazid as his successor; thirdly, on account of his responsibility for the killing of Hasan ibn Ali by bribing his wife Ja'dah binte Ash'as to poison him; and fourthly by distorting Islam to match his unislamic rule; and fifthly, for the deaths of various Companions of Muhammad.
According to Shia view, Muawiyah opposed Ali, out of sheer greed for power and wealth. His reign opened the door to unparalleled disaster, marked by the persecution of Ali, slaughtering of his followers, and unlawful imprisonment of his supporters, which only worsened when Yazid came into power and the Battle of Karbala ensued. Muawiyah is alleged to have killed many of Muhammad's companions (Sahabah), either in battle or by poison, due to his lust for power. Muawiyah killed several historical figures, including the Sahabah, Amr bin al-Hamiq, Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, Malik al-Ashtar, Hujr ibn Adi (to which the families of Abu Bakr and Umar condemned Muawiyah for, and the Sahaba deemed his killer to be cursed) and Abd al-Rahman bin Hasaan (buried alive for his support of Ali).
According to the Shia Muawiyah was also responsible for instigating the Battle of Siffin, the bloodiest battle in Islam's history, in which over 70,000 people (among them many of the last surviving companions of Muhammad) were killed. Notable among the Companions who were killed by Muawiyah's forces was Ammar ibn Yasir, a frail old man of 95 at the time of his death. Shii Muslims see his being killed at the hands of Muawiyah's army as significant because of a well-known hadith, present in both the Shia and Sunni books of hadith, narrated by Abu Hurairah and others, in which Muhammad is recorded to have said: "A group of rebels would kill you", Sahih Muslim and Sahih al-Bukhari.
[...] Then he [i.e. Muawiyah] was informed that Ubaidullah had two infant sons. So he set out to reach them, and when he found them - they had two (tender) forelocks like pearls - [and] he ordered to kill them.
- Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Ahmad bin Ali. Lisan Al-Mizan: *Mu'wiyah ibn Abu Sufyan.
- Al-Mufid, Muhammad bin Muhammad bin al-Numan. Masar Al-Shi'ah.
- Caliph and Caliphate: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2013-04-30.
- The Umayyad Dynasty at the University 0f Calgary
- Al-Tabari, Muhammad ibn Jarir. The History of the Prophets and Kings (Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk), Vol. 18 Between Civil Wars: The Caliphate of Mu'awiyah 40 A.H., 661 A.D.-60 A.H., 680 A.D. (Michael G. Morony).
- Sahih Muslim, The book of (Virtues of the companions), narration no. :168-(2501) numbered by mohammad fo'ad abdul-baqi
- AD 2036 Is the End: The Truth about the Second Coming of Christ and the meaning of life, p. 77. By Christian Jacobsen 
- Ibn Manzur, summary of the history of Damascus, vol. 7, p. 356
- Al-Madaini, Abu al-Hasan Ali bin Muhammad. Tarikh Al-Khulafah: *Mu'awiya bin Abu Sufyan.
- The History of al-Tabari, vol. IX, The Last Years of the Prophet, p. 32, SUNY Press
- Life of Muhammad, Ibn Hisham, vol. 2, p. 597 (Urdu)
- The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate By Wilferd Madelung, p. 61 
- Rahman (1999, p. 40)
- Al-Bukhari, Muhammad bin Ismail. pp. 409-410, Hadith No. 2924, Sahih Al Bukhari Vol. 1.
- Al-Bukhari, Muhammad bin Ismail. Book 52, No. 175, Sahih Al Bukhari Vol. 4.
- European Naval and Maritime History, 300-1500 By Archibald Ross Lewis, Timothy J. Runyan, p. 24 
- History of the Jihad By Leonard Michael Kroll, p. 123. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-30.
- A History of Byzantium By Timothy E. Gregory, p. 183. Books.google.co.uk. 2011-08-26. Retrieved 2013-04-30.
- Prophets and Princes: Saudi Arabia from Muhammad to the Present By Mark Weston, p. 61 
- The Medieval Siege By Jim Bradbury, p. 11. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-30.
- «θὲς ἄλλῳ νὶκην», see Bury, John Bagnell (1889), A history of the later Roman empire from Arcadius to Irene, Adamant Media Corporation, 2005, p.290. ISBN 978-1-4021-8368-3.
- Shahid Ashraf, Encyclopaedia of Holy Prophet and Companions, Anmol, 2004. (p.180)
- Nahj ul Balagha, Letter 54.
