Mughal emperors

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Badishah of Hindustan
Former Monarchy
Flag of the Mughal Empire (triangular).svg
Imperial Standard
Bahadur Shah II of India.jpg
Bahadur Shah II
First monarch Babur
Last monarch Bahadur Shah II
Style His Imperial Majesty
Official residence Red Fort
Appointer Hereditary
Monarchy began 30 April 1526
Monarchy ended 14 September 1857
Current pretender(s) Javaid Jah Bahadur
The Mughal Empire in 1700.

The Mughal emperors were members of the Timurid Dynasty who ruled the Mughal Empire in South Asia (mainly corresponding to the modern countries of Pakistan, Bangladesh and Northern India) from the early 16th century to the early 18th century. During the 18th century their power rapidly dwindled and, with the establishment of the British Raj, the last of the emperors was deposed in 1857.[1] The dynasty was of central Asian Turco-Mongol origin (from the area now part of modern-day Uzbekistan), and the emperors claimed direct descent from both Genghis Khan (through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur. At their empire's greatest extent in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, they controlled much of the Indian subcontinent, extending from Bengal in the east to Kabul & Sindh in the west, Kashmir in the north to the Kaveri basin in the south.[2] Its population at that time has been estimated as between 110 and 150 million (a quarter of the world's population), over a territory of more than 3.2 million square kilometres (1.2 million square miles).[3]

Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire was founded by Babur, a Central Asian ruler who was descended from the Turko-Mongol conqueror Timur on his father’s side and from Chagatai, the second son of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan, on his mother’s side.[4] Ousted from his ancestral domains in Central Asia, Babur turned to India to satisfy his ambitions. He established himself in Kabul and then pushed steadily southward into India from Afghanistan through the Khyber Pass.[4] Babur's forces occupied much of northern India after his victory at Panipat in 1526.[4] The preoccupation with wars and military campaigns, however, did not allow the new emperor to consolidate the gains he had made in India.[4] The instability of the empire became evident under his son, Humayun, who was driven out of India and into Persia by rebels.[4] Humayun's exile in Persia established diplomatic ties between the Safavid and Mughal Courts, and led to closer cultural contacts between India and Iran. The restoration of Mughal rule began after Humayun’s triumphant return from Persia in 1555, but he died from a fatal accident shortly afterwards.[4] Humayun's son, Akbar, succeeded to the throne under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped consolidate the Mughal Empire in India.[4]

Through warfare and diplomacy, Akbar was able to extend the empire in all directions and controlled almost the entire Indian subcontinent north of the Godavari river. He created a new class of nobility loyal to him from the military aristocracy of India's social groups, implemented a modern government, and supported cultural developments.[4] At the same time, Akbar intensified trade with European trading companies. India developed a strong and stable economy, leading to commercial expansion and economic development. Akbar allowed free expression of religion, and attempted to resolve socio-political and cultural differences in his empire by establishing a new religion, Din-i-Ilahi, with strong characteristics of a ruler cult.[4] He left his successors an internally stable state, which was in the midst of its golden age, but before long signs of political weakness would emerge.[4] Akbar's son, Jahangir, ruled the empire at its peak, but he was addicted to opium, neglected the affairs of the state, and came under the influence of rival court cliques.[4] During the reign of Jahangir's son, Shah Jahan, the culture and splendour of the luxurious Mughal court reached its zenith as exemplified by the Taj Mahal.[4] The maintenance of the court, at this time, began to cost more than the revenue.[4]

Shah Jahan's eldest son, the liberal Dara Shikoh, became regent in 1658, as a result of his father's illness. However, a younger son, Aurangzeb, allied with the Islamic orthodoxy against his brother, who championed a syncretistic Hindu-Muslim culture, and ascended to the throne. Aurangzeb defeated Dara in 1659 and had him executed.[4] Although Shah Jahan fully recovered from his illness, Aurangzeb declared him incompetent to rule and had him imprisoned. During Aurangzeb reign, the empire gained political strength once more, but his religious conservatism and intolerance undermined the stability of Mughal society.[4] Aurangzeb expanded the empire to include almost the whole of South Asia, but at his death in 1707, many parts of the empire were in open revolt.[4] Aurangzeb's son, Shah Alam, repealed the religious policies of his father, and attempted to reform the administration. However, after his death in 1712, the Mughal dynasty sank into chaos and violent feuds. In the year 1719 alone, four emperors successively ascended the throne.[4]

