Mughal weapons significantly evolved during the ruling periods of Babur, Akbar, Aurangzeb and Tipu Sultan. During its conquests throughout the centuries, the military of the Mughal Empire used a variety of weapons including swords, bows and arrows, horses, camels, elephants, some of the world's largest cannons, muskets and flintlock blunderbusses.
- 1 Equipment
- 2 Notes
- 3 References
Indian weapons and armour, known generically as silah, plural adah, were much prized with substantial sophistication and ingenuity expended on their adornment. Every great man possessed a choice collection. Worn by all horsemen who could afford it, on occasion officers of a certain rank were required to produce their armour for inspection, subject to a fine if it were not forthcoming. The use of armour continued throughout the Mughal Era and its use extended to men of European descent who entered native service.
Armour worn by soldiers
A skirt, sometimes made of velvet embroidered with gold, generally hung from a soldier's cuirass (a piece of armour consisting of breastplate and backplate fastened together). The qabchal or jacket, quilted and slightly ornamented, was worn underneath the body armour. Silken trousers and a pair of kashmir shawls round the waist completed the costume of a nobleman of high rank while common soldiers wore an upper garment quilted with thick cotton that came down as far as the knee. These coats would deaden the stroke of a sabre, stop the point of an arrow, and most importantly keep the body cool by providing protection from the sun. Most of the irregular cavalry throughout India wore quilted cotton jackets with the best of these, rather than being stuffed with cotton, made from a number of cotton cloths quilted together. This served as defensive armour since it was difficult to do any damage to such a thick garment with a sword blow, except by cutting. Heads were swathed around and under the chin with several folds of linen. At times soldiers stuffed their jackets with the refuse from silk cocoons, which they believed would turn a bullet.
Body armour components
|Armour name||Description||Body Part Protected||Material|
|Khud, Dabalghah, or Top.||A steel headpiece with a vizor or nose-guard. Khud is the more usual name. Dabalghah refers to a form of helmet of chaghatae origin. Top is a helmet mainly used by the Marathas.||Face||Steel|
|Khoghi||Worn on the head, may have been made from folds of cloth for protection from sword attacks.||Head||Silk or cotton cloth|
|Mighfar||A long piece of chain mail or network of steel worn in battle under the cap or hat as a protection for the face, which hung down from the helmet over the neck and back.||Neck and back||Steel|
|Baktar or Bagtar||Body armour in general, whether of the cuirass or chain-mail type. Baktar was the name for fish-scale armour.||Chest||Steel|
|Chahar-ainah||Consisting of four pieces: a breast and back plate, with two smaller pieces at the sides, all connected together with leather straps.||Chest and back||Steel and leather|
|Zirih||A sleeved coat of mail composed of steel links that reached to the knees. A Bagtar (fish scales) or the chahar ainah (cuirass) was worn over the zirih.||Body up to knees|
|Jaibah||A general name for any kind of iron armour such as a coat of mail or a cuirass. Apparently, it was covered with small studs or knobs.||Example||Iron|
|Joshan||A steel breastplate extending over the region of the stomach and lower torso.||Breast, stomach and lower torso||Steel|
|Jihlam||A form of vizor for a helmet||Face|
|Angarkhah||A long, tight-fitting coat worn over armour, wadded so as to turn a sword-cut.|
|Daglah or Dagla||A coat of quilted cloth.||cloth|
|Jamah-i-fatahi||A fine silken robe which on the day of battle was put on beneath the coat of mail.||Body||Silk|
|Chihilqad||A doublet with forty-folds worn over armour.||Body|