- Iraq a Complicated State: Iraq's Freedom War By Karim M. S. Al-Zubaidi, p. 32
- Hadhrat Ayesha Siddiqa Page 42 by Allamah Syed Sulaiman Nadvi, Publisher Darul Ishaat
- Lambton, Ann K. S. Landlord and Peasant in Persia. Pgs. 19-20 (1991) I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-85043-293-7.
- Treadgold (1997), pp. 314–318
- Treadgold (1997), pp. 318–324
- A Chronology of Islamic History 570-1000 By H. U. Rahman
- Al-Tabari, Muhammad ibn Jarir. The History of Al-Tabari. (Vol. 15, Pg. 185) The Crisis of the Early Caliphate: The Reign of Uthman, A. D. 644-656 - A. H. 24-35 (Translated by R. Stephen Humphreys).
- Hadhrat Ayesha Siddiqa By Allamah Syed Sulaiman Nadvi, p. 44
- "anwary-islam.com". anwary-islam.com. Retrieved 2013-04-30.
- The Early Caliphate, Maulana Muhammad Ali, Al-Jadda Printers, pg. 169-206, 1983
- Aisha Bewley, Mu'awiyah: Restorer of the Muslim Faith, pg. 22. Dar al Taqwa Ltd. 2002.
- Gibbon, Edward. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Ch. L, Page 98. New York: Fred de Fau and Co. Publishers (1906). http://files.libertyfund.org/files/1436/0214-09_Bk.pdf Pg. 116.
- Al-Tabari, Muhammad ibn Jarir. Tarikh Al-Tabari (History of Al-Tabari). (Vol. 5, Pg. 243).
- name="files.libertyfund.org">Gibbon, Edward. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Ch. L, Page 98. New York: Fred de Fau and Co. Publishers (1906). http://files.libertyfund.org/files/1436/0214-09_Bk.pdf Pg. 116.
- Gibbon, Edward. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Ch. L, Page 99. New York: Fred de Fau and Co. Publishers (1906). http://files.libertyfund.org/files/1436/0214-09_Bk.pdf Pg. 117.
- Lapidus, Ira (2002). A History of Islamic Societies (2nd ed.). Pg=47. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-77933-3.
- Holt, P.M.; Lambton, Ann K.S.; Lewis, Bernard, eds. (1970). Cambridge History of Islam. Pgs=70-72. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-29135-4.
- Tabatabaei, Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn (1979). Shi'ite Islam. Pgs=53-54. (Translated by Seyyed Hossein Nasr). State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-87395-272-9.
- Diana, Steigerwald. "Alī ibn Abu Talib". Encyclopaedia of Islam and the Muslim world; vol.1. MacMillan. ISBN 978-0-02-865604-5.
- http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ali-b-abi-taleb Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2010-12-16.
- Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia edited by Alexander Mikaberidze, p. 836 
- Ground Warfare: H-Q edited by Stanley Sandler, p. 602. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-30.
- A Chronology of Islamic History 570-1000 CE By H U Rahman, p. 59
- Treadgold (1997), pp. 325–327
- The Walls of Constantinople, AD 324–1453, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 978-1-84176-759-8.
- Nahj al-Balagha (3/648), by Al-Sharif al-Radi
- Al-Sharif Al-Razi, Muhammad ibn Al-Husayn. Nahj Al Balaghah (Peak of Eloquence). Sermon 199. http://www.islamology.com/Resources/Nahj_Imam/Sermons/00199.htm. http://dawoodi-bohras.com/pdfs/Nahjul-Balagah-English.pdf. Pg. 775
- Marshall Cavendish, "World and Its Peoples: The Middle East, Western Asia, and Northern Africa", 2006. (p.186)
- John L. La Monte, The world of the Middle Ages: a reorientation of medieval history, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1949. (p. 105)
- Bernard F. Reilly, The Medieval Spain, Cambridge University Press, 1993. (p. 55)
- Grolier, Academic American encyclopedia, 1994. (vol. 10, p. 382)
- "Book of "Peacemaking"". Sahih Bukhari - Volume 3, Book 49 (Peacemaking), Number 867. Retrieved 2013-04-30.
- History of Israel and the Holy Land By Michael Avi-Yonah, Shimon Peres. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-30.
