Mudan Incident (1871)

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Mudan Incident
Mudan Incident of 1871 tombstone.jpg
Location Formosa
Date 1871
Attack type
massacre
Deaths 54
Victim Ryukyuan people who wandered into Taiwan whose ship carrying tribute to Shuri shipwrecked
Perpetrators Formosans

Mudan Incident of 1871 was the massacre of fifty-four Ryukyuan sailors in Taiwan who wandered into the central part of Taiwan after their ship was shipwrecked. 12 men were rescued by Han Chinese and were transferred to Miyako. After the Taiwan Expedition of 1874, the Japanese sovereignty of Ryukyu was confirmed.

Shipwreck[edit]

On October 18, 1871, four ships which had carried the Nintouzei tax poll tax to Ryukyuan Kingdom started from Naha for their homeland. They met a violent typhoon and one ship disappeared, one ship sailed safely, and two ships were shipwrecked; one reached the eastern tip of Taiwan on November 6. Another ship reached the western part of Taiwan and this one was safe.

Crossing Taiwan[edit]

There were 66 people who landed on November 6, at the eastern tip of Taiwan called 高雄州恒春郡満州庄九柵 (八遥湾) but three people who landed in a hurry died during landing. They began traveling in difficult conditions for safety. According to two survivors, they reached the Mudan community on November 8 and were ordered to stay there; there 66 men and women had some doubts and on November 9, started to escape. That is when the massacre began; 12 survivors were rescued by local people and stayed there for 40 plus several days, in the house of Yang Youwang. They returned via Tainan City and Fuzhou (福州), China, and they came back to Miyako. The distance of their wandering was roughly 100 km, across a map. The place of the murder was known as [双渓谷] and is now the place of training for the Taiwanese army, navy and air force.

Yang Youwang[edit]

12 survivors stayed at his home for 40 plus several days and they recovered with sufficient food. Yang Youwang paid a considerable amount of money to calm down the aborigines. Originally they got angry for not being given 2 barrels of alcoholic drinks. The son and a nephew of Yang Youwang brought the 12 survivors to safety. They stayed at the Ryukyuan House at Fuzhou, China for half a year and the survivors reached Naha on June 7, 1872 together with the men on another ship, which reached Taiwan on their way to Yaeyama. Yoh and other people made a tomb and have continued memorial ceremonies.

People who rescued the 12 sailors[edit]

  • Yang Youwang (楊友旺) (1824–1916)[1] was the head of a township and he looked dignified in formal Chinese uniform in a picture on the cover of the book of Miyaguni Fumio. He sheltered 9 people and saved other 3 people giving precious animals and clothing to the aborigines. He let his son and nephew go with the 12 people to safety.
  • Lin Ajiu (林阿九) was the head of a township and one who saved Japanese. He later persuaded Wen Zhulei (温朱雷) who stole 44 skulls from a settlement into giving them to the Japanese army. His family has continued memorial services for the victims.
  • Deng Tianbao (鄧天保) and Ling Laosheng (凌老生) were also rescuers.

Victims and Survivors[edit]

