Mughal architecture

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Hiran Minar and Tank

Mughal architecture is an architectural style developed by the Mughals in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries throughout the extent of their empire in the Indian subcontinent. It was an amalgam of Islamic, Persian, and Indian architecture. Mughal buildings have a uniform pattern of structure and character, including large bulbous domes, slender minarets at the corners, massive halls, large vaulted gateways and delicate ornamentation.[1] Examples of the style can be found in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh.

Night view of Badshahi Mosque

The Mughal dynasty was established after the victory of Babur at Panipat in 1526. During his five-year reign, Babur took considerable interest in erecting buildings, though few of which have survived. His grandson Akbar built widely, and the style developed vigorously during his reign. Among his accomplishments were a tomb for his father Humayun, the Agra Fort, and the fort-city of Fatehpur Sikri. Akbar's son Jahangir commissioned the Shalimar Gardens in Kashmir.

Akbari Sarai

Mughal architecture reached its zenith during the reign of Shah Jahan, who constructed the Jama Masjid, the Red Fort, the Shalimar Gardens in Lahore, and the most famous Mughal monument, the Taj Mahal, as well as many other fine examples of the style.

Tomb Of Jahangir

While Shah Jahan's son Aurangzeb commissioned some buildings such as the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore, his reign corresponded with the decline of Mughal architecture and the Empire itself.

Grave of Jahangir

Jahangir[edit]

Under Jahangir the Hindu features vanished from the style; his great mosque at Lahore is in the Persian style, covered with enameled tiles. At Agra, the tomb of Itmad-ud-Daula, which was completed in 1628, was built entirely of white marble and covered in pietra dura mosaic. Jahangir also built the Shalimar Gardens and Nishat Bagh, and their accompanying pavilions on the shore of Dal Lake in Kashmir. He also built a monument to his pet deer, Hiran Minar in Sheikhupura, Pakistan and due to his great love for his wife, after his death she went on to build his mausoleum in Lahore.

Shah Jahan[edit]

Rather than building huge monuments like his predecessors, Shah Jahan built elegant monuments.His predecessors built huge buildings to demonstrate their power.The force and originality of their building style gave way under [Shah Jahan] to a delicate elegance and refinement of detail, illustrated in the palaces erected in his reign at Agra and Delhi. Some examples include the Taj Mahal at Agra and the tomb of Mumtaz Mahal, the wife of Shah Jahan. The Moti Masjid (Pearl Mosque) in the Agra Fort and The Jama Masjid at Delhi are imposing buildings, and their position and architecture have been carefully considered so as to produce a pleasing effect and feeling of spacious elegance and well-balanced proportion of parts. Shah Jahan also built the Tomb of Jahangir and sections of the Lahore Fort that include the Moti Masjid, Sheesh Mahal, and Naulakha pavilion which are all enclosed in the fort. He also built a mosque named after himself in Thatta called Shahjahan Mosque. Another mosque was built during his tenure in Lahore called Wazir Khan Mosque, by Shaikh Ilm-ud-din Ansari who was the court physician to the emperor

Taj Mahal[edit]

The Taj Mahal, the "teardrop on the cheek of eternity" (Rabindranath Tagore), was completed in 1648 by the emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal. Its longest plane of symmetry runs through the entire complex except for the sarcophagus of Shah Jahan, which is placed off centre in the crypt room below the main floor. This symmetry extended to the building of an entire mirror mosque in red sandstone, to complement the Mecca-facing mosque place to the west of the main structure.

The Taj Mahal (1630–1648) in Agra, India and the Shalimar Garden (1641–1642) in Lahore, Pakistan, are two sites which are on the world heritage list of UNESCO. The Taj is considered[by whom?] to be one of the most beautiful monuments of the world and was included in the Seven Wonders of the World list.

