Mughal tribe

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Mughal
A photo from 'The People of India', published from 1868 to the early 1870s by WH Allen, for the India Office

Regions with significant populations
South Asia[citation needed]
Languages
Sindhi[citation needed]UrduPunjabi[citation needed]Bengali[citation needed]
Religion
Allah-green.svg Islam 100% •
Related ethnic groups
Turkic peoples[citation needed]Indo-Aryans[citation needed]

The Mughal (Arabic: مغول‎; Urdu: مغل‎; Persian: مغول‎), are a number of culturally related clans of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.[citation needed] In theory, the Mughals of South Asia are descended from the various Central Asian Turkic armies and immigrants that settled in the region from the early Middle Ages onwards.

History and origin[edit]

The third Mughal Emperor Akbar leads his armies during the Siege of Ranthambore in the year 1569.
Mughal warriors practicing horse archery. (Akbarnama)

In North India, the term Mughal refers to one of the four social groups that are referred to as the Ashraaf.[1] In Pakistan, a number of tribal groupings such as the Gheba and Kassar in Punjab claim Mughal ancestry. Sir Denzil Ibbetson, the eminent British student of Punjabi tribal structures, noted a tendency among many tribes of the Pothohar and Upper Hazara regions of Northern Pakistan to claim Mughal ancestry.[citation needed]

Mughals of North India[edit]

The Taj Mahal is one of the greatest examples of Islamic architecture.

The Mughal are found in the states of Bihar, Delhi, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh in North India.

In Uttar Pradesh[edit]

In Uttar Pradesh (UP), their main clans are the Chughtai, Barlas, Qazilbash, Turkmen, Turk, Uzbek, Tajik, Kai and Chak.[2] The Mughals of Uttar Pradesh belong to both the Sunni and Shia sects, with the majority belonging to the Sunni Hanafi sect. Sunni Mughals are usually orthodox in their religious outlook. The Shia Mughal of Awadh trace their entry into the region to the year 1750. The Mughal of UP are an endogamous community, marrying within their own community, or in communities of a similar status such as the Pathan and Muslim Rajput. The rural Mughal are farmers, and many own orchards, especially mango orchards, while in towns they are engaged in trade, handicrafts, and carpet weaving. Carpet weaving is an activity particularly associated with the UP Mughals.[3]

In Delhi[edit]

Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II's ceremonial procession on the occasion of the Eid ul-Fitr.

The city of Delhi has always been associated with the Mughal, being the seat of the Mughal dynasty that ruled India for four centuries. Their settlements in Old Delhi date back to the 16th century when the first Mughal courtiers arrived with Babar. The Taimuri clan claims direct descent from the Mughal dynasty. Other sub-groups include the Chughtai, Turkman, Changezi, Barlas, and Douli, Bakhst and Qazilbash. A large number of Mughals from old Delhi emigrated to Pakistan at partition. A small rump community is left in Delhi. They are still an endogamous community, marrying among themselves, or on occasions with communities of a similar status, such the Sayyid and Pathan. The Taimuri are Sunni, while the Qazilbash and Turkmen are Shia.[4]

Mughal of Pakistan[edit]

A rare life-size portrait of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir holding a globe, by Abu'l Hasan, Nadir al-Zaman (dated 1617 AD), the Emperor is buried in Lahore.

Khamb[edit]

The Khamb is another tribe claiming to be Mughal, and found mainly in the Pothohar region of northern Punjab. According to their traditions, the ancestors of the Khamb arrived from Kathiawar, in what is now the modern state of Gujarat in India.

The Khamb were settled in their present abode by a Hashmat Khan, a chief of the Thathal tribe, who are natives of the Pothohar region. This Hashmat Khan was appointed as a garrison commander of Khambhat in Kathiawar by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. When Hashmat returned to the Pothohar region of Pakistan, he was accompanied by members of the garrison at Khambait. He ordered villages to be built named Khambi Qaleechpur and Khanpur, and the Khamb tribe was granted land in and around the new town. At present they live in Khambi Qaleechpur and Khanpur in the Gujrat district of Punjab.