|Sadiqi||A coat of mail something like the joshan in shape, but with epaulettes.|
|Kothi||A long coat of mail worn under the breastplate that opened down the front.||Chest||Silk or Cotton|
|Bhanja||A sleeveless jacket.|
|Kamal||A cuirass or wadded coat, possibly made of blanketing on the outside. Wadded coats were made of quilted cotton, as well as of wool, which would stand the stroke of a sabre. Stuffed with silk refuse, they were considered capable of withstanding a bullet. This sort of protection became common with the main variety known as Kamal-posh.||Cotton or Wool|
|Ghughwah||A long coat and cowl of mail, all in one piece.||Steel or iron|
|Kantha-sobha||A neck-piece or gorget. Worn by the man rather than the horse, it was sometimes also attached to the horse's neck.||Neck|
|Dastwanah||A gauntlet, or mailed glove, with a steel arm-piece.||Hands, arms||Steel and other material|
|Ranak||An iron leg-piece or greave. It is a connection, a formation like a dastak, or to be (as it were) carried in the hand.[clarification needed]||Leg|
|Mozah-i-ahani||Smaller form of the ranak.||Leg||Iron|
|Patkah||A type of military equipment mainly worn by both Sayyads and horse-breakers (chabuk-suwaran).|
|Name of Armour||Animal||Body Part||Material|
|Ahwal-ul-Khawaqin||Armour worn by elephants|
|Bargustuwan||Horse armour worn in battle|
|Kajim||A piece of armour for the hind-quarters of a horse, put on over a quilted cloth called an artak-i-kajim.||Hind-quarters of a horse|
|Qashqah||A sect-mark or tilak, applied on the centre of the horse's forehead.||Forehead|
|Gardani||A shaped head and neck-piece, a hood, part of a set of horse-armour.||Head and neck||cloth|
|Horse trappings||Horse trappings were often richly adorned with silver or gold, embroidery or jewels. When so enriched they were styled saz-i-tilae, or saz-i-marassa. The names of the various articles were: paltah - headstall, inan - reins, zerband - martingale, dumchi - crupper, khogir - saddle, ustak - shabracque, balatang - surcingle, rikab - stirrups, shikarband - ornamental tassels at the corners of saddles. The bow or pommel of a saddle was either a qarbus or a qash.||Silver or gold.|
|Yaltang-posh||Generic horse equipment|
Most cavalrymen relied on the kotah-yaraq, or short arms to be used at close quarters and grouped into five classes: swords and shields, maces, battle-axes, spears, and daggers. Weapons for more distant attack were the bow (kaman) and arrow (tir), the matchlock (banduq or tufanq), and the pistol. Rockets were also used by the artillery (topkhanah). No single man carried all these weapons at one time, but in a large army all of them were to be found in use by someone or other. The great number of weapons that a man carried is graphically described by Fitzclarence in the case of a petty officer of the Nizam's service, who commended his escort: "Two very handsome horses with superb caparisons belong to this jamadar, who is himself dressed in a vest of green English broad cloth laced with gold, and very rich embroidered belts. A shield of buffalo hide with gilt bosses is hung over his back. His arms are two swords and a dagger, a brace of English pistols, and he has his matchlock carried before him by a servant."
Sword-belts were in general broad and handsomely embroidered. On horseback they were worn on a belt hanging over the shoulder. Otherwise a man carried his sword by three straps hanging from a waist-belt. The generic name for a sword was tegh (Arabic), shamsher (Persian), or talwar (Hindi). The Arabic word saif was also used occasionally. One kind of short sword was called the nimchah-shamsher.
The names of the various parts of the sword were, teghah (blade), nabah (furrows on blade), qabzah (hilt), jaenarela, sarnal or muhnal, and tahnal (metal mountings of scabbard), kamrsal (the belt?) bandtar. The quality or temper of a blade was its ab (water) or jauhar (lustre). The belt was termed a hamalat.