Aurangzeb and later Mughal architecture[edit]

In Aurangzeb's reign (1658–1707) squared stone and marble was replaced by brick or rubble with stucco ornament. Srirangapatna and Lucknow have examples of later Indo-Muslim architecture. He made additions to the Lahore Fort and also built one of the thirteen gates which was later named after him (Alamgir). Aurangzeb also built the Badshahi Mosque which was constructed in 1674 under the supervision of Fida'i Koka. This mosque is adjacent to the Lahore Fort and is the last in the series of congregational mosques in red sandstone and is closely modeled on the one Shah Jahan built at Shahjahanabad. The red sandstone of the walls contrasts with the white marble of the domes and the subtle intarsia decoration.

Additional monuments from this period are associated with women from Aurangzeb's imperial family. The construction of the elegant Zinat al-Masjid in Daryaganij was overseen by Aurangzeb's second daughter Zinat-al-Nisa. Aurangzeb's sister Roshan-Ara who died in 1671. The tomb of Roshanara Begum and the garden surrounding it were neglected for a long time and are now in an advanced state of decay. Bibi Ka Maqbara was a mausoleum built by Prince Azam Shah, son of Emperor Aurangzeb, in the late 17th century as a loving tribute to his mother, Dilras Bano Begam in Aurangabad, Maharashtra. The Alamgiri Gate, built in 1673 A.D., is the main entrance to the Lahore Fort in present day Lahore. It was constructed to face west towards the Badshahi Mosque in the days of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.

Another construction of Mughal era is the Lalbagh Fort (also known as "Fort Aurangabad"), a Mughal palace fortress at the Buriganga River in the southwestern part of Dhaka, Bangladesh, whose construction started in 1678 during the reign of Aurangzeb.

Mughal gardens[edit]

Mughal gardens are a group of gardens built by the Mughals in the Islamic style of architecture. This style was influenced by Persian gardens and Timurid gardens. Significant use of rectilinear layouts are made within the walled enclosures. Some of the typical features include pools, fountains and canals inside the gardens. The famous gardens are the Char Bagh gardens at Taj Mahal, Shalimar Gardens of Lahore, Delhi and Kashmir as well as Pinjore Garden in Haryana.

Mughal Bridges[edit]

Jaunpurbridge Shahi Bridge, Jaunpur, constructed during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Akbar Building Image Country Continent First Built Use Notes Barnenez Barnenez front2.jpg France Europe 4850 BC Passage grave Located in northern Finistère and partially restored. The structure is 72 m long, 25 m wide and over 8 m high.[2][3] Sechin Bajo Sechin casma valley.JPG Peru South America 3500 BC Plaza The oldest known building in the Americas.[4][5] Pyramid of Djoser Pyramid of Djoser 2010.jpg Egypt Africa 2667–2648 BC Burial Earliest large-scale cut stone construction[6] Shahr-e Sukhteh ورودی قلعه رستم.JPG Iran Asia 3200 BC The remains of the mud brick city[7] Cuicuilco Circular Pyramid Leading2PyramidCuicuilcoDF.JPG Mexico North America 800–600 BC Ceremonial center One of the oldest standing structures of the Mesoamerican cultures.[8] Wiebbe Hayes Stone Fort The Fort - West Wallabi Island - Colour.JPG Australia Australasia AD 1629 Defensive fort Oldest known building in Australia, a defensive fort used by the survivors of the Batavia shipwreck on West Wallabi Island.[9] Cape Adare huts Borchgrevink Hut.jpg Ross Dependency Antarctica AD 1899 Explorers' huts Wooden buildings constructed by Carsten Borchgrevink in Victoria Land.[10] By age[edit] The following are amongst the oldest buildings in the world. Many of them are brick structures. There are numerous extant structures that survive in the Orkney islands of Scotland, some of the best known of which are part of the Heart of Neolithic Orkney World Heritage Site.[11] The list also contains many large buildings from the Egyptian Age of the Pyramids.