- Middle East, Western Asia, and Northern Africa By Ali Aldosari Page 185 
- The Tragedy of the Templars: The Rise and Fall of the Crusader States By Michael Haag Chapter 3 Palestine under the Umayyads and the Arab Tribe 
- The Arabs: A Short History By Philip Khûri Hitti Page 78
- Chasing a mirage: the tragic illusion of an Islamic state - Page 157 By Tarek Fatah, Publisher J. Wiley & Sons Canada, 2008, ISBN 0470841168, 9780470841167
- Arab Science: Discoveries and Contributions By Edwin Palmer Hoyt - Page 27
- Mu'awiya Restorer of the Muslim Faith By Aisha Bewley, Page 33, Publisher Dar Al Taqwa Ltd 
- Mu'awiya Restorer of the Muslim Faith By Aisha Bewley, Page 9, Publisher Dar Al Taqwa Ltd 
- Al-Bidayah wal-Nihayah
- Musharriful Mahbubin by Hazrat Khuwaja Mehboob Qasim Chishti Mushrrafi Qadri ra.gif pp. 216-218
- Kokab wa Rifi Fazal-e-Ali Karam Allah Wajhu, p. 484, By Syed Mohammed Subh-e-Kashaf AlTirmidhi, Urdu translation by Syed Sharif Hussein Sherwani Sabzawari, Published by Aloom AlMuhammed, n. B12 Shadbagh, Lahore, 1 January 1963.
- Habib Alseer Rabiyah AlAbrar, vol. 1, Alama JarulAllah Zamik (530 Hijri),
- Hadoiqa Sanai, by Hakim Sanai (Died 525 Hijri, at Ghazni), p. 65-67,
- Namoos Islam, by Agha Hashim Sialkoti, Published Lahore, 1939 - pp. 66-67
- Tazkarah Tul-Aikram Tarikh-e-Khulafa Arab-Wa-Islam by Syed Shah Mohamed Kabir Abu Alalaiyi Dana Puri, Published Le Kishwar Press, Lakhnow, April 1924/ 1346 H
- Pryor & Jeffreys (2006), p. 25
- Treadgold (1997), pp. 313–314
- Kennedy (2004) pp. 120, 122
- Kaegi (1995), pp. 246–247
- El-Cheikh (2004), pp. 83–84
- M. Lesley Wilkins (1994), "Islamic Libraries to 1920", Encyclopedia of Library History, New York: Garland Pub., ISBN 978-0-8240-5787-9
- Hosay Trinidad: Muharram Performances in an Indo-Caribbean Diaspora By Frank J. Korom Page 24
- Redemptive Suffering in Islam: A Study of the Devotional Aspects of Ashura ... By Mahmoud M. Ayoub Page 95
- Mawdudi, Sayyid Abul Ala. Khilafat Wa Mulukiyyat (Caliphate and the Monarchy). (Ch. V, Pgs. 158-159) Idara Tarjumanul Quran Publishers.
- Mawdudi, Sayyid Abul Ala. Khilafat Wa Mulukiyyat (Caliphate and the Monarchy). (Ch. V, Pgs. 158-159) Idara Tarjumanul Quran Publishers.
- Mu'awiya Restorer of the Muslim Faith By Aisha Bewley, Page 31, Publisher Dar Al Taqwa Ltd 
- Mu'awiya Restorer of the Muslim Faith By Aisha Bewley, Page 8, Publisher Dar Al Taqwa Ltd 
- Mu'awiya Restorer of the Muslim Faith By Aisha Bewley, Page 8 and 9, Publisher Dar Al Taqwa Ltd 
- Al-Suyuti, Jalaluddin. Tarikh al-Khulafa/History of the Caliphs. (Pg. 202).
- Ibn Hajar Al-Haytami, Ahmad ibn Muhammad. Al-Sawa'iq Al-Muhriqah (Ch. 9, Sec. 4, Pg. 197).
- Al-Tabari, Muhammad ibn Jarir. The History of Al-Tabari (Vol. 4, Pg. 188).
- Ibn Kathir, Ismail bin Umar. Al-Bidayah Wa Al-Nihayah (Vol. 8, Pg. 259; Vol. 9, Pg. 80).
- Ibn Kathir, Ismail bin Umar. Tarikh Ibne Katheer (Vol. 3, Pg. 234; Vol. 4, Pg. 154).
- Ali, Ameer. History of the Saracens (Ch. 10, Pgs. 126-127). http://www.scribd.com/doc/16916393/Short-History-of-Saracens-ISLAMIC-HISTORY (Pgs. 151-152).
- Al-Tabari, Muhammad ibn Jarir. The History of Al-Tabari (Vol. 18): Between Civil Wars-The Caliphate of Mu'awiyah. (Pgs. 122-123) (Translated by Michael G. Morony). SUNY (State University of New York) Press. Nov. 1986.