Types of blades
|Name||Type||Description||Origin||Place of usage||Material|
|Shamsher||Scimitar||A curved weapon similar to a scimitar. Purely a cutting weapon due to its shape and the small size of the grip.||Oriental||Steel|
|Dhup||Straight sword||Adopted from the Dakhin, this straight sword had a broad blade four feet long and a cross hilt. Considered an emblem of sovereignty and high dignity, it was displayed on state occasions carried in a velvet wrapping by a man who held it upright before his master. It also lay on the great man's pillow when he was seated at a darbar, a public transaction of business. This kind of sword was conferred as a distinction on successful soldiers, great nobles, and court favourites.||Deccan||Deccan and Hindustan||Steel|
|Khanda||Straight sword||Apparently identical with the dhup.|
|Sirohi||Scimitar||Whoever was struck on the head by these Indian blades was cleft to the waist, or if the cut were on the body, he was divided into two parts. This sword had a slightly curved blade, shaped like a Damascus blade, slightly lighter and narrower than the ordinary talwar. They were made in Sirohi||Damascus||Rajasthan||Damascus steel|
|Pata||Gauntlet-rapier||A narrow-bladed, straight rapier with a gauntlet hilt, seen now chiefly when twirled about vigorously by the performers in a Muharrara procession.||Muharrara procession||Maharashtra||Steel|
|Gupti||Straight sword||A straight sword concealed in the sheath of a walking stick . The head or handle and a fakir's crutch were closely allied in appearance with the crutch of dagger length and the weapon appearing like a short crooked staff about three feet long.||Used by persons of rank as an emblem of humility||Steel|
A shield always accompanied a sword as part of the swordsman's equipment. Carried on the left arm, or when out of use, slung over the shoulder, shields were made of steel or hide and were generally from 17 to 24 inches (430 to 610 mm) in diameter. If made of steel they were often highly ornamented with patterns in gold damascening while hide shields bore silver or gold bosses, crescents, or stars. Shields were made of sambar deer, buffalo, nilgau, elephant, or rhinoceros hide, the last being the most highly prized. Brahmans, who objected to leather, had shields made from forty or fifty folds of silk painted red and ornamented. The curious snakeskin (nagphanl) shield is not a Mughal weapon.
- Chirwah and Tilwah — These shields were carried by the Shamsherbaz, or gladiators, groups of whom always surrounded the Mughal general Akbar (1542–1605) on the march.
- Fencing Shields — Small circular shields of cane or bamboo sometimes called dahl because their shape resembled a lentil. The quaint maru or singauta, was made from a pair of antelope horns tipped with steel and united at the butt-ends. Sainti were classed as parrying shields.
The mace (gurz), a short-handled club with three large round balls at the end, usually formed part of the weaponry of any Mughul warrior of considerable rank. Another variety, the shashbur, or "lung-tearer", had a single round-shaped head while similar weapons included the dhara, garguz and khandli phansi. The 2 feet (0.61 m) long dhara had a six-bladed head and octagonal steel shaft and came from Kolhapur. The garguz had eight-bladed heads and basket hilts or was seven-bladed with a basket hilt. Its length varied from 2.4 to 2.10 inches (61 to 53 mm). The khundli phansi was 1 inch (25 mm) long and had a head of open scroll work.
The flail was a weapon that may be classed as a mace, along with the pusht-khar, or "back-scratcher", made of steel in the shape of a hand. The khar-i-mahi, or "fish backbone", had steel spikes projecting from each side of a straight head. The weapon called the gujbag was the common elephant goad or ankus.
A (tahar) or battle-axe had a triangular blade with one broad cutting edge. If the head was pointed and had two cutting edges, the axe was called a zaghnol, or "crow's beak". A double headed axe with a broad blade on one side of the handle and a pointed one on the other was styled a tabar zaghnol. An axe with a longer handle, called tarangalah, was also used. The shafts of the tabar ranged from 17 to 23 inches (430 to 580 mm) in length with a head from 5 to 6 inches (130 to 150 mm) one way and 3 to 5 inches (76 to 127 mm) the other. Some heads were crescent shaped with one of the shafts hollow for storage of a dagger. A 'Basolah' looked like a chisel while highly ornamented silver axes were carried by attendants for display in the audience hall.
The usual generic name used for spears of all kinds was sinan. The head or point was called the sunain and the butt the hunain. There were several varieties of this class of weapon. Cavalry troops generally used a lance (nezah) with other types of spear used by foot soldiers and guards surrounding the emperor's audience hall. There is also some evidence, particularly among the Marathas, for the use of a javelin or short spear, which was thrown.
