Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue

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"MALT" redirects here. For germinated cereal grains, see Malt.

The mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) (also called mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue) is the diffusion system of small concentrations of lymphoid tissue found in various sites of the body, such as the gastrointestinal tract, thyroid, breast, lung, salivary glands, eye, and skin. MALT is populated by lymphocytes such as T cells and B cells, as well as plasma cells and macrophages, each of which is well situated to encounter antigens passing through the mucosal epithelium. In the case of intestinal MALT, M cells are also present, which sample antigen from the lumen and deliver it to the lymphoid tissue.

Categorisation[edit]

The components of MALT are sometimes subdivided into the following:

  • GALT (gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Peyer's patches are a component of GALT found in the lining of the small intestines.)
  • BALT (bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue)
  • NALT (nasal-associated lymphoid tissue)
  • CALT (conjunctival-associated lymphoid tissue)[1]
  • O-MALT (organized mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue); specifically, the tonsils of Waldeyer's tonsillar ring are O-MALT.[2]
  • D-MALT (diffuse mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue); MALT that is not organized as a separately macroscopically anatomically identifiable mass, tissue or organ (such as the aforementioned O-MALT) is diffuse MALT.[3]
  • LALT (larynx-associated lymphoid tissue)
  • SALT (skin-associated lymphoid tissue)

Role in disease[edit]

MALT plays a role in regulating mucosal immunity. It may be the site of lymphoma, usually non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A specific entity is the MALT lymphoma linked to Helicobacter pylori in the stomach.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hong Liang, Christophe Baudouin, Antoine Labbe, Luisa Riancho, Françoise Brignole-Baudouin. Conjunctiva-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (CALT) Reactions to Antiglaucoma Prostaglandins with or without BAK-Preservative in Rabbit Acute Toxicity Study. PLoS One. 2012; 7(3): e33913. Published online 2012 March 19. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033913
  2. ^ Gray's Anatomy, 38ed. p. 1442 ff.
  3. ^ ibid.

External links[edit]

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