- Hanbal, Ahmad ibn. Kitab Al-Fada'il Al-Sahaba/Book of the Virtues of the Companions (Vol. 2, Pg. 767, Hadith #1350).
- Al-Tirmidhi, Muhammad ibn Isa. Sahih Al-Tirmidhi (Vol. 5, Pg. 699).
- Ibn Majah, Muhammad ibn Yazid. Sunan Ibn Majah (Vol. 1, Pg. 52).
- Ibn Hajar Al-Haytami, Ahmad ibn Muhammad. Al-Sawa'iq Al-Muhriqah (Ch. 11, Sec. 1, Pg. 221).
- Ibn Hanbal, Ahmad. Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (Vol. 6, Pg. 323)
- Ibn Hanbal, Ahmad. Kitab Al-Fada'il Al-Sahabah/Book of the Virtues of the Companions (Vol. 2, Pg. 594, Hadith #1011).
- Al-Suyuti, Jalaluddin. Tarikh al-Khulafa/History of the Caliphs (Pg. 173).
- Ibn Al-Hajjaj, Muslim. Sahih Muslim-(Chapter) Virtues of the Companions; (Section) Virtues of Ali [Arabic Edit.] (Vol. 4, Pg. 1871, Hadith #32); [English Edit.] (Ch. CMXCVI, Pg. 1284, Hadith #5916).
- Sahih Muslim, The Book of Virtue, Good Manners and Joining of the Ties of Relationship
- Sahih al-Bukhari, Book #32, Hadith #6298
- Ibn Khallikan, Al Wafat Al Ayan Imam, under the biography of Nisa'i, section dealing with his murder
- The Great History vol. 5, 791: "عبد الرحمن بن أبي عميرة المزني يعد في الشاميين قال أبو مسهر حدثنا سعيد بن عبد العزيز عن ربيعة بن يزيد عن بن أبي عميرة قال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لمعاوية اللهم اجعله هاديا مهديا واهده واهد به وقال عبد الله عن مروان عن سعيد عن ربيعة سمع عبد الرحمن سمع النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم مثله"
- Talkhis al-ilal al-mutanahiya, narration no. 225
- Selselat al-ahadith al-sahiha (the collection of accepted narrations), vol. 4, p. 615, narration no. 1969
- Mu'awiya Restorer of the Muslim Faith By Aisha Bewley, Page 4, Publisher Dar Al Taqwa Ltd 
- Al-Tabari, Muhammad ibn Jarir. Ta'rikh Al-Rusul Wa'l-Muluk. (Vol. 8, Pg. 186). Dar Al-Ma'arif Publications, Cairo, Egypt.
- Al-Tabari, Muhammad ibn Jarir. Ta'rikh Al-Rusul Wa'l-Muluk. (Vol. 8, Pg. 186). Dar Al-Ma'arif Publications, Cairo, Egypt.
- Al-Masudi, vol. 2, p. 47
- Tārikh (Concise History of Humanity) - Abu'l-Fida, vol. 1, p. 182
- Iqdul Farid - Ibn Abd Rabbāh, vol. 2, p. 11
- Rawzatul Manazir - Ibne Shahnah, vol. 2, p. 133
- Tārikhul Khamis, Husayn Dayarbakri, vol. 2, p. 238
- Akbarut Tiwal - Dinawari, p. 400
- Mawātilat Talibeyeen - Abul Faraj Isfahāni
- Isti'ab - Ibne Abdul Birr
- Tarikh Tabri vol. 18, p. 201; al Istiab, vol. 1, p. 49, Chapter: Busar; al Isaba, vol. 1, p. 289, Translation no. 642, Busar bin Irtat; Asadul Ghaba, vol. 1 p. 113, Topic: Busar bin Irtat; Tarikh Ibn Asakir, vol. 3, p. 225; Tarikh Asim Kufi, p. 308.
- al Bidaya wa al Nihaya, vol. 8, p. 52; Asad'ul Ghaba vol. 1, p. 846, Dhikr Umro bin Hamiq; Tarikh Yaqubi, vol. 2, p. 200, 50 H; Al Bidayah wal Nihayah, vol. 8, p. 52, death of Amro bin al-Hamiq al-Khazai.