|Nezah||A cavalry lance with a small steel head and a long bamboo shaft carried by nezah-bazan (lance-wielders), this weapon featured prominently in Maratha equipment with no enemy cavalry said to be able to withstand them. In battle some 20,000 to 30,000 lances were ranged against the enemy, packed closely together so as not to leave any space between the bearer's heads. If horsemen tried to ride the lance-wielders down, the points of their spears impacted with the oncoming riders, who were then unhorsed. When used during a cavalry charge, the nezah struck against the enemy's weapons, making so much noise that it frightened the opponents' horses such that they turned around and bolted. In normal use, a man on horseback held his spear above his head at the full length of his arm.||Mainly used by cavalry||Bamboo, steel|
|Barchhah||A Mughal weapon also used by the Marathas. With a head and shaft made wholly of iron or steel, use of this heavy spear was confined to infantry as it would prove too heavy for men on horseback.||Infantry||Steel|
|Sang||Made entirely of iron, this spear was much shorter than the barchhah although some exist that are 7.11 feet (2.17 m) long, of which the head accounting for 2.6 feet (0.79 m). The weapon possessed long, slender, three or four-sided heads, steel shafts, and had a grip covered with velvet.||Iron|
|Sainthi||The shaft was shorter than that of the sang.|
|Selarah||A spear with a head and shaft longer than those of the sainthi but not so long as those of the sang.|
|Ballam||A spear, pike, or lance with barbed heads and wooden shafts and a total length of 5.11 feet (1.56 m), of which the blade took up 18 inches (460 mm). The Ballam was a short spear with a broad head used by infantry.||Infantry|
|Pandi-ballam||A hog-spear with an iron leaf-shaped blade at the end of a bamboo shaft with a total length of 8.3 feet (2.5 m), of which the blade accounted for 2.3 feet (0.70 m).||Bamboo and steel or iron|
|Panjmukh||Five-headed spear used by the people of Gujarat||Used in Gujarat|
|Lange||A Mughal lance with a four-cornered iron head and a hollow shaft|
|Garhiya||Pike, javelin, spear|
|Alam||Spear||(properly a standard or banner)|
|Gandasa||A kind of bill-hook or pole-axe with a steel chopper attached to a long pole.||Used by the chaukidar or village watchmen|
Daggers and knives
These were of various shapes and kinds, each with a separate name.
|Katara or Katari||A lightweight thrusting knife similar to a poignard and peculiar to India. Made with a hilt whose two branches extended along the arm so as to protect the hand and part of the arm, this weapon had a thick blade with two cutting edges having a breadth of 3 inches (76 mm) at the hilt and a solid point 1 inch (25 mm) wide. The blade could not be bent and was so stiff that nothing but a cuirass could stop it. A katara's total length extended to 22 feet (6.7 m), one half of this being the blade. The hilt had a cross-bar at right angles to the blade, by which the weapon was grasped such that it could only be used for a forward thrust. Some were slightly curved whilst others resembled a fork or were two-bladed. Blades were of various patterns with a length that varied from 9 to 17.5 inches (230 to 440 mm).||Push dagger||Deccan and Hindustan|
|Jamadhar||This had the same handle as a katara but with a broad and straight blade, while the katara blade could be either straight or curved. The jamadhar katari had a straight blade and a handle held in the same way as a table-knife or sword.||Straight blade|
|Khanjar||A poignard type dagger with a hilt like a sword of which most had doubly-curved blades and were about 12 inches (300 mm) long. The weapon originated among the Turks, who carried it upright and on the right side, but it was occasionally worn by both Persians and Indians, the latter wearing it inclined on the left side. They were four types: jamhak, jhambwah, bank, and narsingh moth. All four of these weapons appear to be of the same class as the khanjar, although they varied slightly in form.||Dagger||Mainly used by Turks, occasionally by both Persians and Indians|
|Bichuwa and Khapwah.||Literally "scorpion", this type of knife had a wavy blade while the khapwah was also a type of dagger. It was almost identical with the jambwah.||Dagger||Marathas|
|Peshkaj||A pointed one-edged dagger generally with a thick straight back to the blade and a straight handle without a guard, though at times the blade was curved, or even double-curved. Some of the hilts had guards.||Dagger|
|Karud||Introduced by Afghans, this resembled a butcher's knife and was kept in a sheath. Karuds had a total length of 2.6 feet (0.79 m) with a blade 2 feet (0.61 m). The gupti-karud was inserted into a stick while the qamchi-karud was a whip-shaped knife. The Chaqu was a clasp-knife.||Combat knife||Panjabis|
|Sailabah-i-Qalmaqi||The name for a knife used by men from Kashghar. As long as a sword and with a handle made of fish-bone called sher-mahi (lion-fish), it was worn slung from an ashob or shoulder belt.||Combat Knife||Used by the men from Kashghar|
Bows and arrows, matchlocks, pistols and cannons made up the four categories of missile weapons. Cavalry were mainly equipped with the bow with Mughal horsemen noted for their archery. Legend told that the bow and arrow were brought down straight from Heaven and given to Adam by the archangel Gabriel. Personal weapons were ranked in the following order: the dagger, the sword, the spear and the soldier's with the top weapon the bow and arrow.