Building Image Country Continent First Built Use Notes Mehrgarh Pakistan Asia 7000BC-5500 BC Mud brick storage structures A complex of ruins with varying dates near Bolan Pass.[12][13]|- Barnenez Barnenez front2.jpg France Europe 4850 BC Passage grave Located in northern Finistère and partially restored. According to André Malraux it would have been better named ‘The Prehistoric Parthenon’. The structure is 72 m long, 25 m wide and over 8 m high.[2][3] Tumulus of Bougon Barnenez France Europe 4700 BC Tumulus A complex of tombs with varying dates near Poitiers, the oldest being F0.[2] Tumulus Saint-Michel Barnenez France Europe 4500 BC Tumulus The tumulus forms what is almost an artificial hillock of more than 30,000m3 (125m long, 60m wide and 10m high).[14][15] Monte d'Accoddi Monted'accoddisardegna.png Italy Europe 4000–3650 BC [16][17] Possibly an open-air temple, ziggurat, or a step pyramid. A trapezoidal platform on an artificial mound, reached by a sloped causeway. New radiocarbon dating (2011) allow us to date the building of the first monument to 4000–3650 BC, the second shrine dating to 3500–3000 BC."[18] Knap of Howar Knapofhowarinsun.jpg Scotland Europe 3700 BC House Oldest preserved stone house in north west Europe.[19][20][21] Ġgantija Ggantija Temples (1).jpg Malta Europe 3700 BC Temple Two structures on the island of Gozo. The second was built four centuries after the oldest.[22][23] West Kennet Long Barrow Westkennet.jpg England Europe 3650 BC Tomb Located near Silbury Hill and Avebury stone circle.[24] Listoghil Sligo carrowmore.jpg Ireland Europe 3550 BC Passage Tomb At the centre of the Carrowmore passage tomb cluster, a simple box-shaped chamber is surrounded by a kerb c.34m in diameter and partly covered by a cairn. It has been partly reconstructed.[25] Sechin Bajo Sechin casma valley.JPG Peru South America 3500 BC Plaza The oldest known building in the Americas.[5] La Hougue Bie La Hougue Bie entrance and chapel, Jersey.jpg Jersey Europe 3500 BC Passage grave An 18.6 metre long passage chamber. The chapel above is medieval.[26] Midhowe Chambered Cairn Midhowe Cairn interior - geograph.org.uk - 33776.jpg Scotland Europe 3500 BC Tomb A well preserved example of the Orkney-Cromarty type on the island of Rousay.[27] Gavrinis passage tomb Cairn Gavrinis entrance.jpg France Europe 3500 BC Tomb On a small island, situated in the Gulf of Morbihan.[28] Wayland's Smithy Waylands Smitty 2 db.jpg England Europe 3460 BC Chamber tomb A barrow constructed on top of an older burial chamber.[29] Unstan Chambered Cairn Unstan chambered cairn entrance by Bruce McAdam.jpg Scotland Europe 3450 BC Tomb Excavated in 1884, when grave goods were found, giving their name to Unstan ware.[30][31][32] Knowe of Yarso chambered cairn Knowe of Yarso Chambered Cairn 20110525.jpg Scotland Europe 3350 BC Tomb One of several Rousay tombs. It contained numerous deer skeletons when excavated in the 1930s.[30][33][34] Quanterness chambered cairn Chambered Cairn and Farm House - geograph.org.uk - 1075905.jpg Scotland Europe 3250 BC Tomb The remains of 157 individuals were found inside when excavated in the 1970s.[30][35] Shahr-e Sukhteh ورودی قلعه رستم.JPG Iran Asia 3200BC Settlement a rich source of information regarding the emergence of complex societies and contacts between them in the third millennium [36] Skara Brae Skara Brae 12.jpg Scotland Europe 3180 BC Settlement Northern Europe's best preserved Neolithic village.[37] Tomb of the Eagles Isbister Chambered Cairn 20110524.jpg Scotland Europe 3150 BC Tomb In use for 800 years or more. Numerous bird bones were found here, predominantly White-tailed Sea Eagle.[38][39] Newgrange Newgrange.JPG Ireland Europe 3100–2900 BC Burial Partially reconstructed around original passage grave.[40] Tarxien Temples Tarxien Temple Malta Europe 3100 BC Temples Described by Colin Renfrew as "the oldest free-standing monuments in the world".[41][42] Dolmen de Bagneux Saumur Dolmen Bagneux 2007.jpg France Europe 3000 BC Dolmen This is the largest dolmen in France, and perhaps the world, the overall length of the dolmen is 23 m (75 ft), with the internal chamber at over 18 m (60 ft) in length and at least 3m high.[43][44][45] Grey Cairns of Camster The Grey Cairns of Camster - geograph.org.uk - 675.jpg Scotland Europe 3000 BC or older Tomb Located near Upper Camster in Caithness.[46][47] Hulbjerg Jættestue Hulbjerg Jættestue.jpg Denmark Europe 3000 BC Passage grave The grave is concealed by a round barrow on the southern tip of the island of Langeland. One of the skulls found there showed traces of the world's earliest dentistry work.