  • Name of origin is from Chinese Wikipedia.
  • Niya is the name of a samurai-class person in Ryukyu (Okinawa and Miyakojima), whose name is unknown.
  • This table was compiled by Shimabukuro Kame (11 people of Okinawa) and by Motomura Choryo (43 people of Miyakojima). Shimabukuro Kame asked Teruya Hiroshi to look for information in 1925; Teruya asked Motomura Choryo in Miyakojima for information.
Name Name of origin Assignment Address Fate and others
Nakasone Gen-an Chudo Head of a large community Hirara of Miyakojima Killed, Huge body carried by two persons
Tanahara Gen-ei Chudo Head of a township Hirara of Miyakojima Killed
Hoeshige Genkan Chudo Head of a township Hirara of Miyakojima Killed
Takaesu Yoshiyo Mazoku Head of a township Hirara of Miyakojima Killed
Okudaira Niya Unknown Assistant head of a township Hirara of Miyakojima Killed
Takaesu Niya Unknown Assistant head of a township Hirara of Miyakojima Killed
Tanahira Genkyo Chudo Secretary Hirara of Miyakojima Killed
Hoeshige Genkei Chudo Secretary Hirara of Miyakojima Killed
Takaesu Niya Unknown Secretary Hirara of Miyakojima Killed
Hirara Keisei Shirakawa Secretary Hirara of Miyakojima Killed
Tsukayama Keigo Shirakawa Secretary Hirara of Miyakojima Killed
Soeishi Niya Unknown Secretary Hirara of Miyakojima Killed
Inafuku Niya Unknown Secretary Hirara of Miyako Killed
Takahara Niya Unknown Secretary Hirara of Miyakojima Killed
Aniya Yoshimasa Mazoku Secretary Hirara of Miyakojima Killed
Yamauchi Niya Unknown Secretary Hirara of Miyakojima Killed
Yamauchi Niya Unknown Secretary Hirara of Miyakojima Killed
Shitahaku Niya Unknown Secretary Hirara of Miyakojima Killed
Ikemura Niya Unknown Makata Secretary Hirara of Miyakojima Killed
Magtsukawa Kin None Lower servant (head) Hirara of Miyakojima Killed
Maekawa Yashin None Servant (head) Hirara of Miyakojima Killed
Hamakawa Kin None Servant (head) Hirara of Miyakojima Killed
Maedomari Kin None Servant (head) Hirara of Miyakojima Killed
Futenma Kin None Servant (head) Irabujima of Miyakojima Killed
Sakumoto Keiza None Servant (head) Irabujima of Miyakojima Killed
Ikema Kin None Servant (head) Irabujima of Miyakojima Killed
Nakachiya Makoto None Servant (head) Irabujima of Miyakojima Killed
Nagahama Kama None Servant (head) Hirara of Miyakojima Killed
Uchima Ka-a-ryou None Servant (head) Hirara of Miyakojima Killed
Uchima Yashin None Servant (head) Hirara of Miyakojima Killed
Kawamitsu Kin None Servant (assistant) Shimojimura of Miyakojima Killed
Maesato Kama None Servant (assiatant) Shirabejima of Miyakojima Killed
Shimajiri Chabu None Servant (assistant) Simojimura of Miyakojima Killed
Nobara Tsuro None Servant (assistant) Shimojimura of Miyakojima Killed
Sakugawa Matsu
None Servant (assistant) Shimojimura of Miyakojima Killed
Kawamitsu Kin
None Servant (assistant) Shimojishima of Miyakojima Killed
Oyadomari Niya Unknown Samurai class follower (head) Hirara of Miyakojima Killed
Karimata Niya Unknown Samurai class follower (head) Hirara of Miyakojima Killed
Karimata Niya Unknown Samurai class follower (head) Hirara of Miyakojima Killed
Sunagawa Niya Unknown Samurai class follower (head) Shimojimura of Miyakojima Killed
Matsukawa Niya Unknown Samurai class follower Hirara of Miyakojima Killed
Kataesu Niya Unknown Samurai class follower Hirara of Miyakoima Killed
Okuhira Niya Unknown Samurai class follower Hirara of Miyakojima Killed
Shinjo Choken  ? Getting a lift Shuri of Okinawa Killed
Miyagi Mototaka Unknown Getting a lift Shur of Okinawa Killed
Taba Kame None Getting a lift Shuri of Okinawa Killed
Aragaki Bou None Getting a lift Shuri of Okinawa Killed
Nakamatsu Bou None Getting a lift Shuri of Okinawa Killed
Iha Hiroyuki  ? Getting a lift Naha of Okinawa Killed
Matsuda Kame None Getting a lift Naha of Okinawa Killed
Aragaki Niou Unknown Getting a lift Naha of Okinawa Killed
Nakankadari Kame None Getting a lift Naha of Okinawa Killed
Iju Kame None Getting a lift Naka-atama Killed
Nakasone Matsu None Getting a lift Nakijin of Kunigami Killed
Shimabukuro Jiryou None Unknown Shuri of Okinawa Alive, father of Shimabukuro Kame
Shimabukuro Kame None Unknown Shuri of Okinawa Alive, died in 1926 at age 76, left documents
Jabana Jiryou None Unknown Shuri of Okinawa Alive, Interpreter in Chinese characters
Nakamoto Kana None Unknown Shuri of Okinawa Alive
Tokeiji Matsu None Unknown Naha of Okinawa Alive
Shimajiri Yonabaaru None Unknown Naha of Okinawa Alive
Zashiki Bou None Unknown Kerama of Okinawa Alive, boatman
Takaesu Matsu None Unknown Kerama of Okinawa Alive
Shimoji Niya Unknown Unknown Miyakojima Alive
Hirara Niya Unknown Unknown Miyakojima Alive, in exchange for a cow
Taketomi Niya Unknown Unknown Miyakojima Alive
Urasaki Kin None Unknown Miyakojima Alive, in exchange for clothing