Despite the spread of firearms, use of the bow persisted throughout the 18th century due to its superior build quality and ease of handling. Bows were widely used by the rebels during the Indian rebellion of 1857.
The matchlock, a cumbrous and no doubt ineffective weapon, was left mainly to the infantry while pistols seem to have been rare.
Mughal field artillery, although expensive, proved an effective tool against hostile war elephants and its use led to several decisive victories. After Babur's artillery defeated the armies of Ibrahim Lodi in the 16th century, subsequent Mughal emperors considered field artillery the most important and prestigious type of weapon.
Considered especially expert in the use of their weapons, Mughal horsemen armed with bows could shoot three times faster than musketeers. Archers were called Tir-andaz (literally, arrow-throwers).
The standard Mughal kaman bow was about 4 feet (1.2 m) long and generally shaped in a double curve with a grip covered in velvet. Made of horn, wood, bamboo, ivory, and sometimes of steel, two of these steel bows, once in the Emperor of Russia's collection at the palace of Tsarskoye Selo, belonged to the emperor Bahadur Shah I (1708–1712). These bows bear verses in the Shah's honour and are covered with rich gold damascened work. The design of Indian bows is believed to originate from Persian models since many of the army's principal officers were themselves Persians.
Several strings of thick catgut lined the Mughal bow on its concave side (convex when strung) to give it elasticity and force. The belly was made of finely polished buffalo or wild goats' horn in jet black. Glued to this was a thin slip of hard, tough wood. The ends were fashioned to represent snakes' heads with the horn left plain, while the wooden back was decorated with rich intermingled arabesques of gilded birds, flowers or fruit. Indian bows carried by travellers also served for show or amusement. These types were made of buffalo horn in two identically curved pieces curved, each with a wooden tip for receipt of the string. Their other ends were brought together and fastened to a strong piece of wood that served as a centre and was gripped in the left hand. After construction, they were covered with a size made of animal fibres then wrapped in a thin layer of fine tow before the application of a final coat of paint and varnish.
- The notch - The end notches into which the string was fixed were called goshah, literally "corner,".
- The string - Known as either the zih or chillah, sinew (panach or panchak) was used as a bow-string. Bow strings were sometimes made of strong threads of white silk laid together to form a cylinder about 1.25 centimetres (0.49 in) in diameter. Whipping of the same material was then bound firmly round for a length of three or four inches at the centre, and to this middle piece large loops of scarlet or other coloured material attached by a complicated knot. These gaudy loops then formed a striking contrast to the white silk.
- The finger stall - This was called the zihgir or bow-string holder. A bowman drew with his thumb only, his bent forefinger pressed against one side of the arrow's "nock" (notch) to hold it in place. The forefinger was pressed on the nail of the thumb to strengthen the pull without increasing the exertion. Invention of the zihgir prevented the bow string tearing the flesh of the finger; it comprised a broad ring made of precious stone, crystal, jade, ivory, horn, fishbone, gold or iron in accordance with an individual's rank and means. A particularly valuable zihgir might form part of the plunder after a battle. Sometimes, instead of a zihgir, two thimbles were worn on the first and second fingers of the right hand. The topmost of these projected upwards half an inch allowing the bow string to rest on it as the bow was drawn. On the outside the ring was only half the breadth, and in loosing the arrow the archer straightened his thumb, which set the arrow free. Although use of such a ring increased the range of an arrow its use required skill and practice. These rings along with a spare string were usually carried in a small box suspended at the man's side. Hindus also used a thumb stall of leather in place of rings.