[48][49][50] Maikop kurgans Dolmen Russia Kavkaz Jane 3.JPG Russia Europe 3000 BC Tomb There are numerous tombs, some perhaps originating in the Maikop culture, in the North Caucasus.[51][52] Taversoe Tuick chambered cairn Taversoe Tuick - geograph.org.uk - 1448330.jpg Scotland Europe 3000 BC Tomb Unusually, there is an upper and lower chamber.[53] Holm of Papa chambered cairn Inside the chambered cairn on the Holm of Papa Westray - geograph.org.uk - 1364571.jpg Scotland Europe 3000 BC Tomb The central chamber is over 20 metres long.[54][55] Barpa Langass Entrance to Barpa Langass Chambered Cairn - geograph.org.uk - 1523313.jpg Scotland Europe 3000 BC Tomb The best preserved chambered cairn in the Hebrides.[56][57] Cuween Hill Chambered Cairn Cuween Hill, front external view, 2012 March.jpg Scotland Europe 3000 BC Tomb Excavated in 1901, when it was found to contain the bones of men, dogs and oxen.[58][59] Quoyness cairn Quoyness Chambered Cairn - geograph.org.uk - 86230.jpg Scotland Europe 2900 BC Tomb An arc of Bronze Age mounds surrounds this cairn on the island of Sanday.[60] Maeshowe Maes Howe 1861.jpg Scotland Europe 2800 BC Tomb The entrance passage is 36 feet (11 m) long and leads to the central chamber measuring about 15 feet (4.6 m) on each side.[61][62] Pyramid of Djoser Pyramid of Djoser 2010.jpg Egypt Africa 2667–2648 BC Burial Earliest large-scale cut stone construction.[6] Mohenjo Daro Pakistan Asia 2600BC;BC brick storage structures - Dholavira Dholavira1.JPG India Asia 2650 BC-2100 BC Brick water reservoirs, with steps, circular graves & ruins of well planned town A complex of ruins with varying dates at Dholavira.[64][65][66] Caral Piramide de Caral.jpg Peru South America 2600 BC Pyramid Once thought to be the oldest building in South America.[67] Pyramid of Meidum Pyramid of sneferu Meidum 01.jpg Egypt Africa c. 2580 BC Tomb Fourth Dynasty structure completed by Sneferu. Bent Pyramid Snefru's Bent Pyramid in Dahshur.jpg Egypt Africa c. 2580 BC Tomb A second structure completed by Sneferu. Red Pyramid Snofrus Red Pyramid in Dahshur (2).jpg Egypt Africa c. 2580 BC Tomb Third large pyramid completed by Sneferu.[68] Great Pyramid of Giza Kheops-Pyramid.jpg Egypt Africa 2560 BC Tomb Mausoleum for fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu.[69] Knowth KnowthPS.jpg Ireland Europe Between 2500-2000 BC Passage grave [70] Pyramid of Khafre Khafre's Pyramid343.jpg Egypt Africa c. 2500 BC Tomb One of the Pyramids of Giza.[71] Pyramid of Menkaure Menkaure's pyramid.jpg Egypt Africa c. 2500 BC Tomb Menkaure was probably Khafre's successor. Dowth View of Dowth.jpg Ireland Europe 2500 BC Tomb The cairn is about 85 metres (280 ft) in diameter and 15 metres (50 ft) high.[70] Pyramid of Userkaf Saqqarah Ouserkaf 06.jpg Egypt Africa c. 2480 BC Tomb Located close to Pyramid of Djoser.[72] Pyramid of Sahure Pyramide de Sahourê Abousir.JPG Egypt Africa c. 2480 BC Tomb Built for Sahure.[73] Pyramid of Neferirkare Kakai Neferefre Abusir Pyramid.jpg Egypt Africa c. 2460 BC Tomb Built for Neferirkare Kakai.[73] Pyramid of Neferefre Abousir Neferefre 01.jpg Egypt Africa c. 2455 BC Tomb Never completed but does contain a tomb.[73] Pyramid of Niuserre Pyramid of Niuserre.jpg Egypt Africa c. 2425 BC Tomb [74] Pyramid of Djedkare-Isesi Pyramid of Djedkare, Saqqara, 1990ies.png Egypt Africa c. 2370 BC Tomb Pyramid of Unas Sakkara C02-29.jpg Egypt Africa c. 2340 BC Tomb [75] Pyramid of Teti PiramideTeti.jpg Egypt Africa c. 2330 BC Tomb Labbacallee Labbacallee.jpg Ireland Europe c. 2300 BC Tomb The largest wedge tomb in Ireland.[citation needed] Pyramid of Merenre Pyramid of Merenre, Saqqara, 1990ies.jpg Egypt Africa c. 2275 BC Tomb Built for Merenre Nemtyemsaf I but not completed. Pyramid of Pepi II Neferkare PepiIIPyramid.jpg Egypt Africa c. 2180 BC Tomb Crantit cairn Scotland Europe 2130 BC Tomb Discovered in 1998 near Kirkwall.[76][77] Dolmen de Viera Dolmen de Viera.JPG Spain Europe 2000 BC Tomb The Dolmen de Viera or Dolmen de los Hermanos Viera is a dolmen—a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb[78] Rubha an Dùnain passage grave Chambered Cairn at Rubh' an Dunain - geograph.org.uk - 180698.jpg Scotland Europe 2000 BC or older Tomb [79][80][81] Corrimony chambered cairn Corrimony Chambered Cairn - 3 - 29042008.JPG Scotland Europe 2000 BC or older Tomb A Clava-type passage grave surrounded by a circle of 11 standing stones.[82][83] Knossos Minoan Palace of Knossos.jpg Greece Europe 2000–1300 BC Palace Minoan structure on a Neolithic site.