Other clans[edit]

Mughal of Jammu and Kashmir[edit]

Baig[edit]

The Beg or Baig are said to be the descendents of Mughal soldiers, who were custodians of the treasury. They are an urban community, found in their own quarters in the cities of Anantnag, Baramulla, Badgam, Neelum valley, Muzaffarabad, Jhelum District Jalalpur Sharif and borders adjoining with Hazara division Pakistan. According to some traditions, the Baig are in fact descended from Uighur of Kashgar, and many also refer to themselves as Kashgari. They remained a community distinct from other Kashmiri Muslims and were only granted state citizenship in 1939. Many are still involved in their traditional occupation of carpet weaving and embroidery. The Baig are entirely Sunni Muslim, and historically affiliated to the Barelvi sect, with many belonging to the Dastigiri Sufi order. A few of the Mughals also follow the Deobandi sect.[5]

Mughal of Jammu and Mirpur[edit]

Babur rallies the Mughal Army

The Mughal of Jammu and Kashmir share many culture similarities with the Mughal of Punjab. In kotli district and some other districts of AJ&K some mughals migrated here from poonch and rajauri. In 1857 when Englishes[clarification needed] elapsed mughal dynasty, they started brute killing of mughals as they believe there is no enemy except mughals as a sign of peril. To save their lives mughals hidden their identity and pretended to be of different castes. There are number of agrarian tribes, such as the Junhal Maldial and Hoteel who claim Mughal ancestry. These Mughal tribes all claim to have settled in the Jammu and Mirpur region during the rule of the Mughal Emperor Babar. The Emperor is said to have settled these tribes as a bulwark against the local Rajput tribes, who were continuously rebelling against the Mughal authority. The Chughtai Mughal families of Jammu city are descended from a Mirza Jan Beg Tarkhan, a Mughal nobleman who fled Delhi after the Indian mutiny of 1857.[6]

The Mughal in the Jammu region are settled mainly in Jammu, Bhadarwah (Distt. Doda) Nawshera, Rajauri and Poonch. Those of Jammu are a Punjabi speaking community. The Jammu city Lohar Chughtai and Tarkhan Barlas Mughal are an urban community, many of whom migrated in and out of India and Pakistan at the time of the partition of land in Pakistan & India, an event which also led to the division of Jammu and Kashmir. The Mughal tribes of Rajauri and Poonch region are effectively separated from their kinsmen by the line of control. These division especially affects the Junhal and Tarkhan tribes, who villages are literally bisected by the line of control. The Mughals in Azad Kashmir are found mainly in the southern districts of Mirpur, Rawalpindi, Kotli and Bhimber, and are culturally the same as Jammu Mughals. Other than the Chughtai Lohar of Jammu, who are Shia, the other Mughal communities are Sunni, equally divided between Barelvis and Deobandi.[6]

Here is a brief descriptions of the main clans:

Khan Mughal[edit]

The Khan Mughal are tribe of Mughal status found in Kashmir, They are locally referred to as Kamagar, which is drove from word Kaman Gar, which means weapon makers in the Persian language. According to their traditions, they were part of the Mughal under the leadership of Babur. They were mainly concerned with manufacturing arms and weapons.