|Name of Bow||Description||Type||Usage||Material|
|Charkh||Charkh has many meanings: among them "a wheel," "a cart," or "a crossbow" but in this usage means "crossbow". A Charkh-i-bakhshi led the charkh men.||Cross bow||Used by charkh men|
|Takhsh kaman||A type of small bow.|
|Kaman-i-gurohah||A pellet-bow, identical to the modern gulel, used by boys to scare birds away from ripening crops.|
|Gobhan||Slings such as these were brought by the villagers who assembled in 1710 to aid in the defence of Jalalabad town against the Sikhs led by Bandah.||Sling||Mainly used by villagers|
|Kamthah, kamanth||The long bow of the Bhils of Central India. This group held the bow with their feet, drawing the string (chillah) with the hands and able to shoot with enough power for their arrow to penetrate elephant's hide. The principal weapon of the Bhils was the kampti or bamboo bow, with a string made of a thin strip from the elastic bark of the bamboo. Bhils carried sixty barbed arrows each a yard long in their quiver, those intended for striking fish having heads which came off the shaft on striking the fish. A long line connected the head and the shaft, so that the shaft remained on the water's surface as a float.||Long Bow||Bhils||Bamboo|
|Nawak||A pipe through which an arrow was shot, the narak was used for shooting birds. This was either a cross-bow, or formed in some way as part of an ordinary bow. It was not a blow-pipe like those used by the Malays for their poisoned arrows. Specimens of the pipe are 6.6 to 7.6 feet (2.0 to 2.3 m) long and use foot-long arrows.||Crossbow or pipe||Shooting birds|
|Tufak-i-dahan||A blow-pipe used as a tube for shooting clay balls by force of the breath.||Blow pipe||Shooting clay balls||Pipe|
- Arrows - Arrows known as tir were of two types: those in common use relied on reeds for their fabrication and tir used against tigers had wooden shafts. Reed-based arrows used resin to attach the head while those of wood had a hole bored into their shaft into which a red-hot head was forced. Some arrows in the India Museum[clarification needed Which one?] are 2.4 feet (0.73 m) long; one example, obtained at Lucknow in 1857, extended to 6 feet (1.8 m) and would have required the use of a larger than average bow. Feathers used for arrows were frequently mixed black and white (ablaq) while the arrowhead was ordinarily of steel although the Bhils used bone.
- An arrow with a knot at the end instead of point was known as a takah or tukkah. Arrowheads were sometimes bent into the shape of a saddle-maker's needle. Broad arrow heads were in use in the west of Bengal, towards Bihar, one type of which had a crescent shape more than four inches across at the barbs. Although such projectiles did not penetrate easily, when they made contact with a limb they did considerable damage, particularly when discharged among bodies of troops. Arrows came in many varieties including broad-headed, two pointed and barbed. Their heads came in a diverse range of shapes: full moon, circular, crescent, almond, trident and thorn-shaped.
- Symbolic use of arrows - Non-Muslim Arabs used arrows in a game of chance since divining by arrows was forbidden by the prophet Muhammad. They may have been unfeathered, unpointed arrows but the practice survived in spite of the prohibition and in 1544 Mughal Emperor Humayun is recorded as clashing with Tahmasp I, then Shah of Iran over this issue. Humayun marked twelve of his best arrows with his own name, and eleven inferior ones with Tahmasp's.[clarification needed This appears to be incomplete] Portuguese writers of the 16th century[who?] claim that shooting an arrow into the air was a recognized mode of declaring war in the Vijayanagara Empire and Malabar, as for example in 1537 at Diu, when Bahadur Shah of Gujarat ordered an arrow to be shot into the air at the outbreak of hostilities with Hamayun. The gift of an arrow from the king's quiver acted as a security for peace while the quiver itself was used as a symbol of authority. In 1537 Humayun released Bahadur Shah's minstrel, and bound his own quiver round the man's loins. Clothed with this authority, every prisoner that the minstrel claimed as his relation was released.
- Quiver - The Persian name is tarkash. It was generally a flat case, broad at the mouth, with one side straight and the other sloping to a point, and provided with a shoulder strap. This broad shape was apparently due to the fact that the quiver was used to hold the bow as well as the arrows, although a cylindrical example also exists. Nevertheless, separate bow cases known as qirhan were also used. Common quivers were covered with leather, more costly ones with blue or red velvet, and these were often embroidered on one side in gold or silver. A slightly different quiver case is known, which had the same width all the way down with one side straight and the other shaped in two crescent-like curves.
- Godhu - This leather guard was worn on the left arm by an unarmoured bowman lacking the usual mailed glove and steel arm-piece. It was a quilted half sleeve of common velvet or fine cloth that protected the arm from bruising by the bow string on its return.
- Paikan-kash - An implement shaped like a pair of pliers used to extract arrow heads from the body. The tirbardar was another instrument used for the same purpose.