During the reign of Muhammad Shah, the empire began to break up, and vast tracts of central India passed from Mughal to Maratha hands. The campaigns of Nadir Shah, who had earlier conquered Iran and Afghanistan, culminated with the Sack of Delhi and shattered the remnants of Mughal power and prestige.[4] Many of the empire's elites now sought to control their own affairs, and broke away to form independent kingdoms.[4] The Mughal Emperor, however, continued to be the highest manifestation of sovereignty. Not only the Muslim gentry, but the Maratha, Hindu, and Sikh leaders took part in ceremonial acknowledgements of the emperor as the sovereign of India.[5]

The Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II made futile attempts to reverse the Mughal decline, and ultimately had to seek the protection of outside powers. In 1784, the Maratha's under Mahadji Scindia won acknowledgement as the protectors of the emperor in Delhi, a state of affairs that continued until after the Second Anglo-Maratha War. Thereafter, the British East India Company became the protectors of the Mughal dynasty in Delhi.[5] After a crushed rebellion which he nominally led in 1857-58, the last Mughal, Bahadur Shah Zafar, was deposed by the British government, who then assumed formal control of the country.[4]

List of Mughal Emperors

Portrait Titular Name Birth Name Birth Reign Death Notes
Babur of India.jpg Bābur
بابر
Zahir-ud-din Muhammad
ظہیر الدین محمد
23 February 1483 30 April 1526 – 26 December 1530 26 December 1530 (aged 47)
Humayun of India.jpg Humayun
ہمایوں
Nasir-ud-din Muhammad Humayun
نصیر الدین محمد ہمایوں
17 March 1508 26 December 1530 – 17 May 1540 and 22 February 1555 - 27 January 1556 27 January 1556 (aged 47) Hamayun was overthrown in 1540 by Sher Shah Suri of the Suri dynasty but returned to the throne in 1555 after the death of Islam Shah Suri (Sher Shah Suri's son and successor).
Akbar Shah I of India.jpg Akbar-e-Azam
اکبر اعظم
Jalal-ud-din Muhammad
جلال الدین محمد اکبر
14 October 1542 27 January 1556 – 27 October 1605 27 October 1605 (aged 63)
Jahangir of India.jpg Jahangir
جہانگیر
Nur-ud-din Muhammad Salim
نور الدین محمد سلیم
20 September 1569 15 October 1605 – 8 November 1627 8 November 1627 (aged 58)
Shah Jahan I of India.jpg Shah-Jahan-e-Azam
شاہ جہان اعظم
Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram
شہاب الدین محمد خرم
5 January 1592 8 November 1627 – 2 August 1658 22 January 1666 (aged 74)
Alamgir I of India.jpg Alamgir
عالمگیر
Muhy-ud-din Muhammad Aurangzeb
محی الدین محمداورنگزیب
4 November 1618 31 July 1658 – 3 March 1707 3 March 1707 (aged 88)
Muhammad Azam of India.jpg Azam Shah Abu'l Faaiz Qutb-ud-Din Muhammad Azam 28 June 1653 14 March 1707 – 8 June 1707 8 June 1707 (aged 53)
Bahadur Shah I of India.jpg Bahadur Shah Qutb ud-Din Muhammad Mu'azzam 14 October 1643 19 June 1707 – 27 February 1712

(4 years, 253 days)

27 February 1712 (aged 68) He made settlements with the Marathas, tranquilized the Rajputs, and became friendly with the Sikhs in the Punjab.
Jahandar Shah of India.jpg Jahandar Shah Ma'az-ud-Din Jahandar Shah Bahadur 9 May 1661 27 February 1712 – 11 February 1713

(0 years, 350 days)

12 February 1713 (aged 51) Highly influenced by his Grand Vizier Zulfikar Khan.
Farrukhsiyar of India.jpg Farrukhsiyar Farrukhsiyar 20 August 1685 11 January 1713 – 28 February 1719