Some Mughal families of Jammu city are descended from a Mirza Jan Beg, a Mughal nobleman who fled Delhi after the failure of the Indian mutiny of 1857.[6]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Muslim Caste in Uttar Pradesh (A Study of Culture Contact), Ghaus Ansari, Lucknow, 1960
  2. ^ Hindustani Musalmans and Musalman Tarkhan Tarkhan Mughals (ترخان مغل) ( in Persian, Tarkhai Mughuli [1] تركهاى مغولى) were those Turko-Mongol people who were aristocrats of the steppe; Princes, Commanders and Generals who ruled and served the Turko-Mongol states and had ancestral origin from Turko-Mongol dynasties especially descendants of Genghis Khan. Turko-Mongols are mainly the descendants of those Turks who were ruled over by the Mongols speaking mostly Turkic languages; they derived their ethnic and cultural origins from both groups. "Turko-Mongol" is used to describe the people of Mongol khanate; Ilkhanate; Chagatai Khanate and Golden Horde and sometimes also describe successor Khanates; such as the Khanate of Kazan, the Nogi, Crimean Khanate; Astrakhan Khanate; Empire of Timurid Empire of India; Arghun and Tarkhan Dynasty of Sind Pakistan. Tarkhan mughals Tarkhan This article is about Tarkhan, an ancient Turkic title. For other uses, see Tarkan and Darkhan Tarkhan (Old Turkic Tarqan;[1] Mongolian: Darkhan;[2][3] Persian: ترخان; Chinese: 達干; Arabic: طرخان; alternative spellings Tarkan, Tarkhaan, Tarqan, Tarchan, Tarxan, Tarcan or Targan) is an ancient Central Asian title used by various Indo-European (i.e. Iranian and Tokharian) and Turco-Mongol peoples, especially in the medieval era, and prominent among the successors of the Mongol Empire. Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 3 In fiction 4 Notes 5 External links Etymology The origin of the word is not known. Various historians identify the word as either Iranian (most likely East Iranian Sogdian or Scythian),[4][5][6] Turkic,[1][7] or Mongolian. Although R. Frye reports that the word "was probably foreign to Sogdian", hence considered to be a loanword from Turkic, Gerhard Doerfer points out that even in Turkic languages, its plural is not Turkic (sing. tarxan --> plur. tarxat), suggesting a non-Turkic origin.[8] L. Ligeti comes to the same conclusion, saying that "tarxan and tegin [prince] form the wholly un-Turkish plurals tarxat and tegit" and that the word was unknown to medieval western Turkic languages, such as Bulgar.[9] Taking this in consideration, the word is most likely derived from medieval Mongolian darqat (Mongolian plural suffix -at), itself perhaps derived from the earlier Sogdian word *tarxant ("free of taxes").[8] A. Alemany gives the additional elaboration that the related East Iranian Scythian (and Alanic) word *tarxan still survives in Ossetic tærxon ("argument, trial") and tærxon kænyn ("to judge").[6] Harold Walter Bailey also proposes an Iranian (Khotanese Saka) root for the word.[10] What is certain is that Tarkhan is not related to the Turco-Mongol royal title Khan/Khaqan.[4] The word was borrowed into many languages, including Armenian tʿarxan, Georgian t’arxani and Russian тархан. History It was used among the various Iranian (Sogdians, Khotanese, and Hephthalites) and Turco-Mongol peoples of Central Asia and other steppe people, and was a high rank in the army of Tamerlane. Tarkhans commanded military contingents (roughly of regimental size under the Khazar khan) and were, roughly speaking, generals. They could also be assigned as military governors of conquered regions. The Göktürks probably adopted the title of Darqan (Mongolian spelling) from the Mongol-speaking Rourans or Avars.[11] The Tarkhan were cited in inscription of Kul Tigin (died c. 731 CE). They were given high honors such as entering the ger of Khagan without any prior appointment and shown unusual ninefold pardon to the 9th generation from any crime they committed.[12] Although, the etymology of the word is unknown, it is attested under the Khitans who ruled most of Mongolia and North China between 916 and 1125.[13] Like many titles, Tarkhan (Turkic spelling) also occurs as a personal name, independent of a person's rank, which makes some historical references confusing. For example, Arab texts refer to a "Tarkhan, king of the Khazars" as reigning in the mid ninth century. Whether this is a confused reference to a military official or the name of an individual Khazar khagan remains unclear. The name is occasionally used today in Turkish and Arabic speaking countries. In the Mongol Empire, the Darkhan were exempted from taxation, socage and requisitioning. Genghis Khan made those who helped his rise Darkhans in 1206. The families of the Darkhan played crucial roles later when the succession crisis occurred in Yuan Dynasty and Ilkhanate. Abaqa Khan (1234–1282) made an Indian Darkhan after he had led his mother and her team all the way from Central Asia to Persia safely. A wealthy merchant of Persia was made of Darkhan by Ghazan (1271–1304) for his service during the early defeat of the Ilkhan. In Russia, the Khans of the Golden Horde assigned important tasks to the Darkhan. A jarliq of Temur Qutlugh (ca. 1370–1399) which authorized rights of the Tarkhan found in Crimea.[14] During the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368), the title was bestowed mainly on the late Darkhans' families and the government officials. After suppressing the rebellion of the right three tumens in Mongolia, Dayan Khan exempted his soldiers, who participated the battle of Dalan-Terqin, from imposts and made them Darkhan in 1513. Even after the collapse of the Northern Yuan with the death of Ligdan Khan, the title of Darkhan was bestowed on religious dignitaries, sometimes on persons of low-birth. For example, in 1665, the Khotgoid Altan Khan Lubsan bestowed the title on a Russian interpreter and requested the Russian Tsar to exempt the interpreter from all tax obligations.