Mudau lies in the southeastern Odenwald mountains between the Neckar and Main rivers, 75 km southeast of Frankfurt am Main and 40 km northeast of Heidelberg. The area is heavily forested, resting on coloured sandstone plateaus at 285 to 576 m elevation, sloping downward to the Bauland region. Many streams originate in the area around Mudau, owing to its location on the Neckar-Main watershed; some have cut canyons as much as 200 m deep into the sandstone. Streams considered significant are the Gabelbach, Mudbach, and Steinbächlein which flow into the Main, and the Reisenbach, Trienzbach, and Elz which flow into the Neckar.
2nd/3rd century: During the period of Roman control (approximately 98–260 AD) the area that is now Mudau lay within the province of Germania Superior. Remnants of the Neckar-Odenwald-Limes are visible today near Schlossau and Scheidental.
11th/12th century: In the high Middle Ages the Benedictine monastery of Amorbach Abbey started new settlements in the forest area south of Amorbach. The municipalities have their origin here.
12th/13th century: Mudau's lands were placed under the supervision of the noblemen of Duern and were assigned to the nearby Castle Wildenberg (also known as Castle Wildenburg) in Odenwald.
1271: By purchase in the year 1271 the rule rights came to the Archbishop of Mainz. Mudau was the principal seat of the 'Mudauer Zent'.
1426: Mudau was separated from the old parish of Hollerbach and became the church centre, with 13 chapelries.
1848: During the German Revolutions of 1848 (also known as the March Revolution), the principality's property at Marienhoehe bei Buchen and the revenue office in Ernsttal were burned. The city halls were stormed.
1849: Two-thirds of the town was destroyed by a major fire.
trail along the Neckar-Odenwald-Limes in Schlossau with numerous remnants. The Neckar-Odenwald-Limes led from Bad Wimpfen at the Neckar to the north across Neckarburken, Oberscheidental, Schlossau after Woerth at the Main river.