- Target - To improve accuracy with the bow and arrow it was usual to erect a mound of earth near an officer's tents into which he or his men shot a certain number of arrows every day. Rajputs are known to have followed this practice but it was by no means confined to them alone. In a general sense, hadaf was used as the word for a butt or target, or the object aimed at.
- Modes of shooting - There were twelve maxims to be obeyed. Of these three required firmness: (1) the grip of the bow held tight, (2) the forefinger kept firm, (3) the advanced foot kept firm when the arrow is let fly. Three things required easiness: (1) the left side should be kept easy (2) the left foot the same, and (3) also the other fingers. Three things required straightness: (1) the body should be erect (2) the forehead held up (3) the elbow straight. Three other things had to be observed: (1) use of one side, (2) use of one eye, (3) both hands kept in one direction. An arrow could have seven faults: (1) too wide a notch, (2) the shaft to be karm,[clarification needed What does this mean?] (3) the head imperfect, (4) the head too heavy, (5) the top end and butt of the shaft hollow, (6) the shaft not straight, (7) the bow too stiff. In shooting at a horseman 200 yards off, the aim should be at his cap, if 100 paces off, at his mouth, if 50 paces, at his saddle. By so doing he would be hit in the chest. A good archer needed to practise constantly with the lezam, a bow with an iron chain instead of a string. There were three ways of gripping the bow, Changal-i-baz (literally, "Hawk's claw"), muharraf (diagonally, on the slant) and marabba (square), according to the length of the shooter's fingers. The arrow was meant to be held without moving, and the advanced foot kept flat on the ground.
- The bow was strung by placing one end under the thigh then with both hands bringing the other end into the correct position, whereupon the string was easily slipped into the waiting groove. Thirty inches of string was a common length, though some bow strings exceeded this. With a new bow a strong hand proved necessary to draw an arrow back up to its head. The left hand was placed opposite the right breast, just far enough from the body to allow clear action. The butt of the arrow was pressed to the string, the fore and middle fingers of the right hand were then drawn steadily until the head was near the forefinger of the left hand. The bow was always held perpendicularly. Native archers rarely missed an object the size of a teacup at sixty or seventy yards. The hill people of Bengal were also expert with the bow. They would lie on their backs, steadying the bow with their feet horizontally, and at a distance of two or three hundred yards send the arrow through a common water pot not more than a foot in diameter. They could also shoot flying kites and rarely missed their target.
Known as the tufang, Mughal Emperor Akbar introduced many improvements in the manufacture of the matchlock. Nevertheless, up to the middle of the 18th century the weapon was looked on with less favour than the bow and arrow. The matchlock was left chiefly to the infantry, who occupied a much inferior position to that of the cavalry in the opinion of Mughul commanders. It was not until the middle of the 18th century, when the way had been shown by the French and the English, that efforts were made to improve the arms and discipline of the foot soldier.
The barrels of Akbar's matchlocks were of two lengths: 66 inches (1,700 mm) and 41 inches (1,000 mm). They were made of rolled strips of steel with the two edges welded together. In the Deccan Plateau the introduction of the flint-lock weapon, owing to intercourse with the French and English, may have been somewhat earlier. At the Battle of Panipat in January 1761 it is claimed[who?] that the 12 battalions of infantry drilled and armed in imitation of French sepoys, and commanded by Ibrahim Khan Gardi, carried flint-lock muskets.
Matchlock barrels, covered with elaborate damascened work, had their stocks adorned with embossed metal work or with various designs either in lacquer, paint, or inlays of different materials. The stocks were at times decorated with embossed and engraved mounts in gold, or the butt had an ivory or ebony cap. The barrel was generally attached to the stock by broad bands of metal or by wire made of steel, brass, silver or gold. The broad bands were sometimes of perforated design and chased. The stocks were of two designs, the first narrow, slightly sloped, and of the same width throughout and the second sharply curved and narrow at the grip, expanding to some breadth at the butt. When not in use, matchlocks were kept and carried about in covers made of scarlet or green broadcloth.
- Parah - The hammer of the matchlock.
- The match- The name in Persian was either jamagi or fahtah. The match was ready and lighted.