[3] The word refers the Blacksmith[15] and is still used in Mongolia as privilege.[16] A Tarkhan established the Tarkhan Dynasty, ruling Northern India from 1554 to 1591 AD. In fiction In C. S. Lewis' Chronicles of Narnia series of novels, the apparent spelling variation Tarkaan is the title of a Calormen nobleman, tarkheena that of a noble woman. Also in Age of Empires II: The Conquerors, the tarkan is the Hun's unique unit with the appearance of a horseman with a torch in place of sword. Notes This article is about Tarkhan, an ancient Turkic title. For other uses, see Tarkan and Darkhan Tarkhan (Old Turkic Tarqan;[1] Mongolian: Darkhan;[2][3] Persian: ترخان; Chinese: 達干; Arabic: طرخان; alternative spellings Tarkan, Tarkhaan, Tarqan, Tarchan, Tarxan, Tarcan or Targan) is an ancient Central Asian title used by various Indo-European (i.e. Iranian and Tokharian) and Turco-Mongol peoples, especially in the medieval era, and prominent among the successors of the Mongol Empire. Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 3 In fiction 4 Notes 5 External links Etymology The origin of the word is not known. Various historians identify the word as either Iranian (most likely East Iranian Sogdian or Scythian),[4][5][6] Turkic,[1][7] or Mongolian. Although R. Frye reports that the word "was probably foreign to Sogdian", hence considered to be a loanword from Turkic, Gerhard Doerfer points out that even in Turkic languages, its plural is not Turkic (sing. tarxan --> plur. tarxat), suggesting a non-Turkic origin.[8] L. Ligeti comes to the same conclusion, saying that "tarxan and tegin [prince] form the wholly un-Turkish plurals tarxat and tegit" and that the word was unknown to medieval western Turkic languages, such as Bulgar.[9] Taking this in consideration, the word is most likely derived from medieval Mongolian darqat (Mongolian plural suffix -at), itself perhaps derived from the earlier Sogdian word *tarxant ("free of taxes").[8] A. Alemany gives the additional elaboration that the related East Iranian Scythian (and Alanic) word *tarxan still survives in Ossetic tærxon ("argument, trial") and tærxon kænyn ("to judge").[6] Harold Walter Bailey also proposes an Iranian (Khotanese Saka) root for the word.[10] What is certain is that Tarkhan is not related to the Turco-Mongol royal title Khan/Khaqan.[4] The word was borrowed into many languages, including Armenian tʿarxan, Georgian t’arxani and Russian тархан. History It was used among the various Iranian (Sogdians, Khotanese, and Hephthalites) and Turco-Mongol peoples of Central Asia and other steppe people, and was a high rank in the army of Tamerlane. Tarkhans commanded military contingents (roughly of regimental size under the Khazar khan) and were, roughly speaking, generals. They could also be assigned as military governors of conquered regions. The Göktürks probably adopted the title of Darqan (Mongolian spelling) from the Mongol-speaking Rourans or Avars.[11] The Tarkhan were cited in inscription of Kul Tigin (died c. 731 CE). They were given high honors such as entering the ger of Khagan without any prior appointment and shown unusual ninefold pardon to the 9th generation from any crime they committed.[12] Although, the etymology of the word is unknown, it is attested under the Khitans who ruled most of Mongolia and North China between 916 and 1125.[13] Like many titles, Tarkhan (Turkic spelling) also occurs as a personal name, independent of a person's rank, which makes some historical references confusing. For example, Arab texts refer to a "Tarkhan, king of the Khazars" as reigning in the mid ninth century. Whether this is a confused reference to a military official or the name of an individual Khazar khagan remains unclear. The name is occasionally used today in Turkish and Arabic speaking countries. In the Mongol Empire, the Darkhan were exempted from taxation, socage and requisitioning. Genghis Khan made those who helped his rise Darkhans in 1206. The families of the Darkhan played crucial roles later when the succession crisis occurred in Yuan Dynasty and Ilkhanate. Abaqa Khan (1234–1282) made an Indian Darkhan after he had led his mother and her team all the way from Central Asia to Persia safely. A wealthy merchant of Persia was made of Darkhan by Ghazan (1271–1304) for his service during the early defeat of the Ilkhan. In Russia, the Khans of the Golden Horde assigned important tasks to the Darkhan. A jarliq of Temur Qutlugh (ca. 1370–1399) which authorized rights of the Tarkhan found in Crimea.[14] During the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368), the title was bestowed mainly on the late Darkhans' families and the government officials. After suppressing the rebellion of the right three tumens in Mongolia, Dayan Khan exempted his soldiers, who participated the battle of Dalan-Terqin, from imposts and made them Darkhan in 1513. Even after the collapse of the Northern Yuan with the death of Ligdan Khan, the title of Darkhan was bestowed on religious dignitaries, sometimes on persons of low-birth. For example, in 1665, the Khotgoid Altan Khan Lubsan bestowed the title on a Russian interpreter and requested the Russian Tsar to exempt the interpreter from all tax obligations.[3] The word refers the Blacksmith[15] and is still used in Mongolia as privilege.[16] A Tarkhan established the Tarkhan Dynasty, ruling Northern Inof East Punjab by W Bourne page 35
  3. ^ People of India Uttar Pradesh Volume XLII edited by A Hasan & J C Das page 986 to 990 Manohar Publications
  4. ^ People of India Delhi Volume XX edited by T. Ghosh & S. Nath pp. 485-489, Manohar Publications
  5. ^ People of India Jammu and Kashmir Volume XXV K Pandita, S.D.S. Charak and B.R. Rizvi edited by T Ghosh & S Nath pages 128 to133 Manohar Publications
  6. ^ a b c People of India Jammu and Kashmir Volume XXV K Pandita, S.D.S. Charak and B.R. Rizvi edited by T Ghosh & S Nath pages 523 to526 Manohar Publications