Diplomatic conflicts and Taiwan Expedition of 1874[edit]

The Japanese Government demanded that the Chinese government punish leaders of the Taiwanese aborigines but their response was that they were not under the control of the Chinese Government and the Japanese Government decided on sending the Japanese army Taiwan Expedition of 1874.

Tomb and afterwards[edit]

The Japanese expedition army established a memorial tower in front of the tomb where Taiwanese rescuers made, and collected skulls, 44 skulls; 10 skulls could not be recovered. The skulls were transferred first to Nagasaki and then to Naha and buried there and later at Gokoku-ji (Okinawa) in the same city. In 1980, the tomb was made again anew, and related people attended the ceremony from Miyako Island. In 1997, Fumio Miyakuni visited the related places and wrote a book.[2] In 2005, Taiwanese people visited Miyako Island for an apology and they and Miyako people shook hands in friendship.

Shimabukuro Kame[edit]

Shimabukuro Kame (1850–1926) was a survivor and an important informant concerning the incident and victims. His father and he were lower class samurais without salary living at Shuri, Okinawa; there were 5 victims living at Shuri, and they were being given a lift on the ship. In 1872, his father and he were interviewed by the Ryukyu government. After the abolition of the clan, what they did was not known. In 1925, Kame sent a letter to Iha Fuyū who introduced Teruya Hiroshi who gave the address of rescuers, since Kame wanted to thank them. Teruya Hiroshi was deeply moved and after the addresses of Miyako victims were investigated by Motomura Choryo, the names of the victims were engraved into the tombs of both Taiwan and Naha.

Teruya Hiroshi (1875–1934) was born in Naha and studied at Daiichi Higher School and Tokyo University. He became a train engineer in Taiwan and later became the Mayor of Naha.

Motomura Choryo (1876–1937) was the town head of Hirara between 1917 and 1919. He gave information on Miyako victims.

Episodes[edit]

The attitude of Miyako people to Taiwan is good; in the last war, many Miyako people evacuated Miyako to Taiwan. The leader of the tragic group Gen-an Nakasone was partly responsible for the tragedy; he was a greatly fat man, which delayed the speed of their movement.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • 宮古島民台湾遭難事件 (1998) 宮国文雄 那覇出版社 那覇 ISBN 4-89095-097-4 C0020 Y1810E
  • The Miyako Islanders Met Massacre (1998) Fumio Miyaguni, Naha Shuppansha, Naha.ISBN 4-89095-097-4 C0020 Y1810E
  • The history of Japanese nationals, Vol. 90 (1961), Tokutomi Iichiro, Jiji-tsushinsha. Tokyo. (in Japanese)
  • Viscount Tani Tateki. (1935, reprinted in 1981), Michio Hirao, Zozansha, Tokyo. (in Japanese)

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Miyako Islanders Met Massacre (1998) Fumio Miyaguni, Naha Shuppansha, Naha.ISBN 4-89095-097-4 p380
  2. ^ Miyakotoumin Taiwansounanjikenn (1998) Fumio Miyakuni Naha Shuppansha, Naha

Coordinates: 22°09′07″N 120°46′51″E / 22.15194°N 120.78083°E / 22.15194; 120.78083