- al Bidaya wa al Nihaya, vol. 8, p. 48, Dhikr 50 Hijri; al Istiab, vol. 1, p. 363; al Isaba, vol. 4, p. 623, Translation no. 5822; Asadul Ghaba, vol. 1, p. 846, Amr bin al-Hamiq al-Khazai; Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 6, p. 25; Tarikh Kamil, vol. 3, p. 240 Dhikr 51 Hijri; Risala Abu Bakr Khawarzmi, p. 122; Tarikh ibn Khaldun, vol. 3, p. 12; al Maarif, p. 127; History of Tabari, vol. 18, p. 137
- Tadhirathul Khawwas, p. 64; Muruj al Dhahab, vol. 3, p. 420; Tarikh ibn Khaldun, vol. 2, p. 191; Tarikh Kamil, vol. 3, p. 179; Tarikh Tabari, English trans., vol. 18, pp. 144-146; Habib al Sayyar, vol. 1, pp. 72; Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 6, pp. 213
- al Bidaya wa al Nihaya, vol. 8, p. 53, Dhikr 51 Hijri; Tarikh Kamil, vol. 3, p. 249, Dhikr 51 Hijri; Tarikh ibn Asakir, vol. 12, p. 227, Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi; Tarikh ibn Khaldun, vol. 3, p. 13, Dhikr 51 Hijri; al Isaba, vol. 1, p. 313, Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi; Asad'ul Ghaba, vol. 1, p. 244, Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi; Shadharat ul Dhahab, vol. 1, p. 57, Dhikr 51 Hijri; Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 6, p. 217, Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi; Mustadrak al Hakim, vol. 3, pp. 468-470, Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi; Akhbar al Tawaal, p. 186, Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi; Tarikh Abu'l Fida, p. 166, Dhikr 51 Hijri; Muruj al Dhahab, vol. 3, p. 12, Dhikr 53 Hijri; Tarikh Yaqubi, vol. 2, p. 219
- al-Bidaya wa al-Nihaya, vol. 8, p. 55; Kanz al Ummal, vol. 3, p. 88; Tarikh al Islam by Dhahabi, vol. 2, p. 217; Tarikh ibn Khaldun, vol. 3, p. 12; al Isaba, p. 355 Dhikr Hujr; al-Istiab, vol. 1, p. 97.
- Qadhi Abi Bakar al-Arabi. 'Awasim min al Qawasim', p. 341; Allamah Muhibuddin al-Khateeb
- Bidayah wal Nihayah, vol. 8, p. 52; Tarikh Kamil, vol. 3, p. 245; History of Tabari, vol. 18, p. 151.
- Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Hadith #3800
- Sunni: Tarikh Kamil, vol. 3, p. 194, Dhikr 40 Hijri; Shadharath al Dhahab, p. 64, Dhikr 58 Hijri; Tarikh Taabari, English trans., vol. 18, pp. 207-208; Murujh al Dhahab, vol. 3, p. 30; al Istiab, vol. 1, p. 49, Chapter: Busar; Tarikh ibn Asakir, vol. 10, p. 146; Asad'ul Ghaba, vol. 1, p. 213, Dhikr Busar; Tarikh Islam by Dhahabi, vol. 2, p. 187. Shia: 21:6 Secrets of Muawiyah from Al-Amali: The Dictations of Sheikh al-Mufid
- Shia: 21:6 Secrets of Muawiyah from Al-Amali: The Dictations of Sheikh al-Mufid
- Kaegi, Walter Emil, Byzantium and the Early Islamic Conquests, pub Cambridge University Press, 1995, ISBN 978-0-521-48455-8.
- El-Cheikh, Nadia Maria. Byzantium viewed by the Arabs (2004 ed.). Harvard CMES. ISBN 978-0-932885-30-2. - Total pages: 271
- Kennedy, Hugh (2004), The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates: The Islamic Near East from the 6th to the 11th Century (Second Edition), Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd., ISBN 978-0-582-40525-7
- Pryor, John H.; Jeffreys, Elizabeth M. (2006). The Age of the ΔΡΟΜΩΝ: The Byzantine Navy ca. 500–1204. Leiden, The Netherlands and Boston, Massachusetts: Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-90-04-15197-0.
- Rahman I Doi, Abdur , Non-Muslims Under Shari'ah: (Islamic Law), pub Kazi Pubns Inc, 1999, ISBN 978-1-56744-170-3.
- Treadgold, Warren, A History of the Byzantine State and Society, pub Stanford University Press, 1997, ISBN 978-0-8047-2630-6.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Moawiyah.|
|Sunni Islam titles|
Hasan ibn Ali
Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan
|Governor of Al-Sham
|under direct control of Muawiya I|