[84] Bryn Celli Ddu BrynCelliDdu3.jpg Wales Europe 2000 BC Tomb Located on the island of Anglesey.[85] Balnuaran of Clava Clava Cairns - geograph.org.uk - 476673.jpg Scotland Europe 2000 BC Tomb The largest of three is the north-east cairn, which was partially reconstructed in the 19th century. The central cairn may have been used as a funeral pyre.[81][86][87] Vinquoy cairn, Eday Vinquoy chambered tomb - geograph.org.uk - 190143.jpg Scotland Europe 2000 BC Tomb [88] Pyramid of Amenemhat I AmenemhetIPyramid.jpg Egypt Africa c. 1960 BC Tomb Pyramid of Senusret I Licht-senwsPyramids 01.jpg Egypt Africa c. 1920 BC Tomb Pyramid of Senusret II SenusretIIPyramid.jpg Egypt Africa c. 1875 BC Tomb Pyramid of Senusret III Photo-pyramide-sesostris3.jpg Egypt Africa c. 1835 BC Tomb Built for Senusret III Black Pyramid BlackPyramidOfAmenemhetIII.jpg Egypt Africa c. 1820 BC Tomb Built for Amenemhat III, it has multiple structural deficits. Hawara Pyramid of amenemhet hawarra 01.jpg Egypt Africa c. 1810 BC Tomb Also built for Amenemhat III. Pyramid of Khendjer Khendjer-complexe-1.jpg Egypt Africa c. 1760 BC Tomb Built for pharaoh Khendjer Nuraghe Santu Antine Torralba San Antine 10.JPG Italy Europe 1600 BC Possibly a fort The tallest of these megalithic edifices found in Sardinia.[89] Su Nuraxi di Barumini Nuraghe Su Nuraxi.jpg Italy Europe 1500 BC Possibly a fort or a palace The palace of Barumini is formed by a huge quatrefoiled nuraghe, whose central tower is its oldest construction. Originally it was almost 20 metres high and divided into three floors.[90][91] Nuraghe La Prisciona Nuraghe la Prisciona.jpg Italy Europe 1400 BC Possibly a fort The monument has a central tower and 2 side towers, the former with an entrance defined by a massive lintel of 3.20 m. The central chamber has a false dome, which is more than 6 meters high.[92] The Ziggurat of Dur-Kurigalzu ‘Aqar Qūf.jpg Iraq Asia 14th century BC Probably religious rituals Built for the Kassite King Kurigalzu I.[93] Treasury of Atreus Treasure of Atreus.jpg Greece Europe 1250 BC Tomb The tallest and widest dome in the world for over a thousand years.[94] Chogha Zanbil Choghazanbil2.jpg Iran Asia 1250 BC Temple One of the few extant ziggurats outside of Mesopotamia.[95] Naveta d'Es Tudons Tudons01.jpg Spain Europe 1200-750 BC Ossuary The most famous megalithic chamber tomb in Minorca.[96] Dún Aonghasa Dun Aengus 2009.jpg Ireland Europe 1100 BC Fort Dún Aonghasa, also called Dun Aengus, has been described as one of the most spectacular prehistoric monuments in western Europe. The drystone walled hillfort is made up of 4 widely spaced concentric ramparts.[97][98] The King's Grave Kivik Kungagraven.JPG Sweden Europe 1000 BC Tomb Near Kivik is the remains of an unusually grand Nordic Bronze Age double burial.[99] Cuicuilco Circular Pyramid Leading2PyramidCuicuilcoDF.JPG Mexico North America 800–600 BC Ceremonial center One of the oldest standing structures of the Mesoamerican cultures. First steps in the creation of a sun based calendar.[8] Van Fortress Van kalesi.jpg Turkey Asia 750 BC Fortress Massive Urartean stone fortification overlooking Tushpa. Necropolises of Cerveteri and Tarquinia TombaDadoBanditaccia.jpg Italy Europe 700 BC Tombs These Etruscan necropolises contain thousands of tombs, some organized in a city-like plan.[100] Temple of Hera Veduta di Paestum 2010.jpg Italy Europe 550 BC Temple Part of a complex of three great temples in Doric style.[101] Tomb of Cyrus CyrustheGreatTomb 22057.jpg Iran Asia 530 BC Tomb Tomb of Cyrus the Great, located in Pasargadae Parthenon The Parthenon in Athens.jpg Greece Europe 432–447 BC Temple In the Acropolis of Athens Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak The thracian tomb in Kazanlak from outside.jpg Bulgaria Europe 300–400 BC Tomb Located near Seutopolis, the capital city of the Thracian king Seuthes III, and part of a large necropolis.[102] Sanchi Stupa Sanchi Stupa from Eastern gate, Madhya Pradesh.jpg India Asia 300 BC Buddhist temple In the village of Sanchi Dhamek Stupa Sarnath1.jpg India Asia 249 BC Buddhist Temple In Sarnath, Varanasi Broch of Mousa Mousa broch.jpg Scotland Europe 100 BC Broch Located in Shetland it is among the best-preserved prehistoric buildings in Europe.[103][104] Dun Carloway Dun Carloway.jpg Scotland Europe 100 BC Broch Built in the first century BCE [105] Lei Cheng Uk Han Tomb Museum Lei Cheng Uk Han Tomb.jpg Hong Kong Asia 25 AD Tomb Colosseum Colosseum in Rome, Italy - April 2007.jpg Italy Europe 70–80 AD Amphitheatre By country[edit] The following are among the oldest buildings in their respective countries.