(6 years, 48 days)

29 April 1719 (aged 33) Granted a firman to the East India Company in 1717 granting them duty-free trading rights for Bengal, strengthening their posts on the east coast.
Rafi ud-Darajat of India.jpg Rafi ud-Darajat Rafi ud-Darajat 30 November 1699 28 February – 6 June 1719

(0 years, 98 days)

9 June 1719 (aged 19) Rise of Syed Brothers as power brokers.
Shah Jahan II of India.jpg Shah Jahan II Rafi ud-Daulah June 1696 6 June 1719 – 19 September 1719

(0 years, 105 days)

19 September 1719 (aged 23) ----
Muhammad Shah of India.jpg Muhammad Shah Roshan Akhtar Bahadur 17 August 1702 27 September 1719 – 26 April 1748

(28 years, 212 days)

26 April 1748 (aged 45) Got rid of the Syed Brothers. Fought a long war with the Marathas, losing Deccan and Malwa in the process. Suffered the invasion of Nadir Shah of Persia in 1739. He was the last emperor to possess effective control over the empire.
Ahmad Shah Bahadur of India.jpg Ahmad Shah Bahadur Ahmad Shah Bahadur 23 December 1725 26 April 1748 – 2 June 1754

(6 years, 37 days)

1 January 1775 (aged 49) Mughal forces defeated by the Marathas at the Battle of Sikandarabad.
Alamgir II of India.jpg Alamgir II Aziz-ud-din 6 June 1699 2 June 1754 – 29 November 1759

(5 years, 180 days)

29 November 1759 (aged 60) Domination of Vizier Imad-ul-Mulk.
Sin foto.svg Shah Jahan III Muhi-ul-millat 10 December 1759 – 10 October 1760 1772 Consolidation of the Nizam of Bengal, Bihar, and Odisha, during the Battle of Buxar. Hyder Ali becomes Sultan of Mysore in 1761.
Ali Gauhar of India.jpg Shah Alam II Ali Gauhar 25 June 1728 24 December 1759 – 19 November 1806 (46 years, 330 days) 19 November 1806 (aged 78) The execution of Tipu Sultan of Mysore in 1799.
Akbar Shah II of India.jpg Akbar Shah II Mirza Akbar 22 April 1760 19 November 1806 – 28 September 1837 28 September 1837 (aged 77) Titular figurehead under British protection.
Bahadur Shah II of India.jpg Bahadur Shah II Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafar 24 October 1775 28 September 1837 – 14 September 1857 (19 years, 351 days) 7 November 1862 Last Mughal Emperor. Deposed by the British and exiled to Burma after the Indian Rebellion of 1857.

Note:The Mughal Emperors practiced polygamy. Besides their wives, they also had a number of concubines in their harem, who produced children. This makes it difficult to identify all the offspring of each emperor. [6]

Genealogy of the Mughal Dynasty.Since the family practised polygamy, not all offspring of the emperors have been identified. The principal offspring of each emperor are provided in the chart to the right.

Successors

References

  1. ^ Spear 1990, pp. 147–148
  2. ^ Chandra, Satish. Medieval India: From Sultanate To The Mughals. p. 202. 
  3. ^ Richards, John F. (March 18, 1993). Johnson, Gordon; Bayly, C. A., eds. The Mughal Empire. The New Cambridge history of India: 1.5. I. The Mughals and their Contemporaries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1, 190. doi:10.2277/0521251192. ISBN 978-0521251198. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Berndl, Klaus (2005). National Geographic visual history of the world. University of Michigan. pp. 318–320. ISBN 978-0521522915. 
  5. ^ a b Bose, Sugata Bose; Ayesha Jalal (2004). Modern South Asia: History, Culture, Political Economy. Routledge. p. 41. ISBN 978-0203712535. 
  6. ^ Dalrymple, William (2006). The Last Mughal. London: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-4088-0092-8. 

Further reading

  • Majumdar, R. C. (ed.), The History and Culture of the Indian People, Volume VI, The Delhi Sultanate, Bombay, 1960; Volume VII, The Mughal Empire, Bombay, 1973.

External links

See also