- Powder horn etc. - These accoutrements were collectively called kamr. The set consisted of a powder flask, bullet pouches, priming horn (singra), matchcord, flint and steel with the whole ensemble attached to a belt often made of velvet embroidered in gold. The receptacles which contained powder and musket balls were unwieldy, and as the Mughal troops never used cartridges for their pieces, they were slow to load. Some soldiers carried more than twenty yards of match about their person, similar in appearance to a large ball of pack-thread.
- Blank cartridge - khali-goli.
- Cailletoque - A strange very long and heavy matchlock. This musket was often carried under the arm.
- Jazail or Jazair - A wall-piece or swivel gun falling somewhere between a firearm as carried by combatants and a piece of artillery and having features of both. The usual length of jazails was 7 to 8 feet (2.1 to 2.4 m). This long matchlock of varying calibre was used as a wall-piece by the natives of India, commonly fixed on swivels, and firing iron balls not of about 1 pound (0.45 kg) in weight. In the field, they were sometimes carried on the backs of camels. The ball of the Indian jazail weighed two or more ounces. Jinjalls, or heavy matchlocks were commonly used for the defence of forts. They carried a ball from one to three ounces in weight. They had very substantial barrels, were too heavy to use without a break. Many had an iron prong of about a foot in length, fixed on a pivot not far from the nozzle. Placed on a wall, a bush, or the ground, this served as a support. In the defence of mud forts, especially in Bundelkhand, the besieged exhibited extraordinary dexterity, rarely failing to hit their object either in the head or near the heart, even at great distances. All firearms used by Indians had small cylindrical chambers, and being mostly of a small bore, considerable impetus was imparted to the ball.
- Ghor-dahan was a kind of jazail. The allusion in the name seems to be to the everted or widened mouth of the barrel.
- Qidr - This may be a cauldron, pot, kettle.
This weapon was the tamanchah. The pistol was in use in India, to some extent at any rate, early in the 18th century. For instance, it was with a shot from a pistol that in October 1720 a young Sayyad, related to Husain Ali Khan, killed that nobleman's assassin. The pistol was confined to the higher ranks of the nobles, very few soldiers having European pistols and tabanchah.
- Sherbachah - This musketoon or blunderbuss seems to have been of a still later introduction than the pistol. Probably the weapon came into India with Nadir Shah's army (1738) or that of Ahmad Shah, Abdali, (1748—1761). In the last quarter of the 18th century there was a regiment of Persian horse in the Luknow service known as the Sher-bachah. Possibly they took their name from this weapon, with which they may have been armed. Or the name may have been due to their supposed ferocity and thirst for their enemies' blood.
The Mughal military employed a broad array of gunpowder weapons larger than personal firearms, from rockets and mobile guns to an enormous cannon, over 14 feet (4.3 m) long, once described as the "largest piece of ordnance in the world." This array of weapons was divided into heavy and light artillery.
Possession of mobile field artillery is seen by some historians as the central military power of the Mughal Empire and distinguished its troops from most of their enemies. A status symbol for the emperor, pieces of artillery would always accompany the Mughal ruler on his journeys through the empire. In battle the Mughals mainly used their artillery to counter hostile war elephants, which made frequent appearances in warfare on the Indian subcontinent. However, although emperor Akbar personally designed gun carriages to improve the accuracy of his cannons, Mughal artillery proved most effective in frightening the other side's elephants on the battlefield. The chaos that ensued in the opposing army's ranks allowed Mughal forces to overcome their enemy. Animal-borne swivel guns became a feature of Mughal warfare with stocks often more than 6.7 feet (2.0 m) in length, which fired a projectile 3.9 to 4.7 inches (99 to 119 mm) in diameter
This article incorporates text from The army of the Indian Moghuls: its organization and administration, by William Irvine, a publication from 1903 now in the public domain in the United States.
- Rothermund, Dietmar (2014). "Akbar 'Der Große'" [Akbar 'The Great']. Damals (in German) 46 (1): 24–29.
- Richards 1995, p. 288.
- Unknown (1590-95). "Bullocks dragging siege-guns up hill during Akbar's attack on Ranthambhor Fort". the Akbarnama.
- Irvine (1903): The army of the Indian Moghuls, 113–159.
- Gommans JJL. (2002). Mughal Warfare: Indian Frontiers and Highroads to Empire 1500-1700. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415239899.