Building Image Country Continent First Built Use Notes Weibbe Hayes Stone Fort Ongeluckige voyagie vant schip Batavia (Plate 3).jpg Australia Australasia 1629 AD Stone Fort Old stone fort built by the survivors of the Batavia shipwreck. Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak The thracian tomb in Kazanlak from outside.jpg Bulgaria Europe 300–400 BC Tomb Located near Seutopolis, the capital city of the Thracian king Seuthes III, and part of a large necropolis.[102] Hulbjerg Jættestue Hulbjerg Jættestue.jpg Denmark Europe 3000 BC Passage grave The Hulbjerg passage grave is concealed by a round barrow on the southern tip of the island of Langeland. One of the skulls found there showed traces of the world's earliest dentistry work.[48][48] West Kennet Long Barrow Westkennet.jpg England Europe 3650 BC Tomb Located near Silbury Hill and Avebury stone circle.[24] Barnenez Barnenez front2.jpg France Europe 4850 BC Passage grave Located in northern Finistère and partially restored. The structure is 72 m long, 25 m wide and over 8 m high.[2][3] The oldest known building in Eurasia. Porta Nigra Trier Porta Nigra BW 1.JPG Germany Europe 180 AD Roman city gate It is today the largest Roman city gate north of the Alps.[106] Chogha Zanbil Choghazanbil2.jpg Iran Asia 1250 BC Temple One of the few extant ziggurats outside of Mesopotamia.[95] The Ziggurat of Dur-Kurigalzu ‘Aqar Qūf.jpg Iraq Asia 14th century BC Probably religious rituals Built by the Kassite King Kurigalzu I.[93] Newgrange Newgrange.JPG Ireland Europe 3200–2900 BC Burial Partially reconstructed around original passage grave.[40] Monte d'Accoddi Monted'accoddisardegna.png Italy Europe 2700–2000 BC Possibly an open-air temple. "A trapezoidal platform on an artificial mound, reached by a sloped causeway."[18] Tarxien Temples Tarxien Temple Malta Europe 3100 BC Temples Described by Colin Renfrew as "the oldest free-standing monuments in the world".[41][42] Cuicuilco Circular Pyramid Leading2PyramidCuicuilcoDF.JPG Mexico North America 800–600 BC Ceremonial center One of the oldest standing structures of the Mesoamerican cultures.[8] Mission House Kemp House, Kerikeri, New Zealand.jpg New Zealand Australasia 1822 Religious Built by Māori and missionary carpenters.[107] Mehrgarh Pakistan Asia c. 2600 BC Mud brick storage structures A complex of ruins with varying dates near Bolan Pass.[12][13] Sechin Bajo Peru South America 3500 BC Plaza The oldest known building in the Americas.[5] Knap of Howar Knapofhowarinsun.jpg Scotland Europe 3700 BC House Oldest preserved stone house in north west Europe.[19][20][21] Naveta d'Es Tudons Tudons01.jpg Spain Europe 1200-750 BC Ossuary The most famous megalithic chamber tomb in Minorca.[96] The King's Grave Kivik Kungagraven.JPG Sweden Europe 1000 BC Tomb Near Kivik is the remains of an unusually grand Nordic Bronze Age double burial.[108] Hattusa Hattusa.liongate.jpg Turkey Asia c. 1600 BC Ramparts and ruined buildings Capital of the Hittite Empire in the late Bronze Age located near modern Boğazkale.[109] Ancestral Puebloan communities Dark Canyon Ruin.jpg United States North America 750 AD Villages Pueblo construction began in 750 CE and continues to the present day. These buildings have been within the U.S. since 1848, when New Mexico was annexed. Bryn Celli Ddu BrynCelliDdu3.jpg Wales Europe 2000 BC Tomb Located on the island of Anglesey.[85] Miscellaneous[edit] Oldest of their type[edit] The following are probably the oldest buildings of their type.

Building Image Location First Built Use Notes Pyramid of Djoser Pyramid of Djoser 2010.jpg Saqqara, Egypt 2667–2648 BC Tomb Oldest large-scale cut stone construction[6] Jokhang Jokhang Temple in Tibet.jpg Lhasa, China c. 639 AD Buddhist temple Perhaps the world's oldest timber frame building.[110] Nanchan Temple Nanchan Temple 2.JPG Wutai, China 782 AD Buddhist Temple Its Great Buddha Hall is currently China's oldest extant timber building. Ditherington Flax Mill DitheringtonFlaxmillReverse.jpg Shrewsbury, England 1797 AD Industrial The oldest iron framed building in the world.[111] Maison Carrée MaisonCarrée.jpeg France 16 BC Temple The only completely preserved temple of the ancient world.[112] Pantheon, Rome Rudolf von Alt - Das Pantheon und die Piazza della Rotonda in Rom - 1835.jpeg Italy 125 AD Religious Oldest standing building still in regular use.[113] Aula Palatina Trier - Aula Palatina.JPG Germany 306 AD Palace basilica Contains the largest extant hall from antiquity.[106] Greensted Church Greensted Church North Side.jpg England c. 1053 AD Church May be the oldest, extant wooden church in the world and the oldest, extant wooden building in Europe.[114][115] Mundeshwari Temple Maa Mundeshwari Devi.jpg Bihar, India conflicting accounts; between 105-320 AD Hindu Temple May be the oldest surviving (non rebuilt) Hindu temple in the world[116][117] Other structures[edit] The following are very old human constructions that do not fit the above criteria for a building, typically because they are ruins that no longer fit the height requirement specified above or for which the only significant above-ground elements are single large stones.

Building Image Location First Built Use Notes Theopetra cave Cliffs of meteora.jpg Greece 21000 BC Stone wall The oldest known human-made structure. The structure is a stone wall that blocked two-thirds of the entrance to the Theopetra cave near Kalambaka on the north edge of the Thessalian plain. It was constructed 23,000 years ago, probably as a barrier to cold winds.[118][119]

Göbekli Tepe Göbekli Tepe, Urfa.jpg Turkey 9500–8400 BC Ceremonial The oldest known human-made religious structure.[120][121] Zeolots of Jericho Tower of Jericho.jpg Israel 8000 BC Defensive/agricultural See also Wall of Jericho.[122] Çatalhöyük CatalHoyukSouthArea.JPG Turkey 7400–6200 BC Village ruins [123] Khirokitia Khirokitia4.jpg Cyprus 5800–3000 BC Houses Site has reconstructions of round houses.[124] Tumulus de Dissignac Tumulus Dissignac2.jpg France 4500–4000 BC[125] Tumulus Two Dolmenic chambers are covered by 15 metre diameter tumulus with corridors 11 metres in length. Substantially rebuilt.[126] Table des Marchand PSM V67 D641 Table des marchands lockmariaquer brittany.png France 4000 BC Dolmen A modern cairn has been rebuilt over the capstone and supporting pillars.[127] Temple of Ba`alat Gebal Byblos(js) 4.jpg Lebanon c. 2700 BC Temple Located in the Phoenician city of Byblos, the nearby Temple of the Obelisks dates to c.1900-1600 BCE.[128][129] Pyramid of Sekhemkhet aka the Buried Pyramid Sekhemkhet pyramid at Saqqara.jpg Egypt c. 2630 BC Burial An unfinished Third Dynasty structure largely hidden under sand. Only the lowest step of the pyramid was constructed at the time of his death.[130] Great Sphinx of Giza Great Sphinx of Giza - 20080716a.jpg Egypt 2558–2532 BC Statue The largest monolith statue in the world, possibly completed during the reign of Khafra, although the subject is controversial.[131][132] Large Stone Structure KDP IMG 4881.JPG Israel 1000 BC Palace? A major public building but probably not the ruins of King David's palace.[133]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sastri, B. Annapurna. "Mughal Architecture". Indian Architecture. indiapicks.com. Retrieved 2014-10-11.